–ефераты. Ўпаргалка по лексикологии






Ўпаргалка по лексикологии

|Simile |Oxymoron |

|The intensification of some |Oxymoron is a combination of two|

|features of the concept in |words (mostly an adjective and a|

|question is realized in a device|noun or an adverb with an |

|called simile. S. must not be |adjective) in which the meanings|

|confused with ordinary |of the two clash, being opposite|

|comparison. They represent two |in sense, |

|diverse processes. C. means |E.g.: low skyscraper; sweet |

|weighing two objects belonging |sorrow; pleasantly ugly face |

|to one class of things with the |The essence of oxymoron consists|

|purpose of establishing the |in the capacity of the primary |

|degree of their sameness or |meaning of the adjective or |

|difference. To use S. is to |adverb to resist for some time |

|characterize one object by |the overwhelming power of |

|bringing it into contact with |semantic change which words |

|another object belonging to an |undegro in combination. The |

|entirely different class of |forcible combination of |

|things. C. takes into |non-combinative words seems to |

|consideration all the properties|develop what may be called a |

|of the two objects, stressing |kind of centrifugal force which |

|the one that is compared. S. |keeps them apart, in contrast to|

|excludes all the properties of |ordinary word combinations where|

|the two objects except one which|centripetal force is in action. |

|is made common to them. |In oxymoron the logical meaning |

|E. g. СThe boy seems to be as |holds fast because there is no |

|clever as his mother |true word combination, only the |

|It is ordinary comparison. СBoyТ|juxtaposition of two |

|and СMotherТ belong to the same |non-combinative words. But we |

|class of objects Ц human beings |may notice a peculiar change in |

|Ц and only one quality is being |the meaning of the qualifying |

|stressed to find the |word. It assumes a new life in |

|resemblance. |oxymoron, definitely indicative |

|СMaidens, like moths, are ever |of assessing tendency in the |

|caught by glare,Т |writerТs mind. |

|It is simile. СMaidensТ and |E. g. (O. Henry) УI despise its |

|СmothsТ belong to different |very vastness and power. It has |

|classes of objects and Byron has|the poorest millionaires, the |

|found the concept СmothТ to |littlest great men, the |

|indicate one of the secondary |haughtiest beggars, the plainest|

|features of the concept |beauties, the lowest |

|СmaidenТ, i. e., to be easily |skyscrapers, the dolefulest |

|lured. Concept СMaidensТ is |pleasures of any town I eve |

|characterized and the concept |seen.Ф |

|СmothsТ characterizing. |Even the superlative degree of |

|Similes have formal elements in |the adjectives fails to |

|their structure: connective |extinguish the primary meaning |

|words such as like, as, such as,|of the adjectives: poor, little,|

|as if, seem. |haughty, etc. But by some inner |

|Similes may suggest analogies in|law of word combinations they |

|the character of actions |also show the attitude of the |

|performed. In this case the two |speaker, reinforced, of course, |

|members of the structural design|by the preceding sentence: УI |

|of this simile will resemble |despise its very vastness and |

|each other trough the actions |power.Ф |

|they perform. Thus: |Oxymoron as a rule has one |

|УThe Liberals have plunged for |structural model: adjective + |

|entry without considering its |noun. It is in this structural |

|effects, while Labour leaders |model that the resistance of the|

|like cautious bathers have put a|two component parts to fusion |

|timorous toe into the water and |into one unit manifests itself |

|promptly withdrawn it.Ф |most strongly. In the adverb + |

|The simile in this passage from |adjective model the change of |

|newspaperТs article is based on |meaning in the first element, |

|the simultaneous realization of |the adverb, is more rapid, |

|the two meanings of the word |resistance to the unifying |

|СplungedТ. The primary meaning |process not being so strong |

|Сto through oneself into the |Not every combination of words |

|waterТ Ц prompted the figurative|which we called non-combinative |

|periphrasis Сhave put a timorous|should be regarded as oxymoron, |

|toe into the water and promptly |because new meaning developed in|

|withdrawn itТ standing for Сhave|new combinations do not |

|abstained from taking actionТ. |necessarily give rise to |

|In the English language, there |opposition. |

|is a long list of hackneyed | |

|similes pointing out the analogy| |

|between the various qualities, | |

|states or actions of human being| |

|and animals: busy as a bee, | |

|blind as a bat, to work like a | |

|hors, to fly like a bird, | |

|thirsty as a camel. These | |

|combinations have become | |

|cliches. | |

|Irony |Metonymy |

|Irony is stylistic device based |Metonymy is based on different |

|on the simultaneous realization |types of relation between the |

|of two logical meanings Ц |dictionary and contextual |

|dictionary and contextual, but |meanings, a relation based not |

|the two meanings stand in |on affinity, but on some kind of|

|opposition to each other. |association connecting the two |

|E.g. УIt must be delightful to |concepts which these meanings |

|find oneself in a foreign |represent. |

|country |Thus the word УcrownФ may stand |

|without a penny in oneТs |for Уking or queenФ, Уcup or |

|pocket.Ф |glassФ for the Уdrink it |

|The word УdelightfulФ acquires a|containsФ These examples of |

|meaning quite the opposite to |metonymy are traditional. In |

|its primary dictionary meaning, |fact they are derivative logical|

|that is УunpleasantФ. |meanings and therefore fixed in |

|Irony must not be confused with |dictionaries, there is usually a|

|humor, although they have very |label УfigФ. This shows that new|

|much in common. Humor always |meaning not entirely replaced |

|causes laughter. What is funny |the primary one, but, as it |

|must come as sudden clash of the|were, co-exists with it. |

|positive an the negative. In |Contextual metonymy is used in |

|this respect irony can be |speech. It is genuine metonymy |

|likened to humor. But the |and reveals a quite unexpected |

|function of irony is not |substitution of one word, or |

|confined to producing a humorous|even concept for another, on the|

|effect. In a sentence like УHow |ground of some strong impression|

|clever of youФ where, due to the|produced by a chance feature of |

|intonation pattern, the word |the thing. |

|УcleverФ conveys a sense |E.g. УThen they came in. Two of |

|opposite to its literal |them, a man with long fair |

|signification, the irony does |moustaches |

|not cause a ludicrous effect. It|and a silent dark manЕ |

|rather expresses a feeling of |Definitely, the moustache and I |

|irritation, displeasure, pity or|had nothing in common.Ф |

|regret |Here we have a feature of a man |

|Richard Altick says, УThe effect|which catches the eye, in this |

|of irony lies in the striking |case his facial appearance: the |

|disparity between what is said |moustache stands for himself. |

|and what is meant.Ф This |The function of the metonymy |

|Уstriking disparityФ is achieved|here is to indicate that the |

|trough the intentional interplay|speaker knows nothing of the |

|of the two meanings, which are |man, moreover there is a |

|in opposition to each other. |definite implication that this |

|We must also take into |is the first time the speaker |

|consideration that irony is |has seen him. |

|generally used to convey a |Metonymy and metaphor differs in|

|negative meaning. Therefore only|the way they are deciphered. In |

|positive concepts may be used in|this process of disclosing the |

|their logical dictionary |meaning in a metaphor, one image|

|meanings. |excludes the other, that is the |

| |metaphor УlampФ in the УThe sky |

| |lamp of the nightФ when |

| |deciphered, means the moon, and |

| |though there is a definite |

| |interplay of meanings, we |

| |perceive only one object, the |

| |moon. This is not the case with |

| |metonymy. Metonymy, while |

| |presenting one object to our |

| |mind does not exclude the other.|

| |In the example given above the |

| |moustache and the man himself |

| |are both perceived by the mind. |

| |Mane attempts have been made to |

| |pinpoint the types of relation |

| |which metonymy is based on. |

| |Among them the following are |

| |most common: |

| |A concrete thing used instead of|

| |an abstract notion. In this case|

| |the thing becomes a symbol of |

| |the notion. E.g. УThe camp, the |

| |pulpit and the law For rich |

| |menТs sons are free.Ф |

| |The container instead of the |

| |thing contained: E. g. УThe hall|

| |applauded.Ф |

| |The relation of proximity: E. g.|

| |УThe round game table was |

| |boisterous and happy.Ф |

| |The material instead of the |

| |thing made of it: E. g. УThe |

| |marble spoke.Ф |

| |The instrument which the doer |

| |uses in performing the action |

| |instead of the action or the |

| |doer himself: E. g. Уas the |

| |sword is the worst argument that|

| |can be used, so should it be the|

| |last.Ф |

|Chiasmus |Polysyndeton |

|Chiasmus belongs to the group of|Polysyndeton is the stylistic |

|stylistic devices based on the |device of connecting sentences |

|repetition of syntactical |or phrases or syntagms or words |

|pattern, but it has a cross |by using connectives (mostly |

|order of words and phrases. The |conjunctions and prepositions) |

|structure of two successive |before each component part. |

|sentences or parts of a sentence|E. g. УShould you ask me, whence|

|may be described as reversed |these stories? |

|parallel construction, the word |Whence these legends and |

|order of one the sentences being|traditions, |

|inverted as compared to that of |With the odours of the forest, |

|the other: |With the dew, and damp of |

|E. g. УDown dropped the breeze, |meadows, |

|The sails dropped down.Ф |With the curling smoke of |

|The device is effective in that |wigwams |

|it helps to lay stress on the |With the rushing of great |

|second part of the utterance, |rivers, |

|which is opposite in structure |With their frequent |

|Chiasmus can appear only when |repetitions,ЕФ |

|there are two successive |The repetition of conjunctions |

|sentences or coordinate parts of|and other means of connection |

|a sentence |makes an utterance more |

|Syntactical chiasmus is somtimes|rhythmical; so much so that |

|used to break the monotony of |prose may even seem like verse. |

|parallel constructions. But |So one of the functions of |

|whatever the purpose of |polysyndeton is a rhythmical |

|chiasmus, it will always bring |one. In addition to this , |

|in some new shade of meaning or |polysyndeton has a |

|additional emphasis on some |disintegrating function. It |

|portion of the second part. |generaly combines homogeneous |

| |elements of thought into one |

| |whole resembling enumeration. |

| |But unlike enumeration, which |

| |integrates both homogeneous and |

| |heterogeneous elements into one |

| |whole, polysyndeton causes each |

| |member of a string of facts to |

| |stand out conspicuously. That is|

| |why we say that polysyndeton has|

| |a disintegrating function. |

| |Enumeration snows the things |

| |united: polysyndeton snows them |

| |isolated. |

| |Polysyndeton has also the |

| |function of axpressing sequence:|

| | |

| |E. g. УThen Mr. BoffinЕ sat |

| |staring at a little bookcase of |

| |Law Practic and Law Reports, And|

| |at a window, and at an empty |

| |blue bagЕ..Ф |

|Stylistic inversion |Antonomasia |

|Stylistic inversion aims at |The interplay between logical |

|attaching logical stress or |and nominal meanings of a word |

|additional emotional colouring |is called antonomasia. As in |

|to the surface meaning of the |other stylistic devices based on|

|utterance. Therefore a specific |the interaction of lexical |

|intonation pattern is the |meanings, the two kinds of |

|inevitable satellite of |meanings must be realized in the|

|inversion |word simultaneously. |

|Stylistic inversion in Modern |E. g. УSociety is now one |

|English is the practical |polished horde, |

|realization of what is potential|FormТd of two mighty tribes, the|

|in the language itself. |Bores and Bored.Ф |

|The following patterns of |In this example of use |

|stylistic inversion are most |antonomasia the nominal meaning |

|frequently met in both English |is hardly perceived, the logical|

|prose and poetry: |meaning of the words УboresФ and|

|The object is placed at the |УboredФ being to strong. It is |

|beginning of the sentence: |very important to note that this|

|УTalent Mr. Micawber has; |stylistic device is mainly |

|capital Mr. Micawber has not.Ф |realized in the written |

|The attribute is placed after |language, because sometimes |

|the word it modifies. This model|capital letters are the only |

|is often used when there is more|signals of the stylistic device.|

|than one attribute: УWith |But there is another point that |

|fingers weary and wornЕФ |should be mentioned. Most proper|

|The predicative is placed before|names are built in some law of |

|the subject: УA good generuos |analogy. Many of them end in |

|prayer it wasФ |У-sonФ (as Johnson) or У-erФ (as|

|The predicative stands before |Fletcher). We easily recognize |

|the link verb and both are |such words as Smith, White, |

|placed before the subject: УRude|Brown, Green, Fowler and others |

|am I in my speechЕФ |as proper names. But such names |

|The adverbial modifier is placed|as: Miss Blue-Eyes or Scrooge or|

|at the beginning of the |Mr. Zero may be called token |

|sentence: УMy dearest daughter, |names. They give information to |

|at your feet I fall.Ф |the reader about the bearer of |

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