Рефераты. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history the best companies)

finally Lockheed, which opened its R&D department in the Stanford Research

Park in 1956, and started Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) in

Sunnyvale. Lockheed's move to Northern California was crucial for the

developments in Santa Clara County; today the company is Silicon Valley's

largest employer with more than 24,000 people.)

Military funding for high-tech products was responsible for the early

growth of Silicon Valley in the 1950s and 1960s. The U.S. Department of

Defense was the biggest buyer of these products, e.g. its purchases

represented about 70 percent of the total production of ICs in 1965.)

While this share in chip demands has dropped to 8 percent today, the

Pentagon remains the biggest supporter of new technologies and accounts for

most of the purchases of the latest developments.

Intel Corp.

After the transistor and the integrated circuit, the invention of the

microprocessor in the early 1970s represents the next step towards the

modern way of computing, providing the basis for the subsequent personal

computer revolution.

It was at Intel where the first microprocessor was designed - representing

the key to modern personal computers. With its logic and memory chips, the

company provides the basic components for microcomputers. Intel is regarded

as Silicon Valley's flagship and its most successful semiconductor company,

owing its worldwide leading role to a perpetually high spending on research

and development (R&D).

Foundation in 1968

It all started in 1968, when Bob Noyce resigned as head of Fairchild

Semiconductor taking along Gordon Moore and Andy Grove, to embark on a new

venture. They had decided to leave the company, because they wanted "to

regain the satisfaction of research and development in a small, growing

company,") since Fairchild had become big with lots of bureaucracy work to

be done. Gordon Moore had belonged to the famous Shockley Eight and was in

charge of the R&D team at Fairchild. Andy Grove, a young Hungarian йmigrй,

who had earned a doctorate in chemical engineering at U.C. Berkeley, had

joined Fairchild in the early 1960s.

Intel (short for Integrated Electronics), a typical Fairchild spin-off, was

financially backed by venture capital from Arthur Rock, who had been in

contact with Noyce since 1957. The company was founded upon the idea of

integrating many transistors on a chip of silicon, after Noyce had

developed a new photochemical process. The three engineers initially

focused on building the first semiconductor chips used for computer memory,

which should replace the dominant memory storage technology at the time,

called "magnetic core". Intel's task was to drive down the cost per bit by

increasing the capacity of memory chips dramatically.

First products - Moore's Law

Within a year, Intel developed its first product - the 3101 Schottky

bipolar 64-bit static random access memory (SRAM), which was followed soon

after by the 1101. This chip (1101) was a 256-bit SRAM and had been

developed on Intel's new "silicon gate metal -oxide semiconductor (MOS)

process," which should become the "industry's process technology of

choice.") With the first two products, the young company started with 12

employees and net revenues of $2,672 in 1968, had already gained the

technological lead in the field of memory chips.

Intel's first really successful product was the 1103 dynamic random access

memory (DRAM), which was manufactured in the MOS process. Introduced in

1970, this chip was the "first merchant market LSI (large-scale integrated)

DRAM," and received broad acceptance because it was superior to magnetic

core memories. So, by the end of 1971, the 1103 became "the world's largest-

selling semiconductor device" and provided the capital for Intel's early


Until today, semiconductors have "adhered to Moore's Law," which has been

framed by the "cofounder of Fairchild and Intel" when the first commercial

DRAMs appeared in the early 1970s. This law predicts that the price per bit

(the smallest unit of memory) drops by 30 percent every year. It implies

that you will receive 30 percent more power (speed/capacity) at the same

price, or that the "price of a certain power is 30 percent less.")

Moore's Law applies to both memory chips and microprocessors, and shows the

unprecedented rapid progress in microelectronics. This "astonishing ratio"

has never occurred in "the history of manufacturing" before. Applied to

automobiles, it means that "a Cadillac would have a top speed of 500 miles

per hour, get two hundred miles to a gallon of gas and cost less than a

dollar" - almost incredible.)

1971 was a crucial year at Intel. The company's revenues surpassed

operating expenses for the first time, and the company went public, raising

$6.8 million.

Moreover, the company introduced a new memory chip - the first erasable,

programmable read only memory (EPROM). Invented by Intel's Dov Frohman, the

new memory could store data permanently like already existing ROMs, but

besides could be erased simply by a beam of ultraviolet light and be used

again. The EPROM was initially viewed as a "prototyping device" for R&D.

The invention of the microprocessor in the same year, however, showed the

real significance of the EPROM, which could be used by original equipment

manufacturer (OEM) customers (they build the end-products) to store

microprocessor programs in a "flexible and low-cost way." The "unexpected

synergy" between the EPROM and the microprocessor resulted in a growing

market for both chips and contributed a great deal to Intel's early


"Ted" Hoff's first microprocessor

The invention of the microprocessor marked a turning point in Intel's

history. This development "changed not only the future of the company, but

much of the industrial world.")

The story to this technological breakthrough began in 1969, when a Japanese

calculator manufacturer called Busicomp asked Intel to design a set of

chips for a family of programmable calculators. Marcian "Ted" Hoff, a young

and "very bright ex-Stanford research associate") who had joined Intel as

employee number 12, was charged with this project. However, he did not like

the Japanese design calling for 12 custom chips - each of them was assigned

a distinct task. Hoff thought designing so many different chip s would make

the calculators as expensive as minicomputers such as DEC's PDP-8, although

they could merely be used for calculation. His idea was to develop a four-

chip set with a general-purpose logic device as its center, which could be

programmed by inst ructions stored on a semiconductor memory chip. This was

the theory behind the first microprocessor.

With the help of new employee Stan Mazor, Hoff perfected the design of what

would be the 4004 arithmetic chip. After Busicomp had accepted Hoff's chip

set, Frederico Faggin, one of the best chip design experts, who had been

hired recently, began transforming the design into silicon. The 4004

microprocessor, a 4-bit chip (processes 4 bits - a string of four ones or

zeroes - of information at a time), contained 2300 MOS transistors, and was

as powerful as the legendary first electronic computer, ENIAC.

Soon after the first 4004s had been delivered to Busicomp, Intel realized

the market potential of the chip, and successfully renegotiated with the

Japanese to regain the exclusive rights, which had been sold to Busicomp.

In November 1971, Intel introduced the 4004 to the public in an Electronic

News ad. It announced not just a new product, but "a new era of integrated

electronics [...], a micro programmable computer on a chip.") The

microprocessor is - as Gordon Moore call s it - "one of the most

revolutionary products in the history of mankind,") and ranks as one of 12

milestones of American technology in a survey of U.S. News and World Report

in 1982. This chip is the actual computer itself: It is the central

processing u nit (CPU) - the computer's brains. The microprocessor made

possible the microcomputer, which is "as big as it is only to accommodate

us." For "we'd have a hard time getting information into or out of a

microprocessor without a keyboard, a printer and a terminal," as Th.Mahon

puts it.)

However significant Hoff's invention, nevertheless, it was hardly noticed

in the public until early 1973. The microprocessor had its own instruction

set and was to be programmed in order to execute specific tasks. So Ted

Hoff had to inform the public and t he engineers about the capabilities of

the new device and how to program it.

Cooperation with IBM in the 1980s

Intel's measures in the late 1970s as a reaction to increasing competition

from other chip manufacturers paid off greatly and resulted in a remarkable

technological lead against its competitors. The most significant

consequence, which was a landmark in the company's development, was IBM's

decision to rely on the Intel 8088 microprocessor for its PCs in 1980.

IBM (short for International Business Machines) has been the world's

leading company in the big mainframe computers since the 1950s. Due to its

dominance, it was often compared with a giant and referred to as "Big

Blue." Surprisingly, it was not before 198 1 (the PC revolution had already

been on for a few years) that IBM introduced its own Personal Computer.

Because of IBM's dominance and worldwide reputation, its PCs soon became

industry standard and penetrated the office market: other established

computer companies followed and introduced their own PCs - the so-called

"clones" - which were compatible to IBM' s models. To maintain

compatibility, all these manufacturers were forced to rely on Intel's

microprocessors, which thus were bootstrapped to industry standard, too.

As well as for Intel, the CPU manufacturer, IBM's decision has been crucial

for a company in the software field: Microsoft's (Redmond, Washington) MS-

DOS was chosen as the IBM PC's operating system and became industry

standard. It is essential to every IBM compatible PC. Microsoft, a small

company in 1980, grew explosively, and is today's superior software giant.

At the beginning of the 1980s, IBM was concerned about Intel's ability to

keep investing in R&D and therefore decided to support Intel by buying $250

million (=12%) of the company's stock. This endorsed Intel's position, and,

in 1987, IBM sold the last of its shares in a strong Intel.

Intel today

Annual report 2000





Today, Intel supplies the computing and communications industries with

chips, boards and systems building blocks that are the "ingredients" of

computers, servers, and networking and communications products. Industry

members to create advanced computing and communications systems use these

products. Intel's mission is to be the preeminent building block supplier

to the worldwide Internet economy.


Intel® Architecture platform products[pic] Microprocessors, also called

central processing units (CPUs) or chips, are frequently described as the

"brains" of a computer, because they control the central processing of data

in personal computers (PCs), servers, workstations and other computers.

Intel offers microprocessors optimized for each segment of the computing


Intel® Pentium® III Xeon™ processors for mid-range to high-end servers and


Intel® Pentium® 4 and Pentium® III processors for entry-level servers and

workstations and performance desktop PCs

Intel® Celeron™ processors for value PC systems

Mobile Pentium® III processors for performance in mobile PC systems

Chipsets perform essential logic functions surrounding the CPU in

computers, and support and extend the graphics, video and other

capabilities of many Intel processor-based systems.

Motherboards combine Intel microprocessors and chipsets to form the basic

subsystem of a PC or server.

e-Business solutions enable services and channel programs to accelerate

integration and deployment of Intel Architecture-based systems and


[pic]Wireless communications and computing products[pic] These products are

component-level hardware and software focusing on digital cellular

communications and other applications needing both low-power processing and

high performance. These products are used in mobile phones, handheld

devices, two-way pagers and many other products. For these markets, Intel

offers Intel® Flash memory, application processors based on the Intel®

StrongARM processor core, and base band chipsets for cellular phones and

other wireless devices.

Networking and communications products[pic] Communications building blocks

for next-generation networks and Internet data centers are offered at

various levels of integration. These products are used in communications

servers, network appliances and computer telephony integration equipment.

Component-level building blocks include communications silicon such as

network processors and other board-level components, software and embedded

control chips. These products are integrated in communications hardware

such as hubs, routers, switches and servers for local and wide area

networking applications. Embedded control chips are also used in laser

printers, imaging, automotive systems and other applications.

New business products[pic] These products and services include e-Commerce

data center services as well as connected peripherals.


Intel's major customers include:

Original equipment manufacturers[pic] (OEMs) of computer systems, cellular

phone and handheld computing devices, telecommunications and networking

communications equipment, and peripherals.

Users of PC and network communications products[pic] including individuals,

large and small businesses, and Internet service providers—who buy Intel's

PC enhancements, business communications products and networking products

through reseller, retail, e-Business and OEM channels.

Other manufacturers[pic] including makers of a wide range of industrial and

communications equipment.

The emergence of the PC industry

Until the early 1970s, computers were huge machines - from the largest

ones, the supercomputers, to mainframes and minicomputers - and were mainly

used for scientific research in universities and in military institutions,

and for business calculations in major companies. Surprisingly, when the

first microprocessors appeared, none of the established companies such as

IBM, DEC or HP had the idea to build small, personal computers. They just

did not see any market for them and could not imagine what those machines

should be needed for. None of these large companies anticipated the

possibilities of PCs, which are today used in almost every office, in the

home, in the school, on airplanes, etc. and can act as typewriters,

calculators, accounting systems, telecommunications instruments, libraries,

tutors, toys and many the like.

So, it was the hobbyists, single electronics wizards who liked tinkering

with electronic devices that constructed their own computers as the first

PCs. These "computer nuts" ignited the "fire in the valley;") they launched

the personal computer revolution in Silicon Valley "out of their own

fascination with the technology. The personal computer arose from a spirit

of sharing "hard-won technical information" with other computer freaks who

developed their devices for the fun of tinkering around in this fascinating

field of electronics. Some of these frequently young hobbyists found

themselves almost overnight as millionaires, after they had sold their

devices in a newly founded firm.

Before dealing with the story of Apple, which is typical of Silicon Valley

and responsible for the breakthrough of the personal computer, some

information about the first PC and the emergence of the PC industry shall

be given.

Altair - the first PC

Altair is often regarded as the first personal computer, although it was

one of those switches and lights computers - programming is done by

arranging a set of switches in a special order, and the results appear as

different combinations of lights. In other words, such a machine is a

genuine computer, but absolutely useless, as Steve Wozniak, one of the PC

pioneers, put it.)

After the first microprocessors had come onto the market, Ed Roberts, an

engineer at MITS, a small calculator company in Texas, decided to build a

kit computer, which he intended to sell to hobbyists. He chose Intel's 8080

as the CPU for his computer, since this chip was the most advanced and

powerful at the time. As Roberts wanted to sell his computer for less than

$500 and the official price for the 8080 was already at $360, he contacted

Intel and could finally receive the chip for only $75 apiece.

By the end of 1974, Roberts finished his computer, which was named Altair.

When the Altair was introduced on the cover of the January 1975 issue of

Popular Electronics as the first personal computer, which would go for $397

only, the market response was in credible. The low price was the actual

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