Рефераты. Темы по английскому языку (English topics)

Темы по английскому языку (English topics)

1. I was born in Russia and I’m proud of this.

I can say that I truly love my motherland. But nowadays a lot of people

leave our country and move to the other ones: America, United Kingdom,

Israel e.t.c.

I don’t think that they are right. I think that no matter how difficult

is the situation in our country at present, every citizen of Russia must

remember about the gloriuos history, wonderfull culture and traditions of


A lot of the world-famous scientists – Lomonosov, Mendeleev, Timiryasev,

Sechenov etc. -were born in Russia. The first sputnik and space ship

started from Russia. A lot of discoveries and inventions in chemistry,

geography, physics, biology and medicine were made by russian scientists.

The greatest poets, writers and composers known all over the world were

also born in our country - Pushkin, Lermontov, Tolstoy, Gogol, Dostoevski,

Griboedov, Tchaikovski, Rashmaninov and many others.

Russia won many biggest wars in History. Although we lost 29

millions people in Second World War, Russian soldiers conquered Berlin and

saved the world from Fascism.

We must know our history and remember our ancestors. I believe that Russia

will become the strongest and richest country in sprite of all the


2. I am going to tell you about Moscow.

Moscow, the capital of Russia, is one of the largest the most beautiful

cities in the world. The total area of the city is about 900 square

kilometers. About 10 million people live in the city. Moscow was founded in

1147 by prince Yuri Dolgoruky.

Nowadays it is a political, commercial and cultural center of our

country. It is also an industrial center with highly developed

engineering, electric, light and chemical industries.

The heart of Moscow, the central and one of the most beautiful places

is the Red Square. Here one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil, the

monument to Minin and Pozharsky, the Kremlin, the History museum and take a

walk in the Alexandrovsky garden.

Some skyscrapers decorate Moscow, including the Moscow State University,

the oldest university in Russia that was founded in 18th century by

Lomonosov. I can be said that Moscow is a city of students. There are over

80 higher educational institutes in it.

The are more then 80 museums in Moscow. The largest and the most famous

ones are the Pushkin museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov art


Moscow is also famous for it’s theaters. The best-known of them is the

Bolshoi thetre, the Moscow drama thetre ( MHAT), Sovremennik and Lenkom.

There are many parks and gardens in Moscow, that’s why its citizen like to

spend their free time out home. The most beautiful and the lagest ones are

the Gorky Park and the Poklonnaya Gora.

Moscow is a scientific center of our country. The Academy of

scientists of Russia, the oldest university, many scientific institutes are

located in Moscow.

3. There is a a lot of english-speaking countries in the world, for

example: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United

States of America, Australia and New Zealand. English is used as one of the

official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish

Republic. It’s also spoken as a second language by people in many parts of

Asia and Africa.

But I would like to tell you about the USA.

The United States of America is located in the North

America continent. It is one of the largest countries in the world. The

population of the USA is about 250 million people. The administrative units

of the USA are called states. There are 50 of them and the largest of the

America’s states is Alaska. The capital of the country is Washington DC (

the District of Columbia). It was chosen as a permanent site for the

nation’s capital in December 1800 by George Washington. The largest and the

most imporatnt cities of the USA are New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Los

Angeles and Boston. There are many tall buildings in them that really

scrape the sky, that’s why they are called skyscrapers.

Among the most famous sites of interest are the Great Lakes,

Niagara falls, the Golden Gate bridge in San Francisco and other. There are

many beautiful National parks and protected areas of wilderness in


The USA is a highly developed country. It is rich in such natural resourses

as coal, oil, iron and natural gas. On the other hand, it exports a lot of

raw materials, industrials and agricultural products.

By constitutional regime the United States of America is a federal

republic. The American parliament ( called Congress ) has two chambers :

the House of Representative and the Senate. The head of the State is the

president, who is elected for four years and whose powers are limited by

the Constitution. Now the President of the USA is George Bush Junior.

The flag of the country has 13 red and white stripes representing the

original 13 states and 50 stars - for each of the state at present.

4. I was born in Buryatia that is situated in the Eastern part of

Siberia and I can say that my native region is very beautiful.

There are a lot of large beautiful forests there, where one can see many

kinds of different plants and animals. Cedar, larch, firtree, birch, pine

and many other trees grow in our woods, as well as various kinds of

berries, like cranberry, great bilberry, raspberry and the most popular one

- foxberry. In august people begin to pick berries for selling and for


We have such kinds of animals like bear, dear, elk, fox, wolf, and, of

course, sable, that has very reach and beautiful fur, that’s why poachers

kill it. Nowadays poaching is encreasing and it is one of the biggest

problem for our region.

The most popular sight in Buryatia is lake Baikal, that attracts tourists

from all the parts of the world. Baikal is the biggest freshwater lake on

the planet and the deepest one. There are a lot of fish in the lake, the

most popular of which are pike, grayling, whitefish and sturgeon. Only in

Baikal one can see such kind of fish as omoul and such specie of animal

as nerpa.

Every year a lot of tourists from different foreign countries come to

Buryatia. People come to see all these reaches of nature and to enjoy this

perfect fresh air, but we don’t understand what treasures possess and

don^t spare them. Some people often leave rubbish in forests and on the

coast-line of Baikal in summer and throw empty bottles in its watter, and

make fires. If we don^t change our behaviour, very soon we can loose our

wonderful nature forever.

5. When I was a child I didn^t have much problems, and the ones that I

had were very lunimportant and stupid.

As I became more adult I understood that my life consists of different

kinds of problems – personal and global.

The first personal problem for me now is to choose the way of my

future life, that is, to realise what I want to be and what profession I

want to have. Thats why I should consider in what institute I will get my

education after graduating from the school. What my future life will be

depends on the answer to this question.

Sometimes I don^t have enough time and energy to do all my home work.

It is a big problem too, as it doesn^t let me study better.

Every time I hear from TV bad news about our country. It is getting on

my nerves. Altough it isn^t my personal problem, it’s very unpleasant to

hear such things about your home country that you love.

The biggest problem nowadays is drugs. There are very many teenagers

now, who sell it and buy it. They leave school and drop heir studies and

degrade and become thieves and bandits.

( Many times they told me to give them money. I was compelled to fight with

them. But they are weak and each time they loose the battle and run away.)

Drugs endanger the future of our country and our town. It is a very big

menace for all the people.

So, as every teenager I do have problems, but I don^t let myself give in /

surrender ( сдаться ) and always try to fight them.

6. Now I want to tell you a few words about my family. My family is not

very large, there are 5 members – my parents, my sister, grandmother and me

First of all I’d like to speak of my parents. My mother is a speech

therapist by profession, but now she helps my father in his work. My

father is a director of a restaurant and the brewery in our town.

My parents are hard-working people. My mother keeps house and takes care

of us. She is very good at cooking and she^s got golden hands. We try to

help her with the housework; for example we wash the dishes, go shopping

and tide our flat.

My grandmother is a very old woman. She is 79 years old. She doesn^t

live with us, but we come tosee her every day to take care of her. We

love our granny very much.

My sister Yana is 21. She studies in Moscow. This year she is

graduating from the University. She will be a lawyer but she can also

work as a translator from English and French languages because she knows

them quite well.

We all like to spend our time together. Sometimes we stay at home and

watch TV or just talk, and on weekends we go out of town to Baikal or to

visit our friends. We also like tom invite people to us and I can say that

every guest who comes to us, goes back smily and in a good mood, because

my parents are very hospitable and nice people.

7. When one finishes school one understands that its the time to choose

a future profession and the way his life will be. It’s not easy to make

a right choice of a job. It’s very important question for me - what I

want to be when I leave school . A few years ago it was to make up my mind

and choose one of the hundreds jobs. As a child I wanted to become an

inventor or a scientist to invent different things to make peoples life

better and more comfortable.

Then I decided to become an officer of FSS (ФСБ in Russian) , then a


But all of these ambitions are in the past now. I have considered this

question for a long time and decided that the profession that siuts me most

is a manager. It is very popular and demanded

( требуемая ) nowadays, just like a profession of lawyer or economist. I

think that management coresponds my personal qualities because I like to

communicate with people and to be a leader if its necessary.

I also want to say that the profession should be chosen according to the

character and preferencies of a person. Children must choose their

profession themselves because they must love the things they do, believe

that people need them and their job brings them peasure, not just money.

8. People all over the world like doing sports because it makes them

healthier, keeps them fit and it is just a great passing of time.

Every sports makes the one who is doing it you stronger, harder improves

his reaction and qiuckness. What is more, some sports help to develope

special physical skills and train particular groups of muscles. For

example: skies, swimming and jogging helps to strengthen make legs and

hands and trains one^s breath. Peole going in for bodybuilding can lift

up large weights and their bodies become beautiful and relief. Team games

like football, basketball, volleyball and hockey make you well-

coordinated, quick and dexterious ( проворный) and teach how to cooperate

wth the other players in order to win a game. Fighting sports, especially

Eastern ones, like carate, aikido, oushou, help to develope all aspects of

fitness – strength, quick reaction, dexterity, and spirit as well, because

each of them based on philosophy. To my mind, fighting arts are the best


For me sports is a hobby. I do some exercises every day, because it

keeps me in a good form and makes me stronger. When you begin to go in for

sports you can give up it after some weeks, because it is not easy to do

hard exercises every day. But you must make yourself doing it, or you will

not have any results. For example, if one wants to make his muscles grow

he must keep on working very hard and consistently (последовательно ),

from day to day to get some results.

As a child I went to many sport clubs and gave up it after half a

year, but I^ve always done something to keep fit. Since last summer I do

weight-lifting and push-up exercises to develope my muscles 5 times a

week. Sometimes I go jogging with my father. I like it because it makes me

strong and more active.

The ancient Greeks said there is a healthy spirit in a healthy body. I

think thats true and every man, who respects himself must go in for sports.

It is the way for healthy and long life.

9. More and more people realize that every educated person should know at

least one foreign language.

The most popular and wide-spread ( распространенный ) language in the world

now is English.

Spanish, French, German languages are also popular, but as much as English,

because it is more difficult to learn them – because of their grammar and

lexiks. They are spoken mostly in Europe and in the former colonies of

France and Spain in Latin America and Africa.

English is spoken by more than 350 million people .It’s the language of

aprogressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, commerce

and business. It’s the universal language of international aviation,

shipping and sports. It is also the major language of diplomacy.

Hundreds and hundreds of books, magazines and newspapers are printed in

English and all over the world. 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the

world’s telephone calls are made in English. Half of the world’s scientific

literature is written in English too.

In Russia English is very popular : it is studied at schools, colleges,

universities, and sometimes even at nursery schools. All the qualified

specialists nowadays must know English.

Learning a foreign language is not an easy thing. It is a long and slow

process that takes a lot of time and patience. But to know languages today

is absolutely necessary for everyone.

I^ve studied English for about 2 years by now and I^m very glad to do this

because I have always been interested in foreign countries, their culture

and traditions.

10. Nowadays a lot of people in the world like to travel. The level of the

technical deveplopment allows to voyage practically to any country of

the world in the shortest time.

People travel by different means of conveyance, even on foot. But

everybody likes to go to different places and see various sites of


Some Russian tourists prefer to trip to foreign countries. I understand

them, because it’s always interesting to visit a place where you have

never been and to learn something new about the other nations, their

culture and traditions, to see architectural monuments and famous

masterpieces with your own eyes.

Every place on the Earth has its own sights, flaura and fauna and

climate, which makes visiting it yet more interesting. So one of the main

reasons for travaling is to get new experience and impressions.

To my mind, our country has a lot of places that are worth seeing.

Although the climate of Russia sometimes is not very favourable, our

forests are the largest in the world and there are lots of rare species

animals and plants there. The lakes, rivers and seas in our contry are

also very beautiful and picturesque ( живописный ), for example our lake

Baikal, the deepest and the most pure lake in the world and the only place

on the planet where you can find such a fish as Omoul.

The territory of our country is big enough and our historical and

cltural heritage is rich enough to satisfy all the tastes and wishes of

travellers. That is why the majority of the Russian tourists prefer to

travel in our country. Some of them travel only for hunting and fishing,

the others change places simply to spend their free time.

As for me I like to travel throughout Russia, to learn more about

my motherland.

My favorite place for having rest are the surroundings ( окрестности ) of

our freshwater lake Baikal, where the nature is so beautiful and calm and

the air is so fresh. I also like to travel to the Black Sea where the

climate is so warm and mild and where there is always plenty of fruits in


11. The word «Ecology» is very popular word today. But what does it mean?

Ecology is a science which studies relationships between all forms of life

on our planet and the environment. This word came from the Greek «oikos»

which means «home». This idea of home includes our whole planet and its

population, nature, animals, birds, fish, insects and all other living

beings, as well as the atmosphere around our planet.

Ecology has become such an imporatnt science because with the progress of

civilisation and technical develpment the environment on the Earth gets

more and more poluted and the natural resourses – like drinking water,

fossils ( полезные ископаемые), forests etc. get exhausted ( истощаются).

For example, every year the atmosphere is polluted by 100 tons of

industrial dust and other harmful substances.

Big cities suffer from smog from large factories. Cars with their engines

have become the main source of pollution in industrial countries. The

forests Africa, South America and Asia are cut down for the needs of

industries in Europe and the USA. As a result some species of animals,

birds, fish and plants have disappeared and keep disappearing. Rivers and

lakes dry up. One of the most known examples is the Aral Sea, which has

become much smaller due to men’s activity.

The pollution of the air and of the world’s oceans and the thinning of the

ozone layer nowadays are the main problems arising from man’s careless

Страницы: 1, 2

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.