Рефераты. Топики для сдачи экзамена по английскому языку в 11-ом классе (Шпаргалка)

Топики для сдачи экзамена по английскому языку в 11-ом классе (Шпаргалка)


Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about one-

seventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and Asia. Its total area

is over 17 million square kilometers.

The country is washed by seas and oceans.

There are different types of climate on the territory of the country. It

is very cold in the North even in summer. The central part of the country

has mild climate: winters are cold, springs and autumns are warm or cool,

summers are hot and warm. In the South the temperature is usually above

zero all year round, even in winter. Summer is really hot, the climate is

very favourable. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and

dry, winters are very cold.

Some parts of our country are covered with mountains and hills.

There are many rivers in Russia, the longest rivers are the Volga in

Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal

and the Ladoga.

The Russian Federation is very rich in mineral resources, such as oil,

natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others.

Russia borders on many countries. Among them are Estonia, Latvia,

Finland, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea.

Moscow is the capital of our country. It was founded in 1147. It is a

wonderful city. There are many sights in Moscow. You can see many museums,

art galleries, theatres, churches and monuments in our capital. People of

our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are also many big

beautiful cities in Russia.

The population of Russia is about 150 million people. 83 per cent of the

population are Russians. 70 per cent of the population live in cities.


Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most

beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modern city now. The population

of the city is about 9.8 million people. Moscow is a political centre,

where the government of our country works. Moscow was founded in 1147 by

Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square


We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the Moscow—Volga Canal

links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the Sea of


Moscow is an industrial centre too. There are many factories and plants in

it. One of the best-known plants produces many lorries, and the other one

produces cars.

The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous theatres all over the world. If

you are fond of painting you can go to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the

Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of interesting portraits and

landscapes there. We say that the Tretyakov Art Gallery is a treasure-house

of Russian art. Young people like to visit the Central Military Museum.

There are many tanks, guns and war documents there.

One can see the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many fine

buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and monuments

in Moscow.

It is necessary to mention such famous monuments as monuments to the

great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first Russian printer

Ivan Fedorov.

Visiting the capital a lot of foreigners from all over the world come to

see these monuments.

One of the highest buildings in Moscow is the State Moscow University. It

was founded in 1755 by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.

Transport. Moscow is a very big city, and its transport must be

comfortable and fast.

One can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses, trams in the streets of

our city. The Moscow metro began its work on the 15th of May, 1935. There

were 13 stations at that time. Now it has 190 stations. Our metro is a

beautiful and convenient one.

There are nine railway stations in Moscow and five airports around the


There are many stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki.

Many competitions and football matches are held there.

The Olympic village was built for the 22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in

1980. It is a big complex for sport games.

I live in Moscow and I am proud of this city.


The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe between

the Atlantic Ocean on the north-west and the North Sea on the east.

The U. K. includes Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, contains England, Scotland

and Wales.

The United Kingdom has an area of

244,000 square kilometres (94,249 square miles). The capital of the

country is London. English is the official language.

The population of the U. K. is nearly 60 million people. The population

lives mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs. Four out of every five

people live in towns. Over 46 million people live in England. Over 3

million — in Wales. A little over 5 million — in Scotland. About 1.5

million— in Northern Ireland. London's population is over 7 million people.

The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the

Irish. There are many people of all colours and races in the United


The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is not too hot in summer or too

cold in winter. It often rains in England. Rain falls in summer and in

winter, in autumn and in spring. Snow falls only in the north and west of

the country. The surface of England and Ireland is flat, but Scotland and

Wales are mountainous. Many parts of the country have beautiful villages.

There are many rivers in Great Britain. The main river is the Thames. Many

ships and barges go up and down the river. The longest river is Severn. It

is 350 kilometres long.

There are many universities, colleges libraries, museums and theatres in

the country. The most famous universities are Cambridge University, Oxford

University, Glasgow University.

The U. K. is a parliamentary monarchy. The British Parliament consists of

two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The Prime Minister

is the head of the government.

The United Kingdom has some mineral resources. Coal and oil are the most

important of them. The United Kingdom i one of the world's most

industrialize» countries. The main industrial centres are Sheffield,

Birmingham and Manchester. The largest cities of the country are London,

Birmingham, Cardiff, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, Dublin.

Agriculture takes an important sector in economy of the country. The

British people grow wheat, fruit, vegetables oats.


The USA is one of the largest countries in the world. It is situated in

the central part of the North American continent. The area of the USA is

over nine million square kilometres. It is washed by the Pacific Ocean and

by the Atlantic Ocean. The most northern part of the USA is Alaska,, the

largest state, separated from the rest of the country by Canada.

The population of the United States is nearly 250 million people, most of

the people live in towns. People of different nationalities live in the


The official language of the country is English. The capital of the

country is Washington. It was named in honour of the first President,

George Washington.

As the USA is a large country, the climate is different in different

regions. Foi example, the Pacific coast is a region of mild winters and

warm, dry summers, but the eastern continental region is watered with

rainfall. The region arounc the Great Lakes has changeable weather.

There are many mountains in the USA For example, the highest peaks of the

Cordilliers in the USA are 6,193 and 4,418 metres.

The main river of the country is the Mississippi. But there are many

other great rivers in the USA: the Colorado in the south and the Columbia

in the northwest. There are five Great Lakes between the USA and Canada.

The USA produces more than 52 per cent of the world's corn, wheat,

cotton, tobacco.

There are many big cities in the coun try. They are Washington (the


of the country). New York (the city of contrasts, financial and business

centre of the USA), Boston (there are many colleges and universities in

it), Chicago (one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA), San

Francisco, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, Detroit (one of the biggest centres

of the automobile industry).

The USA has an Academy of Sciences. There are many scientific

institutions, museums, libraries, theatres and other interesting places in

the country.

The USA is a highly developed industrial country. The USA is rich in

mineral resources, such as aluminium, salt, zinc, coppers, and others. The

country is rich in coal, natural gas, gold and silver, too. It holds one of

the first places in the world for the production of coal, iron, oil,

natural gas.

Such industries as machine-building, ship-building are highly developed in

the country.

American agriculture produces a lot of food products: grain, fruit,


The USA is a federal republic, consisting of fifty states. Each of these

states has its own government. Congress is the American Parliament which

consists of two Chambers.

The president is the head of the state and the government. He is elected

for four years.


New Zealand is a very interesting country. It has got total area of

269,000 square kilometers. It is situated to south-east of Australia in the

Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main islands (North Island and South

Island) and some smaller ones. Nearly 3.5 million people live in the

country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. It is a financial centre

too. The city was founded in 1840 and has been the capital since 1865. The

official language Is English.

The climate of New Zealand is moist. New Zealand is rich in minerals.

There are some main industries in the country, for example, iron and steel

industry. The country has gas and petroleum. There are many mountains in

New Zealand. The highest is Mount Cook (3,764 metres or 12,349 feet).

There are many rivers and lakes in the country. The chief rivers are the

Waikato and the Wairu. You have heard about the native animals in the

country. One of them is the kiwi. This interesting bird lives in the wet

parts of the thick bushes. In the day-time the bird does not go out. It

comes out only at night to find food. Kiwis cannot fly. Many years ago

kiwis were hunted for food. Now the government does not permit the hunting

the kiwis. The kiwi is now the symbol of New Zealand people. Small children

are often called kiwis.

New Zealand is independent state, but formerly it is a part of the British

Empire. The head of the state is the Queen. New Zealand is self-governing

state. The Parliament consists of one House only, the House of

Representatives. The Prime Minister is the head of the government.

New Zealand has got heavy industry. There are many plants in the country.

Paper and rubber industries are developed too. New Zealand exports wool,

meat, butter.

There are some big cities such as Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Dune-

din, Nelson. Auckland and Wellington are the main ports of the country.

There are some educational and cultural institutions in Wellington. They

are the University of New Zealand, Victoria University College and others.

Victoria University was established in 1897.

New Zealand is a very interesting and beautiful country.


The Commonwealth of Australia is a federal state. It has got six states:

New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia,

Tasmania and two internal territories. The official language is English.

Australia is situated in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean.

The area of this country has got 7,687,000 square kilometers. Australia is

the largest island in the world and it is the smallest continent. The Dutch

were the first Europeans to visit Australia. In 1770 the English captain

James Cook discovered the east coast of Australia.

Nearly 20 million people live in Australia.

Australia's climate is dry and warm. Australia is situated in the southern

hemisphere and that's why there is summer, when we have winter and there is

winter, when we have summer. It is interesting to know that January is the

hottest month in Australia.

Australia is separated from many countries. The animals in Australia have

a lot of original, and they are interesting, for example, dingoes (wild

dogs), koala bears, kangaroos.

The kangaroo and koala have got the pouch in which they carry their cubs.

There are many birds in the country, too. One can see parrots and

cockatoos. The emu is the most interesting bird in Australia. It is big and

can't fly.

There are many rivers and lakes in the country.

Australia is an industrial country. It has coal, nickel, zinc, gold.

Several factories and plants work in the country. Australia is one of the

most important producers of metals and minerals. It exports wool

production, meat, fruit, sugar.

The capital of the country is Canberra. The city became the capital in

1927. Federal Government works in Canberra in the government buildings. It

is interest

ing to know that there are no industrial plants in Canberra.

The population of Canberra is about 300,000 people.

There are many sights in the city. They are the Building of the Australian

Academy of Sciences, the Australian National University and others. There

are two big industrial cities in Australia: Sydney and Melbourne.

The habited part of the country is situated near ocean. Melbourne, Sydney,

Brisbane and others are the ports of the country.

Australia is a part of the British Empire. Formerly the head of the state

is the Queen, but in fact Australia is independent, self-governing state.

The Parliament consists of two Houses.

There are many universities, theatres and museums in Australia.


All people have problems. Some of them have many problems, the others have

one or two problems only.

Young people have as many problems as the grown-ups. It is possible to

solve some problems but sometimes we can not solve this or that problem.

The first problem is to choose a good friend. I know the proverb "A friend

in need is a friend indeed." I agree with it, that's why I try to make

friends with gay and true persons.

I want to have a friend who understands me. It will be simple and

interesting to speak to him or her.

I think that young people have problems with their parents. What are they?

Sometimes we have different tastes. I like the proverb "There is no

accounting for tastes." For example, I go to the shops with my mother. She

likes this dress but I like that one. My mother wants me to buy this dress.

But I am sure, that dress is much to my taste.

My parents want me to be a teacher as they are skilled teachers but I

have a taste for music, and my dream is to be a composer.

Where can we go? What can we do if we have free time? My friend Nastya

lives in the village. Her village is far from Moscow. It takes her three

hours to go to Moscow. She says that there is nowhere to go and there is

nothing to do in her village. There are no clubs, museums, cinemas, parks

there. If she wants to go to Moscow it'll take her a lot of money. She

can't afford it.

It is a problem to get a good education.

It is necessary to pay for a good education. I think it is difficult to

learn English, for example, without additional classes.

I can't enter the Institute without good knowledge. To get it it is

necessary to pay for it and have heavy expenses.

Many good teachers leave schools because they haven't got enough money.

Persons without special experience can't teach the pupils well.

I am sure that all teenagers want to have a lot of money to dress well, to

go to the theatres, to visit foreign countries, ito eat what they want, to

buy books-How can they solve all these problems?

They have to earn money. I think it is possible to do it. Some boys wash

cars, the others sell newspapers, some of my friends help old persons. Many

of my friends have load of care.

We have some problems but we are sure that we solve them in a proper way.

I think that the young people in other countries have many problems too. I

have a pen-friend in Italy. He usually writes that his parents make him to

do a lot of house-work. It is stange for us, but my friend Jack from London

has his biggest problem — his freckles.


My name is Kostya. My surname is Laznev. I was born in Moscow on the 23rd

of June in 1981. I am a tall thin boy. My hair is dark and short. My face

is oval, my nose is straight. My eyes are large and brown. My friends say

that I am a good-looking boy. I like to dress well. I usually wear black

trousers, light shirts, clean boots.

I have a dream to enter the Institute.

I worked hard at school. We studied many subjects such as History,

Russian, Physics, Geography and others. I was fond of English and Physics.

And I was good at them.

I think that I am honest, serious and polite.

I want to get a good education and find an interesting and useful work. I

have a hobby. I like to sing songs. My father likes to sing songs too. He

Страницы: 1, 2

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.