Рефераты. Топики по Англ. языку

Топики по Англ. языку

Educational System in Russia.

I think that education is a key to a good future.

Russia has always shown a great concern for education. The right to

education is stated in the Constitution of the Russian Federation. It is

ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools, and higher

education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of

extramural and evening courses.

Russian children begin to go to school when they are 7. Education is

compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school

wishes to go on Higher education, he or she must stay at school for two

more years. Every school has a number of general subjects such as Russian,

Literature, Mathematics, History, a foreign language and others. Some

private schools, Lyceums and gymnasiums offer special programs giving a

profound knowledge in some fields of study.

After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which

offers a programme of training in a technical field, or a profession.

After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a

gymnasium one can go on in higher education. All applicants must take

competitive examinations. Higher education establishments, which are

institutes or universities, offer 5-year programme of academic subjects for

undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course. If one

finishes a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a

candidate’s or a doctoral degree.

The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a

transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize

the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give

more academic freedoms to faculties and students. All secondary schools,

institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state.

Now there is a number of private fee-paying schools and some universities

have fee-paying departments.

Today Russian education is one of the best in the world. But I think that

if our educational system wouldn’t be changed in the nearest future we will

lose this place.

Higher Education in the U.K.

I think that education is a key to a good future. And universities are the

main step on the education-way.

There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. The leading universities

are Cambridge, Oxford and London. English universities differ from each

other in traditions, general organization, internal government, etc.

British universities are comparatively small; there are about 7 thousands

of students. And most universities have fewer than 3000 of students. London

and Oxford universities are international, because people from many parts

of the world come to study at one of their colleges. A number of well-known

scientists and writers, such as Newton, Darwin, Byron and others were

educated in Cambridge.

A university consists of a number of departments: art, law, music, economy,

education, medicine, engineering, etc. After three years of study a student

may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Master and


Besides universities there are about 300 of technical colleges, providing

part-time and full-time education.

The organization system of Oxford and Cambridge differs from other

universities and colleges. The teachers are usually called Dons. Teaching

is carried out by tutorial system. Each student goes to his tutor's room

once a week to read and discuss an essay which the student has prepared.

Some students get scholarship but the number of these students is

comparatively small.

There are many societies and clubs at Cambridge and Oxford. The most

celebrating at Cambridge is the Debating Society at which students discuss

political and other questions with famous politicians and writers.

It should be mentioned that not many children from the working-class

families are able to receive the higher education as the fees are very

high. And there are special fees taken for books, for laboratory works,

exams and so on.

Recycling is the urgent problem of Novosibirsk.

That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one

for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the

greater the ecological problems are becoming.

The problem of recycling attracts the great attention of society.

It’s very actually today. Only in Novosibirsk we have more than 1.5 million

cubic meters of trash in a year.

Today we only have one glass-recycling plant. And we haven’t any trash-

recycling plants in Novosibirsk. It isn’t good of course. Streets are dirty

and there are many waste places in our city. Unrecycled trash is burnt by

people. It makes smog that is very bad for ecology.

As the government says a trash-recycling plant is going to be built in

Novosibirsk in the nearest two years. It will be invested by the private


Well, I think it’s strange that local powers aren’t able to do this for our

city and people have to do it themselves. But at the same time it’s good.

We see that Novosibirsk is a city with very bad ecology. And we shouldn’t

think that our government will improve this situation for us. Everybody

must do everything he can to protect our environment. All society as a

whole must fight against pollution.

We must get more knowledge about environment. We must learn how to make new

products from old things. There are some charitable funds where you can

invest your money if you want to do something.

Novosibirsk State Technical University

Novosibirsk State technical University, founded in 1953, gained its status

of a technical University in 1992. It is one of the top ten technical

universities in Russia, and a large scientific and educational centre of


NSTU trains specialists and offers additional training in 35 areas and 10

faculties: Automation and Computer Engineering; Applied Mathematics and

Informatics; Automated Electromechanical Systems; Automated Machine

Building; Aircraft; Business; Power Engineering; and Humanities.

The period of study is 4-6 years depending on the qualification as follows:

Bachelor of Science 4 years; Engineer 5 years; Master of Science 6 years.

Students are awarded M.Sc. degree in Engineering after defending their

Master’s theses in the corresponding fields of study. Postgraduate students

are offered a 3 year program of study and research leading to candidate of

Science degree in Engineering.

The number of students at NSTU is about 10000. The number of academic staff

is about 1000. They work and study at 61 departments.

The students actively participate in all types of scientific research. The

University publishes the journals, scientific works, textbooks, monographs,

and teaching manuals.

The university participates in some international programs. It has

relations with 12 Universities in Europe, Asia and America.

The University has 8 teaching blocks. Its research laboratories are

equipped with modern facilities. The campus includes 7 students’ hostels, a

sport centre with a swimming pool and sky centre. The University has sports

camps in the picturesque Altai Mountains and in suburbs of Novosibirsk.

The rector of the University is Professor Anatoly S. Vostricov. He took

office in 1990. He continues the tradition began by Professor Georgi P.

Lyshchinsky, to keep the University on the leading edge, a place where

students and academic staff are justifiably proud to work and learn.

Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering.

The Faculty of Automation and Computer Engineering is one of the largest

NSTU faculties. The faculty was set up in 1963. It comprised three

departments at that time. These were the Department of Automation and

Teleautomaties; Electric Metering Technology; and Mathematical and

Calculating Machine and Devices.

Since 1994 the Faculty has been located in the seventh teaching block,

being the only faculty occupying separate building.

At present the faculty comprises six major departments awarding degrees.

These are the following ones: Department of Automation; Department of

Automated Control System; Department of Computer Engineering and others.

Students are given an opportunity not only to obtain the most up-to-date

knowledge in the area chosen, but also to carry out research and

participate in engineering developments. The Faculty has about 40

instructional and research laboratories and computer classrooms.

The Faculty offers multi-level system of training awarding Bachelor’s,

Master’s and Engineer’s degrees. The Bachelor degree is awarded after 4

years of study, Engineer’s degree after 5.5 years, and Master’s degree

after six years of study.

Some departments give training in additional area expanding the student’s

major field.

More than a 1000 students study at the Faculty. The number of teaching

staff is about 100 of teachers and professors.

Students acquire fundamental knowledge and practical training in various

fields of science and engineering. They actively participate in all types

of work. There are a journal and some teaching manuals, published by the

faculty. The dean of the faculty is Professor V.V. Gubarev.

As conclusion, I can say that I study at this faculty, and I’m really proud

of this.


In the past, computers were used only in the workplace. They were commonly

used for mathematical explorations and innovations. The earliest computer

was Babbage’s Analytic Engine. Charles Babbage designed his Difference

Engine in the nineteenth-century because people were making many errors in


First computers were really huge. They occupied whole rooms. And many

people were needed to work with them.

Modern computers are able to do great number of things, not only to

calculate. In today's society, computers are necessary. They are used in

all kinds of jobs. They are used in Science, Math, Medicine, mechanics and

so on.

We can’t imagine our life without computers. They have a respected place in

the modern world. New generations are using them for everything: to learn,

to communicate, to do research, etc. And old generations have become to

accept them as well.

As a student of NSTU, I use computers every day both in my studying and in

my personal life. They help me to relax when my stress is maximum. I can

also find a lot of interesting and useful things by using the internet. By

using e-mail to communicate with my friends I save a lot of money because I

don't need to make long distance calls.

Computers help me to make my life easier.

But on the other hand computers are dangerous for people. They are very bad

for our eyes and nervous system. But in spite of this millions of people

use computers in their ordinary life. They can spend hours and hours in

front one of them.

I think my future profession will be connected with computers. At real I

think that all professions in the nearest future will be connected with


Alexander Bell

Alexander Bell never planned to be an inventor; he wanted to be a musician

or a teacher of deaf people. The subjects that he studied at school

included music, art, literature, Latin and Greek. They did not include

German which all scientists used in their books. Alexander’s mother was a

painter and a musician. His father was a well-known teacher of deaf people.

When Alexander was only sixteen, he became a teacher in boy’s school in

Scotland. He liked teaching there, but he still wanted to become a teacher

of deaf people as his father.

At twenty five Alexander became interested in finding a way to send human

voice through an electric wire. The parents of his pupils invested money

for the equipment. He found an assistant, Tom Watson, who worked in an

electrical shop. For two years Tom and Alexander were working together to

build a machine that people could use to talk to one another over long

distances. One day, when they were working on a new transmitter Alexander

spilled some acid on himself. Tom Watson, who was alone in another room,

heard a voice. The voice was coming through a wire on the table. It was

Alexander’s voice.

The first telephone line was built in Germany in 1877. Then a telephone

lines were opened in the United States. First telephones were big. And the

distance of talking wasn’t very long.

Now there are such great inventions as mobile and video telephones. And you

can speak with your friend from any part of the world.

Who knows, may be in the future telephones will transmit smells and



Today, Novosibirsk is the 4th large city in Russia by population and the

third large by area. The city is divided into 10 districts, 2 of which are

situated on the left and 8 – on the right bank of the Ob River.

Novosibirsk was born in the point of intersection of the mighty Siberian

River Ob and Trans-Siberian Railway in 1893. It was called Novonikolaevsk

those days. The god-father of Novosibirsk was famous Russian engineer Garin-

Mikhaylovsky, who selected a place for the construction of the railway

bridge across the Ob River.

The city was developing at a super fast rate of growth. In the twenties it

became the centre of new administrative formation – the vast Siberian


Today, Novosibirsk is an important industrial, cultural and educational


The city’s rich cultural life includes the world-class Opera and Ballet

theatre, the Conservatoire of Music, more than a 100 libraries, museums and

so on. Novosibirsk Picture Gallery is one of the finest and valuable in


The city is also home to The State and Public and Scientific and Technical

Library that celebrated its 80th anniversary in 1998.

Novosibirsk is also a scientific centre. Academgorodok, the township of the

Siberian branch of Russian Academy of Sciences is famous throughout the

world. It was founded by the Academy in the 1950’s in a picturesque place

near the Ob Sea. Today a number of research institutes, laboratories,

schools and Novosibirsk State University are situated there.

The 2nd half of the 1980s is a very remarkable time period in the history

of Novosibirsk. That is when a metro was built in the city. Today its

passenger turnover is the 3d in Russia.

As conclusion, I can say that I live in Novosibirsk. I love my city. And

I’m very proud of it.

Attributes of a Good Employee

Sadly, most people don't realize how valuable and rare a good employee is,

nor how good it is to be one themselves, until they own their own business

or are in charge of their own employees.

First, it is important to have a fundamental information about the product

of your company or group. You have to use the product yourself.

Second, you need a real interest in discussion with customers about how

they use your product, what they like or don’t like in order to know where

your company’s product could be better.

Third, once you understand your customer’s needs, you have to enjoy

thinking through how this product can make work more interesting.

These first three points are related. Success comes from understanding and

caring deeply about your products, your technology and your customers’


Fourth, you as an individual employee should develop your own skills and

those of the people you work with. If maximizing your next bonus or salary

increase is all that motivates you, you will lose out.

Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge or skills. Big companies, in

particular, need employees who can learn specialties quickly, so a

willingness to learn is critical.

Sixth, a good employee will want to learn the economics of the business.

And a company, in turn, should educate its employees in the fundamental

financial realities of its industry.

Seventh, you must focus on competitors, you must think about what is going

on in the marketplace.

Finally, being a good employee means being a good person. You should be

patient, attentive, courteous and reliable. Good companies know that those

values cannot be learned in any college, or on the job training. They must

be within you before you work for them and not only are they the most

valued characteristics to find in an employee, they are also the most rare.

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