Рефераты. Башня Лондона (Tower of London)

flanges, thus enabling his height of six-feet one-inch to be accurately


In the adjacent room the collection of hunting and sporting arms

includes crossbows and firearms. Here can be traced the technical advances

in firearm mechanisms, from the match lock, the snaphance and the wheel

lock to the flintlock. The development of decorative techniques is also

evident. Craftsmen applied or inlaid precious metals, ivory, bone and even

mother-of-pearl to enhance the wood they carved and chiselled with such

consummate skill; the contemporary artistic styles from the 15th to the

19th centuries can thus be compared.

An especially interesting exhibit is the elegant silver-decorated

sporting gun made in Dundee in 1614. It came from the personal gun-room of

Louis XIII of France. Another unique exhibit is the Scottish gun made

entirely of engraved brass for Charles I when he was a young man. Through

the Chapel of St John is the Mediaeval Room, which is now devoted to the

earliest arms and armour in the Tower. The exhibits are mostly of the late

14th and 15th centuries and include a superb Italian visored bascinet with

its original neck protection of mail. There is also one of the few Gothic

horse armours surviving. It was probably made to order for Waldemar VI of

Anhalt-Zerbst (1450-1508).

The Arms and Armour (Part Two)

In the adjoining Sixteenth-century Room, fine arms and armour date

from that century, but exclude English products. Most conspicuous is the

massive suit of German armour made around 1540 for a man nearly seven feet

tall. From the middle of the century is the splendid Lion Armour embossed

with lions masks and damascened in gold.

On the top floor, the Tudor Room is devoted mainly to the armours made

in the royal workshops at Greenwich which Henry VIII established about

1514. They include four armours made for the king himself -- one engraved

and silver plated -- and others made at Greenwich for Tudor courtiers.

There is an armour made for one of Elizabeth I's favourites, Robert Dudley,

Earl of Leicester, another for William Somerset, Earl of Worcester, another

for Sir John Smythe, who vainly championed the use of the long bow many

years after its inevitable super-session by firearms.

In the adjoining Stuart Room are beautiful little armours made in

France and England for the Stuart kings and princes and the London-made

harquebus armour of James II. They are the focus of a display devoted to

the 17th century -- the last period before armour ceased to be used.

Separate displays are devoted to the armour, arms and accoutrements of the

richly equipped bodyguards, the light and heavy cavalry, and the infantry.

The armour of the pikemen was the last to be worn by foot soldiers before

the increased efficiency of firearms made its use impractical.

In the basement is the Mortar Room, where the bronze mortars on view

include one of the bores used for fireworks at the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle

in 1748. At the far end of the room is the entrance to the sun-crypt of the

Chapel of St John, where a carved and gilt figure of the Lion of St Mark, a

trophy from Corfu, is flanked by a number of the finest small cannon from

the armouries collection.

In the adjacent Cannon Room the walls are hung with relics of Henry

VIII's army and a great array of armour and weapons returned to the Tower

after the Civil War. Here also is the greater part of the Armouries

collection of cannon, including several from the ships of Henry VIII's


The New Armouries comprise a red brick building close to the White

Tower. On the ground floor is a representative collection of armour and

arms of Africa and the Orient. It is dominated by armour for an elephant,

probably captured at the battle of Plassey in 1757. One Japanese armour on

view was presented to James I by the governor of Edo in 1613. Many of the

later sporting firearms on the first floor are of the highest quality. The

flintlock guns include ones given by Louis XIV to the first Duke of

Richmond, another was sent by Napoleon to Charles IV of Spain, and a third

with matching powder flask, pair of pistols and stirrups, was made to the

order of Elizabeth, Empress of Russia. Here also are the Reverend Alexander

Forsyth's own models of the percussion lock he invented after years of

experiment in the Tower. Superseding the flintlock, it completely

revolutionised firearms development and, consequently, the science of war.

The Crown Jewels

During medieval times Crown Jewels were the personal property of the

sovereign. It was fairly common practice for the King or Queen to pawn them

or use them as security for loans in time of war. Most were kept at the

Tower, particularly when the sovereign was in residence there, although the

Coronation Regalia was held at Westminster Abbey. Sometime after 1660, a

new set of Regalia was made to replace what had been destroyed during the

Commonwealth. It was at that time that the Tower became the permanent home

of the Crown Jewels and put on public display.

The Crown Jewels are what most visitors to the Tower of London come to

see. This incomparable collection of crowns, orbs, swords, sceptres and

other regalia, and gold and silver plate was refashioned in 1661 after

parliament had ordered the original gold and precious metals to be melted

down for coinage in 1649.

The Imperial State Crown worn by monarchs at their coronations is set

with jewels of great antiquity and historical significance. The oldest is

Edward the Confessor's sapphire, believed to have been worn by him in a

ring. The great gem above the rim is the ancient balas-ruby, known as the

Black Prince's ruby, which is said to have been given to him by Pedro the

Cruel of Castile.

From the intersections of the arches hang four superb drop pearls, the

so-called Queen Elizabeth's Earrings, but there is no evidence that she

ever wore them in this way. Set in the rim at the back of the crown is the

Stuart sapphire. It is probably much older than its name implies, but is

known to have been in the possession of James II when he fled to France

after his deposition. It was formerly mounted in the rim, at the front, but

was displaced by the Second Star of Africa cut from the Cullinan diamond.

In addition to these jewels, the Imperial State Crown contains over 3,000

diamonds and pearls, as well as fine sapphires, emeralds, and rubies.

The Crown Jewels have in the past resided in both the White Tower and in

the Martin Tower. Today they have their home in Jewel House which is a part

of the Waterloo Barracks (left side of photo). [Greeley/Gilmore]

The Royal Sceptre with the Cross is a rod of chased gold, with the

peerless Star of Africa cut from the Cullinnan diamond held in a heart

shaped mount. Above this is a superb amethyst with a diamond-encrusted

cross set with an emerald.

Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother's Crown was made for her coronation as

queen consort in 1937. This graceful crown is set with diamonds, dominated

by the famous Koh-i-noor. Its Indian name means "Mountain of Light" and the

jewel has a long and turbulent history. Tradition says that its male owners

will suffer misfortune, but women who possess it will rule the world.


These are some of the ceremonies that take place at the Tower of London.

Ceremony of Keys

The traditional locking up of the Tower of London each night. This

ceremony has been carried out every night for the last 700 years.

Set admit the mighty battlements of this ancient historic fortress, it

is one of the oldest and most colourful surviving ceremonies of it's kind,

having been enacted every night without fail for approximately seven

hundred years, in much the same form as we know it today.

The exact origin of the Ceremony is somewhat obscure, though it

probably dates from the time of the White Tower - the great Norman fortress

commenced by William the Conqueror and completed in about 1080 AD - become

regularly used as a Royal stronghold in the capital city.

As the fortifications around the Tower were increased from time to

time so it became used not only as Royal residence, but also as the Mint

and State Prison. The Country's gold was stored at the Tower, as were the

Royal Records and Royal Regalia, and numerous historical figures were

imprisoned within it's walls for political reasons, many of whom were never

to emerge to freedom, dying either from natural causes or by execution on

Tower Green or Tower Hill.

The surrounding populaces were not always in sympathy with activities

inside the Tower, and as enemies of the King might attempt to rescue

prisoners or to steal the Crown Jewels, the need for security was very

great. Thus it was in olden times that every night at dusk the Gentlemen

Porter - now known as the Chief Yeoman Warder - would collect an armed

escort, and would Lock and secure all the gates and doors leading into the

Tower, thereby making it proof against hostile attack or intrigue, This

done, the Keys would be handed over to the Tower Governor for safe keeping

during the night.

In 1826, the Duke of Wellington (then Constable of the Tower) ordered

that the time of the Ceremony be fixed at ten o'clock each night, so as to

ensure that his soldiers were all inside the Tower before the gates were


Accordingly, every night at exactly 7 minutes to ten, the Chief Warder

emerges from the Byward Tower, carrying the traditional lantern - still

lighted with a piece of candle - and in the other the Queen's Keys. He

proceeds at a dignified pace to the Bloody Tower, where an escort

consisting of two sentries, - a Sergeant and a representative Drummer are

marched to the outer gate. En route, all guards and sentries present arms

as the Queen's Keys pass.

As the Chief Warder shuts and locks the great oak doors of first the

Middle Tower and then the Byward Tower, the escort halt and present arms.

They now return along Water Lane towards the Wakefield Tower, where in the

deep shadows of the Bloody Tower Archway a sentry waits and watches.

As the Chief Warder and escort approach, the sentry's challenge rings out.

"Halt!" the escort is halted.

"Who comes there?"

"The Keys" replies the Chief Warder.

"Who's Keys?"

"Queen Elizabeth's Keys" is the answer.

"Pass Queen Elizabeth's Keys - All's well".

Whereupon the Chief Warder and escort proceed through the archway towards

the steps by the 13th century wall, where the Guard for the night is drawn

up under an officer with drawn sword, The Chief Warder and escort halt at

the foot of the steps. The Officer gives the command, Guard and Escort -

present arms. The Chief Warder takes two paces forward, raises his Tudor

bonnet high in the air and calls out God preserve Queen Elizabeth. The

Whole Guard reply Amen, and as the parade ground clock chimes ten, the

Drummer (bugler) sounds the Last Post.

The Chief Warder takes the Keys to the house of the Resident Governor, and

the Guard is dismissed.

The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses

The Wakefield Tower, built originally for defensive purposes swiftly

became the Presence Chamber of Plantagenet kings. It is with an indication

of this ancient role that you see it today. In a recess is the Oratory with

an altar chest, bearing the likeness of King Henry VI and the Arms of Eton

College and King's College, Cambridge. In front is an appraisal of the King

by his confessor, John Blacman.

In 1471 King Henry VI, founder of those Colleges was held a prisoner

in this tower. He was murdered at these prayers in the Oratory between

eleven and twelve o'clock on the night of the 21st May. His body rests in

St George's Chapel at Windsor, in which Castle he was born on the 6th of

December 1421.

The King's birthday has long been celebrated by both his Colleges as

Founders Day and since 1905 two Kin's Scholars of Eton have laid a sheaf of

its white lilies on his tomb on that day.

Through the friendly interest of Sir George Younghusband, then Keeper

of the Jewel House, King George V was graciously pleased to approve the

setting of a marble tablet in the Oratory at the spot where by tradition

King Henry VI met his death. Eton lilies have since been laid there in the

evening of each anniversary. By the Sovereign's sanction and with approval

of the Constable of the Tower, the arrangements for this annual ceremony

were delegated to the incumbent Keeper of the Jewel House; and it was not

neglected even during the Second World War, when HM Tower of London was

restricted area and the Wakefield Tower itself was hit by a German bomb.

In 1947, the Provost and Scholars at King's College, Cambridge,

secured the permission of the King and the Constable to associate King

Henry's sister foundation with the ceremony. The white roses of Kings, in

their purple ribbon, have since been laid alongside the Eton lilies, in

their pale blue, on the Founder's stone.

The Ceremony of the Lilies and Roses. Though still a very simple one,

has over the years acquired a certain form and formality. The Provost of

Eton or his deputy, the Provost of King's or his deputy, and the Chaplain

of the Tower are conducted by the Resident Governor and Keeper of the Jewel

House, with an escort of Yeoman Warders, from Queen's House to the

Wakefield Tower. The Chaplain conducts the short service and the lilies and

roses are ceremoniously laid: to lie until dusk on the next day as token

that King Henry's memory is ever green in the two Colleges which are

perhaps his most enduring monument.

Ghost Stories

There are many stories of ghosts, poltergeists and other malevolent

spirits connected to the Tower of London. Who hasn't heard the one about

the headless apparition of Anne Boleyn stalking the Tower grounds at night.

Who for instance, hasn't heard stories of the chained and headless Sir

Walter Raliegh being seen on the ramparts close to where he was kept

prisoner. The Tower of London with its 900 years of history has earned

itself a multitude of spine tingling stories, mainly due to its infamous

reputation as a place of execution. The following stories are different in

the fact that as far as we know, they have never been told before, at least

not beyond the boundaries of the Tower of London.

The Ghost of Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn, the most celebrated of the wives of Henry VIII was

beheaded on Tower Green in 1536. Her ghost has frequently been seen both on

the Green and more spectacularly in the Chapel Royal situated in the White

Tower. It was in the Chapel that a Captain of the Guard saw a light burning

in the locked Chapel late at night. Finding a ladder, he was able to look

down on the strange scene being enacted within. A nineteenth century

account described it thus:

Slowly down the aisle moved a stately procession of Knights and

Ladies, attired in ancient costumes; and in front walked an elegant female

whose face was averted from him, but whose figure greatly resembled the one

he had seen in reputed portraits of Anne Boleyn. After having repeatedly

paced the chapel, the entire procession together with the light

disappeared. (excerpt from Ghostly Visitors by "Spectre Stricken", London


Another account of this same story tells of how the procession always

occurs on the anniversary of the terrible execution of Margaret Pole the

Countess of Salisbury, in 1541. This brave old lady (she was over seventy

when she was killed) suffered because of her son's (Cardinal Pole)

vilification of the King Henry VIII's religious doctrines, something the

Cardinal did from the safety of France. So when Henry realised that the

Cardinal was out of his reach his mother was brought to the block instead

as an act of vengeance. Instead of submitting weekly to the axeman however

she refused to lie down and was pursued by the axeman around the scaffold.

Swinging wildly he inflicted the most hideous wounds on her till at last

she died.

Another sighting of Anne Boleyn is alledged in 1864 by a sentry

standing guard at the Queen's house. The guard saw and challenged a white

shape that appeared suddenly veiled in mist. When the challenge went

unanswered the sentry put his bayonet into the figure but he was overcome

with shock when it went straight through the figure without meeting any

resistance. This story was corroborated by two onlookers who saw the whole

event from a window of the Bloody Tower. It is not known what made the

sentry and the onlookers believe that this was the ghost of Anne Boleyn but

we can only accept that after 100 years of tradition it must be so.

Traitors’ Gate

The Traitors' Gate was the watergate entrance for prisoners condemned

after trial at Westminster. It dates from 1240 when Henry III enlarged the

fortress by building extra defence works. There is a story that when the

work was nearing completion on St George's day 1240 there was a great storm

that resulted in the foundation's being undermined and this resulted in the

gate collapsing. When the circumstances were repeated identically a year

later an inquiry revealed that a priest claimed to have seen the ghost of

Sir Thomas Becket striking the walls with a crucifix. He said that the

ghost was proclaiming that the new building was not for the common good but

"for the injury and prejudice of the Londoners, my brethren". Since it was

the King's grandfather who had caused the death of the saint he felt it was

wise to include a small oratory in the tower of the new building dedicating

it to Sir Thomas Becket. Even so it's rooms have always had a reputation of

being haunted. Doors open and close without reason, the figure of a monk in

a brown robe has been seen. Ghostly footsteps including the distinctive

slap of monastic sandals are sometimes heard.




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