Рефераты. Теоретическая грамматика английского языка

Теоретическая грамматика английского языка

Grammar&Semantics.Gr. is semantically expr. means, expresses diff. sem.

meanings. Gr. is a complex set of semantically charged regularities of

forming utterances of speech from the nominative means of l-ge. Since gr.

forms and regularities are meaningful, the rules of grammar must be stated

semantically, or they must be worded functionally. (ex: inverted w/o, its

meaningful functions – difference between meaningful&marginal idea,

emotive&unemotivemodes of speech, dif. types of style) Gr. elements of l-ge

present a unity of content & expression (or form & meaning).

Syntagmatic & Paradigmatic Relations. Beaudoin de Courtenay (Rus.) &

Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss): showed difference betw. Lingual synchrony

(coexistence of lingual elements) & diachrony (diff. time-periods in the

development of lingual elements as well as l-ge as a whole) & defined l-ge

as a synchronic system of meaningful elements at any stage of its hist.

evolution. Lingual units stand to one another in 2 fundamental types of

relations: syntagmatic & paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations are immediate

linear relations between units in a segmental sequence. Ex: The spaceship

was launched without the help of a booster rocket. Words, word-groups and

morphemes of words are connected syntagmatically. The combination of 2

words or word-groups one of which is modified by the other forms a unit,

which is referred to as a syntactic “syntagma”. Notional syntagmas:

predicative (a subject+predicate), objective (a verb+its object),

attributive (a noun+its attr.), adverbial (verb/adj/adverb+adv.modifier).

The other type of relations, opposed to synt. And called paradigmatic, are

such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where they

co-occur. These intra-systemic relations & dependencies are expressed in

the fact that each lingual unit is included in a set of connections based

on diff. formal and functional properties.

Levels of l-ge. 1) The lowest level – phonemic.Phoneme is not a sign, but a

unit of a l-ge (lacks content). It’s abstract, represents by a sound &

letter. Specific function – differential: phonemes distinguish words &

morphemes as material bodies, changes their meanings.2) Morphemic. Morpheme

is a sign–2 sides; the smallest meaningful part of a word. The smallest -s.

F-tion – significative: m. express the signif. or generalized meaning. M.

is a group of allophones. Ex: roots (can function by themselves-free

morph.) & affixes (suffixes, prefixes & inflections). 3) Lexemic. Lexeme (a

word) in a l-ge performs a nominative (назывная) f-tion, it names objects &

phenomena. 1 morpheme can be 1 word (the smallest). 4) Denotemic. A w-

comb./phrase (denoteme) is a comb. of at least 2 notional w-s connected

semantically. A comb. of a n.word & an aux. element is not a phrase, but

just a gram.form. (ex.has been done). F-tion – polynominative. Phrases name

complicated things & phenom, give add. info. about qualities of objects,

circumstances. Phrases: free (we can choose elements freely) & stable

(phraseological units). 5) Proposemic (a level of a sentence). F-tions: a)

Nominative (names a whole situation or a sit. event) & b) Predicative.

Predication is the connection betw. the subj.& the predicate of a s-ce,

which form a predicative line. Predication is expr. through tense&mood of a

verb. 6) Dictemic – level of topicalization. (Blokh) Unit – dicteme.

Utterance – supra-sentential construction. A dicteme is a comb.of 2/more s-

ces which are united by common topic. Though there may be only 1 s-ce in a

d. f-tions: a) Nominative: names sit./sit.events. b)Predicative (see), c)

F.of topicalozation (тематизир.) - main: each dicteme presents a separate

topic in a continual text, d) Stylistic (to expr.the attitude of the


The word & the morpheme. In studying the moroheme we study the word in the

necess.details of its composition&f-tions. The word is a basic nominative

unit. Without words – no com-tion even in thought. Bloomfield:

phoneme&morpheme are basic categories of ling.discription. M. – minimal

meaningful segment. M.is a meaningful segmental component of the word; the

m.is formed by phonemes. The word is a nominative unit of of l-ge built up

by morphemes & indivisible into smaller segments as regards its nominative

f-tion. The morphol.system of l-ge reveals its properties through the

morphemic str-re of words.

Traditional (functional) class-tion of morphemes. Henry Sweet, Smirnitsky.

Study of morph.str-re in traditional gr. - 2 criteria.1) Positional: the

analysis of the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the

central ones. 2) Semantic (functional): involves the study of the

correlative contribution of the morpheme to the general meaning of the

word. M-s at the upper level are divided into root & affixal (lex.&gram.).A

lot of varieties of morphemic composition of modern E.words,but preferable

model is: prefix+root+lexical suffix+gram.suffix. Roots: concrete,

“material” part of the meaning of the word, affixes – specificational part

of the meaning. Specifications: of lexico-semantic & grammatico-semantic

character. Or 3 criteria: a) semantic properties of words (meaning), b)

formal properties (form), c) functional (syntactic f-tion).

Distributional class-tion of morphemes. In the distrib.analysis 3 main

types of distribution are discrimin.: contrastive distr., non-contrastive

distr., and complementary distr. Contr.& non-contr.distr.concern identical

environments of different morphs. (Morph is combination of phones that has

a meaning, it happens only once) The morphs are said to be in contrastive

distr. if their meanings (f-tions) are different; such morphs constitute

dofferent morphemes. Ex: returned/returning/returns. The morphs are in non-

contrastive d. if their mean.(f-tions) are identical; such morphs

constitute “free variants” of the same morpheme. Ex: suffixes –ed & -t

(learned/learnt), -s & -i (genies/genii). As for complementary distr., it

concerns diff.environments of formally diff.morphs which fulfill one & the

same f-tion; such morphs are termed “allo-morphs”. Ex: a few allomorphs of

the plural suffix: -en (children), -s (toys), -a (data), -es (crises), -I

(genii), zero (trout-trout). The application of distr.analysis to the

morphemic level-> cl-tion of m. on distr.lines. a) free & bound m., b)

overt & covert m., c) additive & replacive m., d) continuous & discontin.m,

e) segmental & supra-segmental m.

Synthetical & Analytical forms in Grammar. Gr.opposition – correlation of

gr.forms expressing a categorical gram. meaning based on common &

differential features of these forms. The means used for building up member-

forms of categorical oppositions are divided into synthetical & analytical,

and so do the gram.forms. Synthetical – realized by the inner morphemic

composition of the word, while analytical gr.forms are built up by a

combination of 2/more words, one of which is a gram.auxiliary (word-

morpheme), & the other, a word of “substantial” meaning. Synthetical gr.f.

are based on inner inflexion (phonemic (vowel) interchange; non-productive

now, on ancient elements, used in irregular verbs, some nouns-plural),

outer inflection (productive, gram.suffixation: number, case, person-

number, tenseparticipial-gerundial forms, the comparisons), and

suppletivity (non-prod., based on gram.interchange of word roots (be-am-is-

are, go-went, good-better, we-us; +can-be able – broader morphological

interpretation). Analytical (typical of modern E.) – a combination of

aux.word+basic word. “Gramatically idiomatic” combinations (whose relevant

gram.meaning is not dependent on meanings of their component elements taken

apart). But: more, most – unidiomatic

Identification of parts of speech. The words of l-ge, depending on various

formal & semantic features, are divided into grammatically relevant sets or

classes. Traditionally they are called parts of speech (“lexico-gram.”

series of words or categories). Today they are discriminated ac. to 3

criteria: semantic, formal & functional. Semantic (meaning): presupposes

the evaluation of the generalized meaning, characteristic of all words of a

given part of speech. The meaning is understood as “categorical meaning of

the p.of sp.”. Formal (form): provides for the exposition of the specific

inflexional & derivational (word-building) features of all the lexemic

subsets of a part of speech. Functional (function): concerns the syntactic

role of words in the s-ce typical of a part of speech.

Notional parts of speech in English. Acc.to these criteria words on the

upper level are div.into notional (the noun, adj., numeral, pronoun, verb,

adverb), words of complete nominative mean.characterized by self-dependent

f-tions, & functional (the article, prepos., conj., particle, modal verb,

interjection). Noun: 1) meaning-substance (thinfness), 2) the changeable

forms of number & case; specific suff.forms of derivation, 3) the

substantive f-tions in the s-ce (subj., obj., substantival predicate);

prepositional connections; modiication by an adj. Adjective: 1) the

categorical mean. of property (qualitative & relative), 2) forms of degrees

of comparison (for qualitative adj.), spec.suff.forms of deriv., 3) adj.f-

tions (attribute to a noun, adjectival predicate). Numeral: 1) number

(cardinal-порядк. & ordinal-колич.), 2) narrow set of simple numerals,

sp.forms of composition for compound num., sp.forms of deriv.for ordinal

num., 3)f-tions of numerical attr. & numer. substantive. Pronoun:

1)indication (deixis), 2)narrow sets of various status with the

corresponding formal properties of categ.changeability & w-building, 3)the

subst. & adjectival f-tions for dif.sets. Verb: 1)process (finite process &

non-finite pr.), 2)of verbal categories of person, number, tense, aspect,

voice, mood; opposition of finite & non-finite forms, 3)f-tion of the

finite predicate for the finite verb; mixed verbal-other than verbal f-

tions for the non-f.verb. Adverb: 1) secondary property (i.e. of process or

another property), 2)of degrees of comparison for qualitative adverbs;

sp.suffixal forms of derivation; 3) f-tions of various adv. modifiers.

Functional parts of speech.-Words of incomplete nominative meaning & non-

self-dependent, mediary f-tions in the s-ce. Their number is limited.

Article: expresses the specific limitation of the substantive f-tions.

Preposition: expr.the dependencies and interdependencies of substantive

referents. Conjunction: expr. connections of phenomena. Particle: unites

the funct.words of specifying&limiting meaning. Modal verbs: expr.the

attitude of the sp.to the situation. Here belong words of probability

(probably, perhaps), of qualitative evaluation (un/fortunately, luckily),

of affirm. & negation. Interjection: is a signal of emotions.

Syntactic classes of words (Ch.Fries). The syntactic (monofiggerential) cl-

tion of words is based on syntactic featuring of words only. The syntactic

cl-tion of words, in principle, supplements the 3-criteria cl-tion

specifying the syntactic features of parts of speech. For the Rus. l-ge the

basic principles of the syntactic cl-tion of words were outlined in the

works of Peshkovski. In English the syntactico-distributional cl-tion of

words was worked out by Bloomfield & his followers Harris and esp-ly

Ch.Fries. The synt.-distrib. Cl-tion of words is based on the study of

their combinability by means of substitution tests. As a rezult of this

testing, a standart model of 4 main syntactic positions of notional words

was built up. These positions are those of the noun,verb,adj,&adverb.

Pronouns are included into the corresponding positional classes as their

substitutes. Words incapable to occupy the said main syntactic positions

are treated as functional words.

The three-Layer structure of vocabulary (M.Blokh). –cl-tion of the lexicon

presenting some essential generalizations about its str-re. Lexicon is

divided into 2 parts: notional words & f-tional words. The open character

of the notional part & the closed character of the f-tional part have the

status of a formal grammatical feature. Between them there is also an

intermediary field of semi-functional words. 1)The whole of the lexicon is

divided into 3 layers. 2)The 1st(upper) layer, of open character, is formed

by 4 classes of notional words; since these words have full nominative

value,they may be referred to as “names”: respectively, substance-names

(nouns), process-n.(verbs), primary property n.(adj.), secondary property

n. (adverbs); 3) the names are consolidated into an integral system by the

lexical paradigm of nomination-the paradigmatic series whose f-tion is to

form & distribute any given word root among the 4 lexical class-types (p-s

of speech); 4) the 2nd (intermediate) layer of closed char., is formed by

pronominal words or “substitutes of names”; here belong pronouns & replacer

lexemes of all kinds (noun-,verb-,adj-,adv-replacers), w. of broad meaning

(thing, matter etc) & numbers; 5) the 3rd (lower) layer of closed char., is

formed by functional w. proper, or “specifiers of names”: determiners,

prep., conj., particles etc. The f-tion of 2nd & 3rd layers is to organize

together with the categorial means of grammar, the production of speech

utterances out of the direct naming means of l-ge (the 1st layer).

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