Рефераты. Шпаргалки по английскому языку

Шпаргалки по английскому языку

Learning foreign languages. Somebody said: "English is a language that came

from nowhere to conquer the world…" These words are really true and I will

prove it. Foreign languages are absolutely necessary for us nowadays

because of our growing international contacts with all the countries of the


There are many reasons why we begin the study of a foreign language. One of

them is to be able to communicate with other people who use this language.

We may be planning to travel in one or two countries where the language is

spoken. If we know the language of a foreign country, we can talk to its

people and understand what they are saying to us. If we are working in any

branch of science, we naturally wish to read scientific books and magazines

in other languages. Making business nowadays also means knowing foreign

languages because of the growing international business contacts. Knowing

foreign languages helps people of different countries to develop mutual

friendship and understanding. We can also make our intellectual and

cultural horizons wider through contacts with people of another culture. It

is also very interesting to read foreign literature in the original. We can

also read foreign newspapers and magazines and to understand films in

foreign languages without any help.

Learning foreign languages is compulsory in all the secondary and higher

schools in our country. English is a very popular language. People use it

in many parts of the world and there is a lot of business correspondence

and literature in English.

I think, it is very important to know at least one foreign language —

English, German, French, Spanish or any other one. In conclusion I would

like to say that now there are more than 60 countries that speak English as

the dominant or official language. My purpose is to show you why the

English is a world language. The present day world status of English is the

result of two factors: the expansion of British colonial power, which

peaked towards the end of the 19th century, and the emergence of the US as

the leading economic power of the 20th century. English is the chief

language of international business and academic conferences, and the

leading language of international tourism. English is the main language of

popular music, advertising, home computers and video games. Most of the

scientific, technological and academic information in the world is

expressed in English.

Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a

person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person's character,

from his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It's a

wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again

and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings

more exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend. It can be put

aside and taken up again at any moment. There are books which have been our

favorites since childhood. People are fond of reading different kinds of

books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories,

novels, biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and

read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those

who are fond of traveling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond

of history. Some people developed much time to reading books and reading

becomes their free time occupation, their passion. Through out the

centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds and hearts of

people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we can

talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading

books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. The book is the surest

way to bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding,

trust, cooperation and friendship. Books awaken the young reader's

imagination. They develop literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity,

the reader's laugher as well as his tears. They teach the readers to be

truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank, firm, fair and


People reflect their life in art. Real, live art appeals to the heart and

mind of man, to his feelings and ideals and it proclaims life. Art is

truthful only when it serves life, only when the artist hopes to arouse a

warm response in the heart of man. Art belongs to the people. The history

of art from the Renaissance to our days confirms this. There are nearly a

thousand museums in Russia, many of them being world famous. The largest

collection of Russian art is the Tretyakov Art Gallery in Moscow. It is a

real treasury of canvases by prominent Russian painters. It contains

priceless collections of icons, 17-20th centuries paintings and sculptures

and contemporary Russian painting and sculpture. One of the largest and

most remarkable museums of the world is the Hermitage, more than three

hundred halls housing its exhibitions of articles of the greatest artistic

value. The museum's collections now comprise work of various periods in the

development of art, from ancient times up to the present day. Famous

painters from different countries are represented there. The Russian Museum

in St. Petersburg is another picture gallery which contains the richest

collection of Russian paintings of 18-19th centuries and the best

collection of Russian sculpture. In the Pushkin Museum of the Fine Arts in

Moscow the art of the Ancient East and Western Europe is represented. This

museum possesses a unique collection of copies of the finest sculptures of

the old time. It is in this museum that many famous foreign expositions of

the Fine Arts are displayed almost every year. Music plays an important

role in our life. It was born together with people. It reflects the world

around us by means of combination of tones, rhythm and melody. Music can

help to relax and to have a rest; it provokes our deepest emotions and

fills our hearts with kindness, joy and happiness. First musicians used

primitive instruments: whistles, pipes, and drums. Then harps, bagpipes,

flutes, and horns appeared. Nowadays modern musicians use various

instruments: violin, guitars, saxophones, trumpets and pianos. Some people

are fond of classical music, waltz, marches, country-dance, organ, folk,

spiritual music. Others are interested in modern music: jazz, blues, rock,

hard rock, and rap, rave. I like rap music. I admire it. It enriches me. I

hate hard rock. I think it is annoying. I don't understand it. I find it

noisy and dreadful. I am impressed by classical music. When I am in bad

mood I listen to classical music. When I have free time I like to listen to

romantic music. My friends share my tastes in music. I like having

background music while I'm working. I often go to concerts, buy records,

cassettes and CD's. People are fond of traveling. They spend their

holidays traveling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to

learn a lot about people's traditions, to enjoy picturesque places. It is

interesting for them to discover new things, different ways of life, to

meet different people, to try different food. Those who live in the country

like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds

of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the

mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, laying in the sun.

Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures

of everything that interests them - beautiful views of waterfalls, forests,

unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time

of holiday. These are many ways of traveling - by train, by plain, by ship,

on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling

by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also

like traveling by train. I've traveled this way a lot. When you are in the

train you can see the beauty of nature. I envy the tourists because I think

that they study geography traveling and visiting different parts of the

world. They can tell you many things which you didn't know before. They are

interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself. Any kind

of travel helps you to understand many things that you can never see or

learn at home. As for me I'd like to have a coach tour to some foreign

country. Coach tours are planned and I'll have a chance to do a lot of

sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time. |My future profession.

The end of school is the start of our independent life and the beginning of

the most serious examination we have passed. In order to do well at this

examination it is necessary to choose the right road in life which will

help us to do our best and to work for the benefit of our country. Many

roads will open before us: technical schools, institutes and universities.

Everybody will have a chance to develop and use knowledge and education

received during the school years. There are a lot of different trades and

professions, and each one must choose the occupation in which he or she can

best develop one's own talent and abilities. Our society needs well-

educated people. Nowadays the profession of an economist has become one the

most useful, modern and interesting. That is because our country is moving

towards market economy and different forms of property are being

established. There is a place for an economist at every plant and factory.

An economist exercises different functions. He or she can determine the

structure of an enterprise and calculate costs as well as probable profits.

An economist analyses the condition of the market and prospects for its

development in the future. His or her practical use of electronic computers

is a must. The activities of an economist at an enterprise range from

bookkeeper control the financial state of an enterprise and perform a lot

of useful calculations. A manager is an actual administrator. Having a good

command of the economic situation in the region and the demands of the

market a person with an economist's diploma may establish his own business,

or he may become a partner of a joint venture. It is very important for an

economist to know a foreign language, especially English. That is because

contracts between our country and many countries of the world are becoming

wider with every coming day. Every economist has a chance to go abroad or

to deal with foreign businessmen coming to our country. But to become a

good economist one must work hard and get not only theoretical knowledge

but also great practical skills.

My school. I had just left school and I would like to tell you a few words

about it. I went to school in 1988. This school I studied in is a three

stored building. When you enter the school yard you can see poplar trees

and beautiful flowers. To the right of the school building there is a big

playground. When the weather was fine we had our classes in physical

training there. When you enter the school you come in to a large hall and a

cloak-room, there we left our coats, rain-coats and jackets. On the ground

floor where is also a school library and a gym. The class rooms, the

assembly hall, the teachers room and the canteen are on the upper floors.

On the walls of the corridors you can see the portraits of famous writers,

poets, scientists and our school wall newspaper. It is done by the pupils

of our school and has a lot of interesting things to read. I learned

different subjects at school: Russian, English, math, physics, chemistry,

geography, history and some others. My favorite subjects were Russian and

English. I also liked literature. I was good at these subjects and usually

got good marks in them. I worked hard at English lessons: read and

translated texts, made up dialogues, did a lot of ex, but best of all I

liked different tests, I was fond of grammar. But I was poor in chemistry.

I always failed to learn formulas and terms properly. I liked my class,

everybody was so friendly easy to get along with. I was on good terms with

my class maids and we often spend our free time together.

Much was done by people to reach the present state of human development. It

is necessary to say that great contribution to the development of the world

science and culture, literature, music and painting was made by the Russian

people. The names of Russian scientists and writers, poets, composers and

painters are world-famous-Pushkin, Lermontov, Chehov, Levitan. This chain

can be endless. It is almost impossible to name a branch of science in the

development of which the Russian scientists haven't played the greatest

role. Lomonosov, the founder of the Moscow University was an outstanding

innovator both in the humanities and sciences. Mendeleev's greatest

discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov invented radio.

Sechenov and Pavlov were the world's greatest physiologists. Russia is

rightly called the mother of aviation and cosmounatics. Names of

Tsiolkovsky, Korolov and Gagarin are symbols of new space era. People in

many countries admire paintings, portraits and landscapes Surikov, Levitan,

Repin works of our Russian writes and poets are translated into many

languages. I want to tell about one of the greatest Russians. Pyotr Ilyich

Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk in 1840.

He was fond of music since his early childhood. His mother sang him

beautiful songs and taught him to play the piano. He graduated from the

Petersburg Conservatoire only in 1866 because of his poor living

conditions. He was the best pupil of Anton Rubinstein. Wen the Moscow

Conservatoire was founded Pyotr Ilyich became a professor there. He created

wonderful music: 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large symphonic

poems and many other musical pieces. , a new type of opera, was a great

success all over the world. Margaret Thatcher was the longest Prime

Minister of the 20th century. Her style and her views appealed to mane

British people who had lost confidence in the welfare state and in the

direction the nation had taken. In some ways she was the first genuine

leader the nation had had since Churchill. Margaret Thatcher began her

career in politics, when she became a Conservative Member of Parliament. in

1979 she was elected as Britain's first woman Prime Minister. From the

start, her autocratic style earned her the nickname of "The Iron Lady". Her

abrasive manner has attracted some criticism. During the Falklands War of

1982, however, Margaret Thatcher's militant patriotism found her many

supporters, and she became something of a popular hero-figure, much as

Winston Churchill had been in the Second World War. Margaret Thatcher was

re-elected Prime Minister in the general elections of 1983 and 1987. Andrew

Wyet is one of the prominent living American painters. He was born in 1917.

The son of illustrator – Andrew is the leading member of the dynasty of

painters that includes his sisters, their husbands and his own two sons. He

won fame at the age of 12 for his illustrations of "Robin Hood". He was 20

when he first exhibited his paintings. Andrew studied with his father and

was strongly influenced by him. His father's style of illustration

expresses sentimentality. But very early the young artist gravitated a way

from his teacher. Wyet's style is both precise and minute in detail, he is

a realist influenced by photography. He painted portraits, landscapes,

seascapes and domestic scenery. His favorite media are tempera and water

colors. His works are easily recognized by dimly lit and deserted

landscapes in tones of grey and brown which convey the feeling of

loveliness and solitude. His most famous works are "Christina's world" and

"Inland shell".

|Problems of Youth. The age between 14 & 17 is considered to be one of the

best periods in people’s life. Grown-ups remind it with excitement &

tenderness. But most teens wouldn’t agree with this opinion if they were

asked. Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the

world. And during this search he or she comes across different problems

which are as important as those of the adults. The youth of the 21st

century face almost the same problems which were acute to their parents

when they were young. These problems are quite serious & they can’t be

considered trifles.

One of them is a generation gap. Every generation is unique in its

experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every

aspect of human life. Adults always complain that the young people do not

blindly accept the ideals of their parents. Different generations take

different directions. Grown-ups always teach the young how to live. But the

latter want to live their own life. And it generates the conflict of the


Drinking & taking drugs have become the most actual problems of the modern

society. As for drinking , teenagers don’t realize the harm it does to

their health , they just don’t want it to the privilege of grown-ups but

unlike grown-ups they are notable to drink responsibly . They really

believe that certain drinks will make them look like they’re accepted. So,

we can say that the low level of self-appraisal is the main reason of

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