–ефераты. ќбразование в ¬еликобритании






schools, called specialist schools. The specialist school programme in

England was launched in 1993. Specialist schools are state secondary

schools specializing in technology, science and mathematics; modern foreign

languages; sports; or arts Ц in addition to providing the full NC.

State schools are absolutely free (including all textbooks and exercise

books) and generally co-educational.

Under the new NC a greater emphasis at the secondary level is laid on

science and technology. Accordingly, ten subjects have to be studied:

English, history, geography, mathematics, science, a modern foreign

language (at secondary level), technology (including design), music, art,

and physical education. For special attention there were chosen three of

these subjects (called Сcore subjectsТ): English, science, mathematics, and

seven other subjects are called Сfoundation or statutory subjectsТ.

Besides, subjects are grouped into departments and teachers work in teams

and to plan work.

Most common departments are:

> Humanities Department: geography, history, economics, English

literature, drama, PE, social science;

> Science Departments: chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics;

> Language Department: German, French, English;

> Craft Design and Technology Department: information and

communications technology, computing, home economics, and

photography.

The latter (often as CTD) brings together the practical subjects like

cooking, woodwork, sewing and metalwork with the new technology used in

those fields. Students can design a T-shirt on computer using graphics

software and make-up the T-shirt design. Students can also look at way to

market their product, thus linking all disciplines. This subject area

exemplifies the process approach to learning introduced by the NC.

It is worth mentioning here the growing importance of PSE (Personal

and Social Education). Since the 1970s there has been an emphasis on

СpastoralТ care, i. e. education in areas related to life skills such as

health (this includes looking at drug, discussing physical changes related

to poverty, sex education and relationships). There are usually one or two

lessons a week, from primary school through to sixth form, and they are an

essential part of the schoolТs aim to prepare students to life in society.

Education in Britain is not solely concentrated on academic study.

Great value is placed on visits and activities like organizing the school

club or field trips, which are educational in a more general sense. The

organization of these activities by teachers is very much taken for granted

in the British school system. Some teachers give up their free time,

evenings and weekends to do this СunpaidТ work. At Christmas teachers

organised concerts, parties and general festivities. It is also considered

a good thing to be СseenТ to be doing this extra work since it is fairly

essential for securing promotion in the school hierarchy.

Classes of pupils are called СformsТ (though it has recently become

common to refer to СyearsТ) and are numbered from one to six, beginning

with first form. Nearly all schools work a five-day week, and are closed on

Saturdays. The day starts at or just before nine oТclock and finishes

between three and four. The lunch break usually lasts about an hour-and-a-

quarter. Nearly two-thirds of pupils have lunch provided by the school.

Parents pay for this, except for the 15 per cent who are rated poor enough

and have it for free. Other children either go home for lunch or take

sandwiches.

Schools usually divide their year into three СtermsТ, starting at the

beginning of September:

|Autumn term|Christmas |Spring |Easter |Summer term|Summer |

| |holiday |term |holiday | |holiday |

| |(about 2 | |(about 2 | |(about 6 |

| |weeks) | |weeks) | |weeks) |

Passage from one year to the next one is automatic. At the age of 14

pupils are tested in English, maths and science, as well as in statutory

subjects. At that same age, in the 3rd or 4th form pupils begin to choose

their exam subjects and work for two years to prepare for their GCSE

qualifications. The exams are usually taken in the 5th form at the age of

16, which is a school-leaving age. The GCSE can be taken in a range of

subjects (usually five in number). The actual written exams are set by

independent Examination Boards, and are marker anonymously by outside

examiners, but they must be approved by the government and comply with

national guidelines. There are several examination boards in Britain and

each school decided which boardТs exam its pupils take. Most exams last for

two hours, marks are given for each exam separately and are graded from A

to G (grades A, B, C are considered to be СgoodТ marks).

16 is an important age for school-leavers because they have to make

key decisions as to their future lives and careers. There is a number of

choices for them.

І4. Education and training after 16.

The government has stated that all young people should have access to

high-quality education and training after the age of 16. Young people have

two routes they that can follow Ц one based on school and college

education, and the other on work-based learning.

About 70% of pupils choose to continue full-time education after 16.

Broadly speaking, education after 16 is divided into further and higher

education. Further (and adult) education is largely vocational and covers

up to and including GCE A-level and AC qualifications, General National

Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) A-level. Higher education covers advanced

courses higher than GCE A-level or equivalent.

Those wishing to go on to higher education stay for two years more into

the Sixth form (17 year-olds in the Lower Sixth and 18 year-olds in the

Upper Sixth). If their schools do not have the sixth form or do not teach

the desired subjects pupils may choose to go to a Sixth Form College. The

pupils then concentrate in two or three subjects, in which they take the

GCE A-level examination. Good passes are now essential because the

competition for places in the universities and other colleges has become

much stiffer. The number of subjects taken at A-level varies between one

and four, although three are usually required for entry into higher

education. The concentration is upon a few subjects a high degree of early

specialization in the British system.

Since 1988 there has been introduced a new level of examination: the AS

exam, which is worth half an A-level and usually, involves one yearТs

study. This means that if pupils wish to study more than two or three

subjects in the sixth form they can take a combination of СAТ and ASТ

levels. A-level arts student, for example, can still study science subjects

at AS-level.

Some young people want to stay in schools for the period between 16 and

18, not just to do academic work but also get ready for examinations that

lead to professional training or vocational qualifications (and because the

general level of unemployment is now high).

To the end of September 1992 there were introduced the GNVQ. They are

mainly undertaken by young people in full-time education between the ages

of 16 and 18 and focus on vocational skills such as business and finance,

information and technology. There are three GNVQ levels Ц Advanced,

Intermediate and Foundation. An Advanced GNVQ requires a level of

achievement broadly equal to two GCE A-levels. Most commonly the GNVQТs

courses are studied at CFE but more and more schools are also offering

them.

|The following five levels of NVQs have been established: |

|Level 1 Ц Foundation; |

|Level 2 Ц Basic craft; |

|Level 3 Ц Technical, advanced craft, supervisor; |

|Level 4 Ц Higher technical, junior management; |

|Level 5 Ц Professional, middle management. |

There are also job-specific National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs).

These are the awards, which recognize work-related skills and knowledge

and provide a path for lifelong learning. They are prepared by industry and

commerce, including representatives from trade unions and professional

bodies.

NVQs are based on national standards of competence and can be achieved

levels from 1 to 5.

With BritainТs new enthusiasm for continuing education, far fewer 16

years-olds go straight out and look for a job than used to. About a third

of them still take this option, however. The importance of creating a СgapТ

in their education is ever appealing to young people in Britain today.

Experience outside classroom is also valued since it demonstrates maturity

and a willingness to be independent.

The first step for young people entering the job market is their local

Jobcentre or careers office. Some school careers advisors teach such skills

as filling out a curriculum vitae or writing letters applying for jobs,

which is a problem for many young people. Youth workers of Youth Service

organizations also can give advice and counseling. A large number 16 and 17

years-olds enter. Youth Training Programmes established by the government

as a means of helping young people to gain vocational experience. The

government guarantees a place on the scheme to everybody under 18 who is

not in full-time education or in work. Such programmes cover a wide range

of vocational skills from hairdressing to engineering.

To sum up, average pupils usually attempt six or seven subjects, and

the basic subjects required for jobs and further education are English,

mathematics, science and foreign language. Good GCSE results will qualify

pupils for a range of jobs, and for entry to further education if desired.

GCE A-level examinations are normally associated with more academic

children, who are aiming to entry higher education or to get professions.

The dispersion of all 16-17 years olds in Britain in 1990 was following:

> 36% were at schools or colleges;

> 49% were working (employment) or seeking work;

> 15% were in Youth Training placements.

І5. Higher education.

As has been mentioned above, there is a considerable enthusiasm for

post-school education in Britain. The aim of the government is to increase

the number of students who enter into higher education. The driving force

for this has been mainly economic. It is assumed that the more people who

study at degree level, the more likely the country is to succeed

economically. A large proportion of young people Ц about a third in England

and Wales and almost half in Scotland Ц continue in education at a more A-

level beyond the age of 18. The higher education sector provides a variety

of courses up to degree and postgraduate degree level, and careers out

research. It increasingly caters for older students; over 50% of students

in 1999 were aged 25 and over and many studied part-time. Nearly every

university offers access and foundation courses before enrolment on a

course of higher education of prospective students who do not have the

standard entry qualifications.

Higher education in Britain is traditionally associated with

universities, though education of University standard is also given in

other institutions such as colleges and institutes of higher education,

which have the power to award their own degrees.

The only exception to state universities is the small University of

Buckingham which concentrates on law, and which draws most of its students

of overseas.

All universities in England and Wales are state universities (this

includes Oxford and Cambridge).

English universities can be broadly classified into three types. First

come the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge that date from the

12th century and that until 1828 were virtually the only English

universities.

Oxford and Cambridge are composed of semi-independent colleges, each

college having its own staff, know as СFellowsТ. Most colleges have their

own dining hall, library and chapel and contain enough accommodation for at

least half of their students. The Fellows teach the students, either one-to-

one or in very small groups (called СtutorialsТ in Oxford and СsupervisionТ

in Cambridge), the tutorial method brings the tutor into close and personal

contact with the student. Before 1970 all Oxford colleges were single-sex

(mostly for men). Now, the majority admits both sexes.

Among other older universities there should be mentioned four Scottish

universities, such as St. Andrews (1411), Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen (1494),

and Edinburgh (1583). The first of these, being the oldest one, resembles

Oxbridge in many ways, while the other three follow the pattern of more

modern universities in that the students live at home or find their own

rooms in town. At all of them teaching is organized along the lines of the

continental traditions Ц there is less specialization than at Oxford.

The second group of universities comprises various institutions of

higher education, usually with technical study, that by 1900 had sprang up

in new industrial towns and cities such as Birmingham, Manchester,

Sheffield and Leeds. They got to be know as civic or СredbrickТ

universities. Their buildings were made of local material, often brick, in

contrast to the stone of older universities, hence the name, СredbrickТ.

These universities catered mostly for local people. At first they prepared

students for London University degree, but later they were given the right

to award their own degrees, and so became universities themselves. In the

mid-20th century they started to accept students from all over the country.

The third group consists of new universities founded after the Second

World War and later in the 1960s, which saw considerable expansion in new

universities. These are purpose-built institutions located in the

countryside but close to towns. Examples are East Anglia, Sussex and

Warwick. From their beginning they attracted students from all over the

country, and provided accommodation for most of their students in site

(hence their name, СcampusТ universities). They tend to emphasise

relatively СnewТ academic disciplines such as social science and make

greater use than other universities of teaching in small groups, often

known as СseminarsТ.

Among this group there are also universities often called Сnever civicТ

universities. These were originally technical colleges set up by local

authorities in the first half of this century. Their upgrading to

university status took place in two waves. The first wave occurred in the

mid-1960s, when ten of them were promoted in this way.

Another thirty became СpolytechnicsТ, in the early 1970s, which meant

that along with their former courses they were allowed to teach degree

courses (the degrees being awarded by a national body). Polytechnics were

originally expected to offer a broader-based, more practical and vocational

education than the universities. In the early 1990s most of the

polytechnics became universities. So there are now 80 universities and a

further 19 colleges and institutions of higher education in the UK. The

country has moved rapidly from a rather elitist system to one which is much

more open, if not yet a mass system of higher education.

Higher education in England and Wales is highly selective; i.e.

entrance to British universities is via a strict selection process is based

on an interview. Applications for first degree courses are usually made

through the Universities and Colleges Admission Service (UCAS), in

Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. After the interview a potential student is

offered a place on the basis of GCE A-level exam results. If the student

does not get the grades specified in the offer, a place can not be taken

up. Some universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, have an entrance exam

before the interview stage.

This kind of selection procedure means that not everyone in Britain

with A-level qualifications will be offered the chance of a university

education. Critics argue that this creates an elitist system with the

academic minority in society whilst supporters of the system argue that

this enables Britain to get high-quality graduates who have specialized

skills. The current system will be modified by the late 90s and into the

21st century, since secondary system is moving towards a broader-based

education to replace the specialized СAТ level approach. The reasons for

this lie in BritainТs need to have a highly skilled and educated workforce,

not just an elite few, to meet the needs of the technological era.

The independence of BritainТs educational institutions is most

noticeable in universities. They make their own choices of who to accept on

their courses and normally do this on the basis of a studentТs A-level

results and an interview. Those with better exam grades are more likely to

be accepted. Virtually all degree courses last three years, however there

are some four-year courses and medical and veterinary courses last five or

six years. The British University year is divided into three terms, roughly

eight to ten weeks each. The terms are crowded with activity and the

vacations between the terms Ц a month at Christmas, a month at Easter, and

three or four months in summer Ц are mainly periods of intellectual

digestion and private study.

The courses are also Сfull-timeТ which really means full-time: the

students are not supposed to take a lob during term time. Unless their

parents are rich, they receive a state grant of money, which covers most of

their expenses including the cost of accommodation. Grants and loans are

intended to create opportunities for equality in education. A grants system

was set up to support students through university. Grants are paid by the

LEA on the basis of parental income. In the late 80s (the Conservative)

government decided to stop to increase these grants, which were previously

linked to inflation. Instead, students were able to borrow money in the

form of a low-interest loan, which then had to be paid back after their

course had finished. Critics argue that students from less affluent

families had to think twice before entering the course, and that this

worsened the trend which saw a 33% drop in working-class student numbers in

the 1980s.

|Cambridge. |

|Cambridge is the second oldest university and city in Britain. It lies |

|on the river Cam and takes its name from this river (Cam (тех. кулак) +|

|bridge (мост)). Cambridge was founded in 1284 when the first college, |

|Peterhouse, was built. Now there are 22 colleges in Cambridge, but only|

|three of them are womenТs colleges. The first women college was opened |

|in 1896. |

|The ancient buildings, chapels, libraries and colleges are in the |

|center of the city. There are many museums in the old university city. |

|Its population consist mostly of teachers and students. All students |

|have to live in the college during their course. |

|In the old times the studentsТ life was very strict. They were not |

|allowed to play games, to sing, to hunt, to fish or even to dance. They|

|wore special dark clothes, which they continue to wear in our days. In |

|the streets of Cambridge, you can see young men wearing dark blue or |

|black clothes and the СsquaresТ Ц the academic caps. |

|Many great men have studied at Cambridge, among them Cromwell, Newton, |

|Byron, Tennyson, and Darwin. The great Russian scientist I.P. Pavlov |

|came to Cambridge to receive the degree of the Honorary Doctor of |

|Cambridge. |

|The students presented him with a toy dog then. Now Cambridge is know |

|all over the world as a great center of science, where many famous |

|scientists have worked: Rutherford, Kapitza and others. |

Students studying for the first degree are called undergraduates. At

the end of the third year of study undergraduates sit for their

examinations and take the bachelorТs degree. Those engaged in the study of

arts such subjects as history, languages, economics or law take Bachelor of

Arts (BA). Students studying pure or applied sciences such as medicine,

dentistry, technology or agriculture get Bachelor of Science (BSc). When

they have been awarded the degree, they are known as graduates. Most people

get honours degrees, awarded in different classes. These are: Class I

(known as Сa firstТ), Class II, I (or Сan upper secondТ), Class II, II (or

Сa lower secondТ), Class III (Сa thirdТ). A student who is below one of

these gets a pass degree (i.e. not an honours degree).

Students who obtain their Bachelor degree can apply to take a further

degree course, usually involving a mixture of exam courses and research.

There are two different types of post-graduate courses Ц the MasterТs

Degree (MA or MSc), which takes one or two years, and the higher degree of

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which takes two or three years. Funding for

post-graduate courses is very limited, and even students with first class

degrees may be unable to get a grant. Consequently many post-graduates have

heavy bank loans or are working to pay their way to a higher degree.

The university system also provides a national network of extra-mural

or СContinuing EducationТ Departments which offer academic courses for

adults who wish to study Ц often for the sheer pleasure of study Ц after

they have left schools of higher education.

One development in education in which Britain can claim to lead the

world is the Open University. It was founded in 1969 in Milton Keynes,

Buckinghamshire and is so called because it is open to all Ц this

university does not require any formal academic qualifications to study for

a degree, and many people who do not have an opportunity to be СordinaryТ

students enroll. The university is non-residential and courses are mainly

taught by special written course books and by programmes on state radio and

television. There are, however, short summer courses of about a week that

the students have to attend and special part-time study centers where they

can meet their tutors when they have problems.

As mentioned above, the British higher education system was added to in

the 1970s, which saw the creation of colleges and institutions of higher

education, often by merging existing colleges or by establishing new

institutions. They now offer a wide range of degree, certificate and

diploma courses in both science and art, and in some cases have

specifically taken over the role of training teachers for the schools.

There are also a variety of other British higher institutions, which

offer higher education. Some, like the Royal College of Arts, the Cornfield

Institute of Technology and various Business Schools, have university

status, while others, such as agricultural, drama and arts colleges like

the Royal Academy of Dramatics Arts (RADA) and the Royal college of Music

provide comparable courses. All these institutions usually have a strong

vocational aspect in their programmes, which fills a specialized role in

higher education.

Bibliography.

1. Levashova V.A. Britain today: Life and Institutions. Ц Moscow: INFRA-

M, 2001.

2. 200 “ем јнглийского языка./—ост.: Ѕойко ¬., ∆идких Ќ.,  аверина ¬.,

ѕанина ≈. Ц ћосква: »здательство »ванова ¬.»., 2001.

3. Magazine УCLUBФ, є3, January Ц February 2001.

4.  нига дл€ чтени€ к учебнику английского €зыка дл€ 8 класса средней

школы./—ост.:  опыл ≈.√., Ѕоровик ћ.ј. »зд. 2-е. ћосква,

Ђѕросвещениеї, 1978.

5. Newspaper УEnglish LearnerТs DigestФ є8, April 2001.

6. Adrian Room, An A to Z of British Life; OUP 1992.

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