Рефераты. Банковские системы: России, Америки, Британии

Банковские системы: России, Америки, Британии

England, Bank of

The Bank of England was incorporated by act of Parliament in 1694 with the

immediate purpose of raising funds to allow the English government to wage

war against France in the Low Countries (see). A royal allowed the bank to

operate as a joint-stock bank with limited liability. No other joint-stock

banks were permitted in England and Wales until 1826. This special status

and its position as the government's banker gave the bank considerable

competitive advantages.

The bank was located first in Mercers' Hall and then in Grocers' Hall, but

it was moved to its permanent location on Threadneedle Street in the 1730s.

By that time it had become the largest and most prestigious financial

institution in England, and its bank notes were widely circulated. As a

result, it became banker to other banks, which, by maintaining balances

with the Bank of England, could settle debts among themselves. The bank was

threatened by the economic instability that accompanied the, but its

standing was also considerably enhanced by its actions in raising funds for

Britain's involvement in those conflicts.

During the 19th century the bank gradually assumed the responsibilities of

a central bank. In 1833 it began to print legal tender, and it undertook

the roles of lender of last resort and guardian of the nation's gold

reserves in the following few decades.

The bank was privately owned until 1946, when it was nationalized. It funds

public borrowing, issues bank notes, and manages the country's gold and

foreign exchange reserves. It is an important adviser to the government on

monetary policy and is largely responsible for implementing the chosen

policy by its dealings in the money, bond, and foreign exchange markets.

The bank's freedom of action in this regard was considerably enhanced when

it was given the power to determine short-term interest rates in 1997


The Colonial Office in the Bank of England, unsigned watercolour by one of

Sir John Soane's draftsmen, c. 1818; in Sir John Soane's Museum, London.

By courtesy of the trustees of Sir John Soane's Museum, London; photograph,

R.B. Fleming

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