Рефераты. Методические указания по английскому языку

principles of world community are highly honoured and being a full member,

the Republic concentrates its efforts on the elaboration and realization of

independent economic and social policies directed at renewing life, the

intensive development of the national economy, the improvement of the

peoples' well-being and its rapid integration into the world economic

structure. The peoples of Uzbekistan look ahead with optimism.


The early information about our city you can find in ancient Eastern

annals of the 2 century- BC. Caravans going by the Great Silk Road passed

Chach (the ancient name of Tashkent). Convenient geographical position

favoured the city in its turning into the capital of the state.

At the end of the 10-th and the beginning of the 12-th century people

more often called Chach by another name - Tashkent, which means "Settlement

made of stone".

The monuments of medieval architecture harmonize with the modern

architectural constructions. This combination differentiates Tashkent from

many other cities. So does the hospitality, cordiality of Uzbek people.

Tashkent always welcomes guests. International meetings, symposiums,

conferences, festivals are held here. The city has many friends-sister

cities; Karachi,

Seattle, Tunis, Patiala, Birmingham. That's why Tashkent is considered to

be "the city of

friendship and brotherhood".

Today Tashkent - is the, capital of Uzbekistan, cultural center of the

country. There are 9 theatres, Conservatory, museums, such as Art Museum,

Museum of history of Uzbekistan. Tashkent has shady parks with queen

fountains, concert, art exhibition halls, stadiums, swimming pools,

libraries, gardens.

Opera and Ballet theatre named after Navoi looks like the palace from

the outside. The palace where music reigns. Plays are on here almost every

evening. And during a year the theatre presents 2-3 premiers at spectators'

disposal. The building was constructed in 1947. The figures of Uzbek

traditional monumental architecture are used in the facade decoration.

Exhibits in the exhibition hall of Uzbekistan Artists Union change

continually. Light, roomy halls are put not only at famous artists

disposal, but that of youths as well. There is an exhibition hall in the

centre of the city. It was opened in 1974.

While making a city tour in Tashkent, you cannot help paying attention

at the peculiarities of modern buildings. Each of them is the part of the

national culture. The facades of buildings are decorated with the elements

of national ornament. Architects try to take into account the national

traditions. For example, one of the blocks was built in a way neighbours

can easily contact with each other, using special galleries. Builders

create modern blocks trying to be close to the feel of makhalla

(community). The modern construction - TV tower is not standard. It is the

highest construction in Central Asia. And it is adjusted to the seismicity

9. Its height - 375 meters. On the height of 100 meter? and 220 metersthe

tower is girdled with telecasting station for 5 programs, broadcasting

station, meteorological station. There is also observation site, where you

can enjoy the magnificent view of the city, revealing bars and restaurant

here. At the restaurants you will be served with the dishes of Uzbek

cuisine. The interior is decorated with national paintings.

Tashkent is the only city in Central Asia, which has underground. The

construction of it started in 1973 and in 1977 the first line began to

operate. Tashkent Underground - it is 30 stations and they differ from each

other. Architectural and artistic decoration of station depicts its name.

The leading architects and artists of Uzbekistan took part in designing of

the stations. Underground is a favourite means of transport of people in

Tashkent. You can go to any part of the city in no time (The interval

between trains is 240 seconds ).

Great Britain.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland- this is the

official name of Great Britain. It is composed of the island of Great

Britain, the northeastern part of Ireland and multitude of small islands.

Great Britain separated from the European continent by the North Sea and

the English Channel. In the west the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea wash

Great Britain.

The Atlantic Ocean and the seas washing Great Britain as well as the

south western winds affect the climate of the country making it maritime

and damp.

The North and West of G. B. are mountainous. The Pennines located in

the central part of the island of G. B. stretch from north to south. Many

short rivers flow down the Pennines.

Northern Ireland presents a hilly extremity of the Central Plain.

The United Kingdom comprises England and Wales, which occupy the

greater part of the island of G. B., Scotland in the North of G. B., and

Northern Ireland situated in the north-east of Ireland.

The principal part of G. B. is England. Northern Ireland enjoys the

rights 0f an autonomous region. The territory of G. B. is divided into

counties - Lancashire, Yorkshire, etc.

The English nation arose as a result of the amalgamation of the native

population of the British Isles-Celts with the Germanic tribes of angles

and Saxons who repeatedly invaded Britain, and with the Normans who lived

in the North of France and conguered Britain in the middle of the 11-th

century. The present descendants of the Celts - Scotchmen, Welsmen and

Irishmen constitute less than one fifth of the total population of the


The population of G. B. speaks English.

G. B. is a country of highly developed culture. The eminent physicist

Newton, the famous naturalist Darwin greatly contributed to science, while

the works of great master of tragedy Shakespeare, the poet Byron and the

novelist Dickens enriched world literature and art.

G. B. is a highly developed industrial country. Coal-mining,

metallurgical, textile, shipbuilding, electrical engineering, automobile,

aircraft and chemical industries are of great importance for Britain.

G. B. - is a constitutional monarchy. The head of the state is the

king or the queen who ascend the throne by right of succession. The

Englishmen say of their monarchs: "They reign, but don't rule. "

The monarch's power is limited by the Parliament consisting of two

Chambers: the Chamber of Commons and the Chamber of Lords.

The Chamber of Commons is popularly elected and the Chamber of Lords

is composed of high-born nobility who hold their title by right of


The executive power is welded by the Cabinet presided by the Prime

Minister. The post of the Premier is filled by the leader of the party

which holds the majority in the Chamber of Commons.

There are two major parties in G. B. - the Conservative and the


The National Programme Of Personnel Training.

The National Programme of Personnel Training corresponds to provisions

of the Decree of the Republic of Uzbekistan “On Education”, elaborated on

the basis of the analysis of national experience, proceeding from the world

achievements in the system of education and oriented on molding of new

staff generation with high common and professional culture, creative and

social activity, ability to orientate itself independently in socio-

political life, capable to put forward and solve perspective tasks.

The aim of the present programme is the fundamental reforming of

education system, elaboration of the national education system for training

of highly qualified personnel up to the level advance democratic states and

meeting the requirements of high spirit and morals.

The implementation of the aim demands the development of mutually

beneficial international collaboration in personnel training.

The international legal base for cooperation in for personnel training

is created, prior directions of international cooperation are being

realized, international education structures are developed, exchange of

scientific researches and teaching staff and students are widened. The base

for international recognition of national decree on education is prepared.

The activity of concerned Ministries and Departments, Embassies of

Uzbekistan for the sake of intensive attraction the direct and indirect

foreign investments for specialists training is intensified.

Revival of spiritual values and national self-consciousness.

No society can see its perspective without the development and

strengthening its spiritual potential, spiritual and moral values in

consciousness of people.

The cultural values of the nation, its spiritual heritage have been a

powerful source of spirituality for the peoples of the East during

millennia. In spite of rigid ideological pressure during a long period, the

people of Uzbekistan have managed to preserve their historical and cultural

values and their local traditions, that were carefully transferred from

generation to generation.

From the first days of our independence, the major problem, raised on

state policy level has been to revive that huge, invaluable spiritual and

cultural legacy that was formed by our ancestors during many centuries.

But we were aware that the simple deny of values of the former system

posed a danger of political and cultural extremism which did not imply any

creative programme. At the same time, spontaneous and thoughtless return to

the values, traditions and tenor of the past can lead to another extreme:

to the denial of modern life, to the denial of the necessity to modernize

the society.

Historical memory, restoration of an objective and truthful history of

the nation, native territory, territory of the state is given an extremely

important place in the revival and growth of national self-consciousness,

and if you agree also the national pride.

Historical experience, succession of traditions - all this should

become those values, on which new generations are brought up.

Static Electricity.

We shall give an account of the electrification of bodies in terms of

atomic structure. The atoms, normally containing equal numbers of electrons

and protons (units of negative and positive charges respectively), are

broken up, and electrons pass from one body to another, leaving the former

positively and the later negatively charged. This is not the normal

condition of matter, and at the first opportunity the positively charged

body acquires electrons and the negatively charged body expels electrons,

so as to recover the neutral state.

The Electric Current.

When a conductor joins two points of different potential, electricity

flows from one to the other along the conductor until the potentials are


This process is very rapid, and with good conductors is completed in a

fraction of a second. While it lasts, an electric current is said to flow

from one point to the other. By convention, the direction of the current is

said to be that from the higher to the lower potential, i. e. the direction

in which positive charges would travel, but actually, owing to their much

greater mobility, it is the negative electrons, which move, and it is their

motion, which constitutes the current. It is unfortunate that, before the

existence of electrons was thought of the conventional direction of the

current should have been wrongly chosen, but it is now too late to alter

the convention. The student must bear in mind that when a current is said

to flow from A to B, what actually happens is that electrons flow from B to



The existence of magnets shows that matter can be active. Everyone

knows something of the property of certain pieces of iron steel - and to a

smaller extent, cobalt and nickel- by which they can attract other pieces

of iron and steel and hold them up against gravity; and there is, in fact,

a naturally occurring oxide of iron, knows as "lodestone" which has the

same property. If we suspend a magnet by its center so that it hangs

horizontally, and then bring the end of another magnet near one of its

ends, we find that the suspended magnet is either attracted or repelled;

while if we present the other end of the second magnet to the same end of

suspended one, the reverse happens-there is either repulsion or attraction.

On the other hand, either end of the magnet will attract pieces of iron,

which are not magnets.

Magnetic Polarity.

We have here a behavior somewhat similar to that of electrified. The

magnitude of the force is again far greater than that of gravity; and there

is the same attraction and repulsion between bodies affected, and only

attraction between an affected and an unaffected body. We therefore speak

of positive and negative magnetization if we wish. We do not, however, use

these terms, but speak of two ends of the magnet as "north" and "south"

poles. The reason for this is that a freely suspended magnet always hangs

so that one end points approximately towards the north and the other

approximately towards the south, and if we disturb it, it always returns to

the position. We therefore speak of the north-speaking poles, and these

names are usually abbreviated to north (N) and south (S) poles.

Conductors And Non-Conductors.

The ease with which this is done depends on the atomic constitution of

the body. In some substances electrons move fairly easily, while in others

they find movement difficult. This difference is expressed by what is

called the electrical conductivity of the body. Substances through which

electrons move easily are called good conductors. Generally speaking, among

solids metals are good conductors and non-metals are poor conductors. If

materials are arranged in the order of their conductivity it is found

although there is no sudden transition from a group of very good to a group

of very bad conductors, the atoms are restored to their normal state as

fast as they are broken up, by the passage of electrons from the rod to the

Earth to the rod, as the case may require. (The Earth must be regarded as

containing free electrons and as being able to accommodate many more,

without, observably electrified, owing to its great size. Any electrified

body, whether charged positively or negatively, immediately becomes neutral

when connected with the Earth either directly or through a conductor. ) It

appears to be always the electrons that move, and not the positively

charged atoms (or 'ions', as they are called). This would be expected,

because of the much smaller mass of the electrons. If, however, a conductor

be held by an insulating handle, so that electrons cannot pass between it

and the hand. It also can be electrified by friction. In all experiments on

frictional electricity the apparatus used must be quite dry, otherwise any

electrification produced is destroyed, since moisture has conducting


Permanent Magnetism.

The electric current consists simply of electrons or ions traveling

round and round a circuit, and it may well be asked why, apart from the

general thirst for knowledge, we should be interested to constructing vast

machines in order to make invisible particles do the same thing over and

over again. Two reasons have already been given: we can use such a process

to produce chemical action, as in electrolysis and electroplating, and we

can use it to produce light and heat. The third, and the most important

reason of all, is that we can use it to produce magnetic force. It has

already been said that a circular current acts as a magnet, but before

considering the magnetic effects of a current in more detail we must

examine the properties of the so-called "permanent" magnets - pieces of

iron and steel which attract other pieces of iron and steel without any

obvious connection with electricity at all, although, as already stated, we

believe the force to be associated with the motion of electrons within the


Interpretation Of Magnetism.

We assume that an electron moving in an orbit is a small magnet. For

simplicity, suppose the orbit is a circle in plane of this sheet of paper,

and suppose the electron is revolving in a clockwise direction. Then the

upper side of the paper is a S-pole and the lower side is a N-pole. If

another similar orbit existed in a parallel plane just above the first,

there would therefore be attraction between them and the orbits would

approach one another, while if the second electrons were revolving in the

opposite direction to the polarity they would be reversed and there would

be repulsion. Each atomic electron revolving in its orbit is therefore a

small magnet, and the magnetic properties of observable bodies must be

expressed in terms of interaction of these intra-atomic magnets. Like the

assumption of the existence of elementary particles in atoms, this is not

orbitrary guesswork. We can experiment with electrically charged bodies of

observable size moving in orbits, and we can find that they do in fact

behave as magnets in the manner just described. It is therefore quite

reasonable to suppose that the elementary charges behave similarly, and

provide us with elements out of which we can build a satisfactory theory of


III. Вопросы для зачета и экзамена.

1. Where do you study?

2. What faculty do you study?

3. What can you say about your future speciality?

4. Who is your best friend?

5. Where does your father (mother, sister, brother) work (study)?

6. When does your working day begin?

7. What do you usually do in the morning?

8. What do you have for breakfast (dinner, supper)?

9. How do you get to the University?

10. Till what time are you busy at the University?

11. How do you spend your leisure time?

12. How often do you go to the cinema?

13. What music (books, films) do you like?

14. Do you watch any programs on T. V?

15. What subjects do you study at the University?

16. What is your favorite subject?

17. When and where were you born?

18. Where do you live?

19. Why did you decide to enter the University?

20. When will you be able to speak English fluently?

21. Who is your favorite writer (poet, actor, sportsman)?

22. What books of this writer do you like best?

23. What famous American, British and Uzbek writers do you know?

24. Is your family large or small?

25. How old are your parents?

26. Have you many relatives (aunts, uncles, cousins)?

27. How many seasons are there in the year and what are they?

28. When does it often rain?

29. When do trees begin to burst into leaf?

30. What holiday does our Republic celebrate in spring?

31. How do you spend your time in summer?

32. Do you listen to the latest news every day?

33. What for do you study English?

34. What is your native city?

35. What was the ancient name of Tashkent?

36. What are the friends-sister cities of Tashkent do you know?

37. How many theatres are there in Tashkent? What are they?

38. What places of interest in Tashkent do you know?

39. When was Exhibition Hall opened and where is it situated?

40. What can you tell about the T. V. tower?

41. How many stations are there in Tashkent Underground and when was it


42. What territory does the Republic of Uzbekistan occupy?

43. When did Uzbekistan become independent?

44. What does the independence for our Republic mean?

45. Where is Uzbekistan situated?

46. What is the climate of our Republic?

47. What can you say about the Constitution of our Republic?

48. Who is the President of Uzbekistan now?

49. How is the Supreme Council of Uzbekistan called?

50. What is the official name of Great Britain?

51. What parts does G. B. consist of?

52. What is the capital of G. B. ?

53. What sea separates G. B. from the European continent?

54. What climate has G. B. ?

55. What are the most important parts of London? Speak about each part.

56. Who is the Queen of G. B. ?

57. How is the residence of the Queen called?

58. What places of interest in London do you know?

59. Why do the Englishmen say about monarch's power: "They reign, but don't

rule. »

60. What do the Londoners say about their city?

61. Where is the official residence of the Prime Minister of England


62. What is Westminster Abbey?

63. What do you know about the parks of London?

64. What picture gallery is the largest in London?

65. What are the most famous Universities in G. B.?


1. Islom Karimov “Building the Future. Uzbekistan – its own model for

transition to a market economy”.

2. К. Иванова “English for students of electrical engineering”. Л. 1983.

3. З. Павлова “Сборник общенаучных и технических текстов на английском

языке”. М., Высшая школа, 1964.

4. В. М. Макеева “Английский язык” (для неязыковых вузов). М., Высшая

школа, 1968.


Пояснения к выполнению контрольных работ …………………………….. 3

Варианты контрольных работ ………………………………………………. 4

Тексты для чтения и перевода ……………………………………………… 10

Вопросы для зачета и экзамена …………………………………………….. 16

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