Рефераты. Образование в англоязычных странах

Образование в англоязычных странах

University education

The are 44 universities (not counting the Open university*) in Britain.

Although the Government is responsible for providing about 80 per cent of

universities’ income it does not control their or teaching nor does it

have direct dealing with the universities. The grants are distributed by

the University Grants Committee, a body appointed by the Secretary of

State for Education and Science.

The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge date from the twelfth and

thirteenth centuries and the Scottish Universities of St. Andrews,

Glasgow, Aberdeen and Edinburgh from the fifteenth and sixteen centuries.

All the other universities were founded in the nineteenth or twentieth


There are five other institutions where the work is of university standard:

the University of Manchester Institute of Science and technology; the two

postgraduate business schools which are supported jointly by industry and

the Government - the Manchester Business School and the London Graduate

School of Business Studies, associated with the London School of Economics

and the Imperial College of Science and Technology; Cranfield Institute of

Technology for mainly postgraduate work in aeronautics and other subjects;

and Royal College of Art.

Studies and degrees

Courses in arts and science are offered by most universities. Imperial

College, London, the University of Manchester Institute of Science and

Technology and some of the newer universities concentrate on technology

although they also offer a number of courses in social studies, modern

languages and other non-technological subjects. About 45 per cent of full-

time university students in Grate Britain are talking arts or social

studies courses and 41 per cent science and technology: about 10 per are

studying medicine, dentistry and health, and the remainder agriculture,

forestry, veterinary science, architecture and town and country planning.

University degree courses generally extend over three or four years, though

in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science five or six years are

required. The first degree of Bachelor(Master in the arts faculties of the

older Scottish universities) is awarded on the completion of such a

course, depending on satisfactory examination results. Further study or

research is required at the modern universities for the degree of Master

and by all universities for that of Doctor. Actual degree titles vary

according to the practice of each university. A uniform standard of degree

throughout the country is ensured by having external examiners on all

examining boards. In the last decades there has been a tendency for degree

courses to become more broadly based in subject matter, particularly in the

new universities.

University teaching combines lectures, practical classes (in scientific

subjects) and small group teaching in either seminars or tutorials.

Most member of the academic staff devote time to research and at all

universities there are postgraduate students engaged in research.


Admission to the universities is by examination and selection. Women are

admitted on equal terms with men but at Cambridge their numbers may be

limited by ordinance. The general proportion of men to women students is

about three to one; at Oxford it is over four to one, and at Cambridge

seven to one. Over a third of all full-time university students in Britain

are living in college and halls of residence, slightly under a half are in

lodgings, and the remainder live at home.

Despite recent expansion programmes, applications for places at

universities for arts studies still exceed the number available.

Prospective candidates for nearly all the universities apply for places

through the Universities Central Council on Admissions. The only student

who apply directly are applicants to the Open University and British

candidates who apply only for the university of Glasgow, Aberdeen and


In 1971-72 there were about 234,000 full-time university students in Grate

Britain including 43,000 postgraduates. In 1970-71 there were some 22,822

part-time students. Some 30,000 home and overseas candidates were also

registered in 1972 for London University’s external first degree



In 1970-71 there were about 23,000 full-time university teachers in Great

Britain; about 10 per cent of them were professors. The ratio of staff to

students was about one to eight.


In England, Wales and Scotland most adequately qualified British students

can obtain awards from public funds in order to attend full-time at a

university, college of major further education establishment. In England

and Wales local education authorities provide awards. In Scotland

students’ allowances for advanced courses are granted by the Scottish

Education Department. The amount of these awards depends upon the income

of the student and his parents. Grants for postgraduate study are offered

annually by the Department of Education and Science, the Research Councils

and the Scottish Education Department. In Northern Ireland university and

postgraduate award and teacher training scholarships by the Ministry of

Education, the conditions of award being the same as those for Great


2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.