Рефераты. Топики по Английскому языку

Топики по Английскому языку

Economy in Rassian

The Russian is reach in natural resources in the past few years the Russia

try to remove from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy. In

spite of decline Russia has various branches of industry, such as

metallurgical, automobile and chemical industry. Russia is divided on 11

economic regions such as: North, North west, central, volga, ural.. And

Asia :West Siberia, East Siberia, and the Far East. Russian s machine

building industry provides most of the Federations requirement for steam

boilers and turbines ,electric generators, grain combines, automobiles and

electric locomotives and machine tools, instruments and automation

components. Important automobile factories are located in Moscow,

Н.Новгород, Ярославль Ижевск.Rus. textile industries are heavily

concentrated in the European sector especially in the central region.

Russian agriculture is not so developed. But some of the main crops grown

on the South are wheat, fruits, on the North are wheat, barley, oats,

vegetables. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of

R. agricultural. Forests is a very important branch for Russian. But in

Rus. can not use the resources more effectively. In Rus. the resources is

sold as the raw materials. It is necessary to employ of manufacturing. And

then we will live better.

The Russian Art.

The most important form of early Russian art was the icons. The word icon

means image in Greek. Icon is the religious pictures of Christ and Saints

on wooden panel. They decorated churches, mostly placed on the iconostasis.

In Russia the finest icons were produced from the midforteenth century. In

that time a specific national style icon painting was formed. Russian icon

painting reached the highest point of its achievement in the works of

Theothan Greek, Andrey Rublev and Dionissy in the mid-15 century. Andrey

Rublev is a Russian greatest iconpainter. In 1408 he was engaged on the

murals in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Vladimir when he also produced

his version of the icon of Vladimirs Virgin. And well known cuch icons as

Спас and Троица which was found in Vladimir. A.R.s icons is expressed a

distinct filling of harmony, deep spirituality, grace and the beauty of the

colors. Rs works is one of the greatest creations of medieval Russian

painting. Intimate [intimeit] намекать, Severe[sivie] строгий, Distinct

[distinkt] отличный, тчетливый. Creations [krieishn] создание, творение.

In the2th half of 19th century artists of the Wanderers group started

painting scenes of contemporary life. Vasiliy Perov, Ivan Kramskoy, Aleksey

Savrasov,Ivan Shishkin, Valentin Serov and Vasiliy Surikov were wanderers.

The works of Wonderes are displayed in the famous picture galleries: the

Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow,the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. They

called themselves the Wanderers, because they wanted to realize their

ideals by taking wondering exibitions tthroughout the country. The most

clear represenative of Wonderers in my opinion was Vasiliy Surikov.[1848-

1916]. He was the first of the W. Hewas born in Krasnojarsk in Siberia.His

masterpiece was the Боярыня Морозова. [1887] Its an enormous painting-both

in size and scale. A decorative surface rhythm and strong horizontals are

other eharacteirctics common to Russian art, both ancient and modern, and

like wise first recovered in the work of Surikov.

The English Art.

The 18th century , the Golden Age of British Art. The 18th century , the

great age of British painting. It was in this period that British art

attained a distinct national character. Hogarth was followed by a row of

illustrious painters: Thomas Gainsborough, with his lyrical landscapes,

funcy pictures and portraits, Reynolds, who painted charming society

portraits and became the first president of the Royal Academy.

William Hogarth was unquestionably one of the greatest of English artists

and a man of remarkably individual character and thought . It was his

achievement to give a comprehensive view of social life within the

framework of moralistic and framatic narrative.

His masterpiece of the famous series was Marriage a la Mode . This set of

pictures describes a marriage between the daughter of a rich man and a

young lord, the son of an old earl. The Girls father has brought a bag full

of money with him. Their children are together but apart: the young man is

watching himself in the glass; the girl is listening to a young Counsellor.

The pictures round the room help understund the situation. In one of the

pictures Madam sits listening to the young Consellor, whose portrait hangs

in her room. Other pictures in the series show My Lord who amuses himself

with a bad company. He returns home tipsy. Madam wastes her money at

auctions. The end is known. My Lord attacks the Counsellor, who kills him

and is executed. Moral: do not listen to counsellors; dont marry a man for

his rank, or a woman for her money; dont visit auctions unknown to your

husband; dont have bad friends. Otherwise you will be ruined.

From the 18 century portrait painting,eit

Mass media

The most popular sources of entertainment and information are the press,

radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in the life of

society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers. The

English word ‘newspaper’ does not really. Describe everything that you can

read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories about

recent events (news), but opinions, advertising, and other non-news items.

The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign and

Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now there are

about 2,600 newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times, the

Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the most important

daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news. The radio does not

interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing

some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car. On the radio

one can hear music, plays, news, and different commentary and discussions

called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social,

economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of the American radio

is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama that describes domestic

problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast every

day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate a lot of games on the

radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio brings also cultural and

educational programs. Many programs are made up of classical music.

Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many serials on

TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games- attract a large

audience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer different

questions. There is a lot of education on television. For example, you can

take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking and in

many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by TV. Educational TV

films and programs are shown in schools and colleges as a part of the


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