–ефераты. “емы к зачЄту по англ.€зыку (15 ма€ 2007г.)

“емы к зачЄту по англ.€зыку (15 ма€ 2007г.)

“емы к зачЄту по англ.€зыку (15 ма€ 2007г.):

1. Renaissance.

2. William Shakespeare.

3. Shakespeare\'s works and Hamlet\'s soliloguy.

4. Enlightment.

5. Daniel Defoe.

6. УRobinson CrusoeФ.

7. Jonathan Swift.

8. УGulliver\'s TravelsФ.

9. Robert Burns.

1.The Renaissance.

The Renaissance or the revival of learning was the period then european

culture was at it\'s high. It lasted from the 14\'th centure till 17\'th

centure, and was coursed by complex economic situation and social

conditions. The feudal system was been shuttled by the bourgeoisie, thich

was getting stronger and stronger. It was more profitable to unite under a

single rouler. Absolute monacy came into being. This lead to the forming

of nations and the true sense of the world. New social and economic

conditions called for the new ideology, because the catholic dogmas didn\'t

correspond to the new trend of life. For this reason in many european

countries the protestant religion sprend up and national churches were


Instead of the blind face ordered by the catholic then appeared a new

outlook which was called humanism. The time demanded positive recional

knowledge and this demand was supplied: in astronomy by Copernicus, in

philosophy by Tomas More, in geography by Columbus, Vaska de Gama and

others. Leonardo de Vinci was force a new feory of art: УIt was the

greatest progressive revolution that mankind have so far experience, a

time, thich called for УGiantsФ and produced Giants in power and thought,

passion and character in universality and language.Ф

An example of a typical men of the Renaissance period was: the famous

Englishmen sir Walter Raleigh, he was a soldier, sailor, explorer, pirate,

coloniser, historian, thilosother and a poet. He was much interested in

science and literature. He wrote works of geography and lead expedition to

South America. He was an outstanding poet. His poems are full of profound

wisdom, written with great elegance and salacity of style. He organised of

УacademyФ. Christother Marlowe the greatest dramatist (before Shakespear).

But the most important of most this writer and one of the greatest men of

this period was sir Thomas More.

Thomas More.

He came into great favour and made a repid carrier as a statesmen, at the

same time writing works of a political, philosophical and historical

character. His most famous book is УUtopieФ. УUtopieФ - means Уno place,

no thereФ. The work is writing in latin and devided into two books. Thomas

More was the first writer in Europe to formulate communist principals as a

bases of society.

The Renaisense in England.

The prideses of Shakespeare.

The most brilliant period of English literature was in the second half of

the 16\'th and begining of 17\'th centure.Sometimes it\'s called УElizabethen

ageФ after quen Elizabeth 5. England had become a geat world power. It had

established wide commercial contact with countries And rich trading

company had been organaized. The english people were now a great nation

and the english language inriched was now not unlike the language of

Chaucer. Many famous poetical and prose works appeared. Among those who

inriched the literary haritage of this period ere sir Philip Sydney,

Adnond Spenser and Christother Marlowe. There were fine works of poetry

and prose in the Elizabethen age but the greatest hight\'s of literature of

this period were riached in drama.

2. Life of Shakespeare.

The great poet and dramatist William Shakespeare is often called by his

people УOur National BardФ, УThe Immortal. Poet of natureФ and УThe Great

UnknownФ. More than two hundred contemporary references to Shakespeare

have been located amoung church records, legal records, documents in the

Public Record Office, and miscellaneous repositories. When these owe

assembled, we have at least the sceleton out line of his life, begining

with his baptist on April 26, 1564, in Trinity Churche, Stratford-on-Avon,

and ending with his burial there on April 25, 1616. Shakespeare native

place was Sratford-on-Avon, a little town in Warwickshive, which is

generally described as beign in the middle of England.

Shakespeare\'s father, John, was a prosperious glove maker of Stratford

who, after holding minor municipal offices, was elected high bailiff of

Stratford. Shakespeare\'s mother Mary Arden, came from an affluent family

of landowners.

Shakespeare probably recieved his early education at the exellent

Stratford Grammar School, supervised by an Oxford graduate, where he would

have learned Latin smattering of Greek.

In 1582 Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who lived in a neighboring

hamlet. The first child born to Ann and William was their daughter

Susanna. In about two years Ann bore him twins a boy and a girl, Hamlet

and Jidith.

Then life in Stratford became intolerable for William Shakespeare and he

dicided to go to London and began a theatrical career. Shakespeare major

activity lay in the field of drama. He became a full shaveholder in his

acting company, he was partowner of Уthe GlobeФ theatre and later of Уthe

BlackfriarsФ theatre, and in 1597 he purchased property in Strarford.

Including new place, one of the largest houses in the town. He probably

refired there about 1610, travelling of London when necessary to take cave

of his theatrical business. In all, 154 sonnets seguence. The sonnets were

probably written in the 1590 but were first published in 1609.

3. Shakespeare\'s works.

Shakespeare\'s literary work is usually divided into three periods. The

first period of his creative work falls between 1590 and 1600.

Shakespeare\'s comedies belong to the first period of his creativ work.

They all are written in his playfull manner and and in the brilliant

poetry that conveys the spectator to Italy. Some of the first plays of the

first period are: УRichard 3Ф (1592), УThe comedy of errorsФ (1592),

УRomeo and JulietФ (1594), УJulius CaesarФ (1599), УAs you like itФ

(1599), 1600 - УTwelth nightФ. Shakespe-are\'s poems are also attributed to

the first period, УVenus and AdonisФ and УLucreceФ, and 154 sonnets.

УVenus and AdonisФ was the first of Shakespeare\'s works that came off the

press. The second period of Shakespeare\'s creative work during from 1600

to 1608. His famous tragedies appeared at this time. In the plays of this

period the dramatist reaches his full maturity. He presents great humans

problems. His tragedies and historical plays made Shakespeare the greatest

humanist of the English Renaissanse. Some plays of the second period: 1601

- УHamletФ, 1604 - УOthelloФ.

Shakespeare\'s plays of the third period are called the УRomantic dramasФ.

There is no tragic tension in these plays. This period lasted from 1609

till 1612.

1609 - УCymbelineФ, 1610 - УThe Winters TaleФ, 1612 - УHenry 8Ф.

Hamlet\'s soliloguy.

To be, or not to be, that is the question:

Whether tis nobler in the mind to sufler.

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

And by opposing and then. To die, to sleep -

No more, and by a sleep to say we end

The heart - ache, and the thousand natural shocks

That flesh is hear to; `tis a consummation

Devoutly to be wished. To die to sleep -

To sleep! Perchance to dream! Ay, there\'s the rub

For in that sleep of death what dreams may comes,

When we have shuflled off this mortal coil

Must give pause - there\'s the respect

That makes calimity of so long life.

4. The Enlightment.

The history of England and second part of the 17\'th centure, and during

the 18\'th centure was marked by British colonial, expression and struggle

for the leading role in cowers. The writters and philosofists of this age

protested against the sovivals of feodalizm in thich they saw the main

evil of this time. Man they thought was vertains by nature and wise was

duty ignorence to they started a pubic movement for enlighting the people.

This movement was called Уthe enlightmentФ. The enlighters belived in the

power of reason and the period was also called Уthe age of reasonФ. This

period saw a remarkable rise in literature. English literature of this

period may be characterise by the following features: 1.The rise of the

political pamphlets and issue. The novell became the leading genre. 2. The

prose style became clever gracefull and polished. 3. The hero of the

novell was no longer a prince but a representative of the middle class. 4.

Literature became very instructive.

The literature of this age may be divided into 3 periods:

The 1\'st period is caracterised by classisizm in poetry. The greatest

follower of the classical style was Alexander Pope. There appeared the

first realistic novels written by Defoe and Swift.

The 2\'nd peiod saw the development of the realistic social novel,

represen-tive by Richardson, Fielding and others.

The 3\'rd period is marked by the appiriense of a new trends:

sentimenta-lizm. Typefed by the works of Goldsmith and Stern. This period

also saw the rise of the realistic drama (R. Sheridan).

5. Daniel Defoe.

DD was the founder of the realistic novel. He was also a brilliant

journa-list and in many ways the father of modern English periodicals. He

founded and paved the way for many magazines ( УThe RevueФ, УThe


DD was born in London, his father a butcher, was wealthy enough to give

his sone a good education. D was to become a prist, but it was his

cheariched desire to become wealthy. His wished was never fullfield. D was

banckrote several times. He was always in deep debt. The inly branch of

business in which he proved succesful was journalism and literature. When

D was about 23 he started writting pamphlets on question of the hour. He

started writting pamphlets prassing King William 3, who was supported by

the whig party. D wrote a setire in woth. No matter in whose defends his

brilliant pamphlets were written they are irony was so subtle, that the

enemy didn\'t understand it at first. But as soon as his enemy realised the

real character of the pamphlets D was sentensed to 7 years inprisonment.

It was a cruel punishment, and when the came for him to be set free people

carried him on their shoulders.. This was the climax of his political

career and the end of it. In 1719, he tried his hand at another kind of

literature - fiction, and wrote the novel he is now best known: УRobison

CrusoeФ. After the book was published, D became famous and rich and was

able to pay his creditors in full. Other novels which D were also very

much talked about during his lifetime, but we do not hear much about them

now. For example УCaptain SingletonФ(1720), УMoll FlandersФ(1722).

6. Robinson Crusoe.

Books about voyages and new discoveries were very popular in the first

quater of the 18\'th centure and many stories of this then had been written

but while Defoe was busy with politics he didn\'t think of also trying his

hand at it. However one story in in Steel magasine attracted his


It was about Scotish sailor, who lived quite alone 4 years and 4 month on

a desert island. Defoe\'s hero, R.C., however spend 26 years on a desert

island. The novel was a prase tohuman labour and the triumph the men over

the nature. Labour and fortitude help Robinson to endure hardships. They

save him from dispair. The very process of hardwork gives his

satisfaction. R\'s most characteristic tract is his optimism. His guiding

prencipal in life was: Уnever said dieФ and Уin trouble to be troubles is

to have your trouble double.Ф

7. Jonathan Swift.


JS was the greatest of English satiriste. His better satire at the

contempro-rary social order in jeneral and an the policy of English

government towards in particular. That\'s why the Irish people considered

Swift the champion in the struggle for the wealthy and freedom of their


JS was born in Dublin, but he came from English family. His father died at

the age of 25, liaving his wife and daughter penuiless. His son was born

seven month later after his death. The boy knew little of his mother

chearch. He hardly ever saw her, during his childhood. J was supported by

his uncle Godwin. At the age of 6 he was send to school, which he left at

14. When he entered a college in Dublin and got his bacheloris degree in


8. Gulliver\'s Travels.

In 1726 Swift\'s masterpiece УGulliver\'s TravelsФ appeared. This work made

a great sensation in Ireland as well as in England, it equally strirred

the interests of those in politics as well as the readers of novels.

In this work Swift intended to satirise the evils of the existing society

in the form of fictions travels. It tells of the adventures of ship

surgeon, as related by himself and divided into four parts of four


1. A voyage to Liliput.

2. A voyage to Brobdignag.

3. A voyage to Laputa.

4. A voyage to the country of Houyhnhnms.

1. The first voyage was to a strange country Lilliput. As the result of a

shipwreck Gulliver finds himself in a country, inhabited by a race of

people about six inches high. Everything else in this country is on a

correspondent scale. Swift meant this small country with it\'s shallow

interest, corrupted laws and evil customs to symbolize the England of the

18\'th centure, the court with it\'s atmosphere of hostility, hypocrizy and

flattery where the author felt as lonely as his hero when among the


2. Before long Gulliver undertakes another voyage. The ship anchors near

the land of the giants to take in a supply of water. While on shore

Gulliver is captured by the giants. They are good-natured creatures and

treat Gulliver kindly, though they are amused by his small size and look

upon him as a plaything.

Brobdingnag is an expression of Swift\'s desire to find the ideal and

escape from the disgusting world of the Liliputians. The author idealizes

an agricultural country ruled by ideal monarch. Swift creates such a

monarch in the king of Brobdingnag. He is clever, honest and kind to his

people. He hates wars and wants to make his people happy.

3. The third voyage is to Laputa, a flying island Laputa. Swift\'s

imagination the bitterness of his satire reach their climax in the third

part where he shows the academy of sciences in Laputa (the author touches

upon all the existing sciences). It is easy enough to understand that in

ridiculing the academy of Laputa. Swift ridicults the scientists of the

18\'th century. The scientists are shut in their chambers isolated from all

the world.

3. In the 4\'th part Swift describes Gulliver\'s adventures at the

Heuyhnhnms - a ideal land where were is neither sickness, dishonesty, non

any of the frivo-lities of human scociety. The human race ocupies a

position of servility there and a noble race of horces rules the country

by reason and justice.

УGulliver\'s travels was one of the greatest works of the period of the

Enlightment in world literature. Swift\'s democratic ideas expressed in the

book had a great influence on the English writers who came after Swift.

9. Robert Burns.

RB is the national poet of Scotland. Every year on his bithday scotsmen

all over the world gather together for a traditional celebration in which

his memory is glorified,his poems are recited and his song are sung. Burns

poetry is loved and enjoied by all his countrymen. They love Burns for the

generosity and kindness of his nature, for his patriotism and

truthfulness. In his poems he sang the pride and dignity of the Scotish


Burns sang the beauty and the glory of his native land. He gloryfield true

love and friendship.

Burns was born in Alloway, near Ayr, on the 25 of January, 1759. His

father was a hard-working man and he took great trouble to give his family

all the education he could.

When Robert was 6, he was send to a school at Alloway Miln. Robert were

given a good knowledge of English.

For some years Burns worked on the family farm. They lived very poor.

Burns wrote his first poem at the age of 14. And from then till his death

his poems and songs came out, giving delight and joy to the himself, his

countrymen and all the world around. Burns worked with his father and

brothers. The death of his father in 1784 left Burns free to chose his own

kind of life, but it also gave him new resposobilities as head of the

family. As a farmer he was unsuccessful and moved to other place - Burns

published his poems in Kilmarnock in 1786. The success was great.

Burns wrote many poems and songs. After a short illness he died on 21\'st

July, 1796. Millions of people all over the world highly esteem and love

Burns poems.

S. Marshak, a great soviet poet, brought Burns to russian people throught

his fine translate.

My Heart\'s in the Highlands.

My heart\'s in the Highlands, my heart is not here;

My heart\'s in the Highkands, a chasing the deer;

A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe -

My heart in the Highlands wherever I go.

Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North,

The birthplace of valour, the country of worth:

Wherever I wander, wherever I rove,

The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.

Farewell to the mountains high cover\'d with snow;

Farewell to the straths and green valleys below;

Farewell to the forests and wild-handing woods;

Farewell to the torrents and loud pouring floods.

My heart\'s in the Highlands, my heart is not here;

My heart\'s in the Highkands, a chasing the deer;

A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe -

My heart in the Highlands wherever I go.

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