Рефераты. Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном

Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном









По дисциплине: Английский язык

на тему:

«Экономические отношения между Россией и Казахстаном»



Ефимова Ю.Е.


г. Камышин

2004 г.



2. Mutual Trade.

3. Cooperating in oil gas and power sphere.

4. Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.



In a context of events, which have taken place in region after

September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied, as

well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.

In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of

Kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia,

which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term

interests of our country.

Central Asia and Caspian Sea go into a region of traditional interests

of Russia.

In this region it always had the important national interests, which,

however, in different periods were defined by different circumstances and


The key interests of Russia in this region at the present stage can be

reduced to the following.

Central Asia has the important value in a safety of Russia.

The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil but the

factor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian Sea;

Kazakhstan region is of interest for Russia territory, where its

compatriots live. Are those, on our sight three dominating interest of

Russian Federation, dominating, Caspian – Central Asia region at the

present stage. It in this region has also other interests trade, cosmotron

of “Baikonur”, industrial communications etc. but now in basic they carry

not so priority character.

Until recently Russia ensured above-mentioned interests without the

special efforts. All countries of region in the majority were that or are

otherwise dependent on Russian Federation. But the events, which have

occurred after September of the last year, have brought in serious enough

variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and have affected on

common position of forces in region.

One of the occurred key variations consists in that the break in

sphere of traditional vital interests of Russia is watched which today

faces to necessity Central Asia of policy.

As a whole by 2001 in Central Asia the private tripartite balance

between interests of Russia, China, USA was folded.

The given balance can figuratively be presented as a triangle, in

which upper corner Russia, in one lower corner - USA, in the friend - China

settled down. These countries have occupied three strategic niches in

Caspian – Central Asia region: military-political, oil and gas, commodity-


The Russian presence at region last years was ensured, first of all,

with strategic military-political component. A peaking of a problem

extremism and the terrorisms in Central Asia, activation Islamic of driving

of Uzbekistan, irreconcilable part of Integrated Tadjik opposition at

immediate support Talib have established in 1999 - 2001 real threat for the

countries of region.

In these conditions only Russia was considered by the states of region

as the real factor of safety. It is enough to recollect, that these years

intensive two-sided ratios in military and military-engineering sphere were

especially made active.

Thus, USA has occupied oil and gases niche in the region, and Russia

and China by virtue of economic circumstances could not compete with it in

this direction.

In this geopolitical triangle Russia all the same occupied a little

bit dominating positions. This majoring in many respects was determined by

strategic military-political component, which role in the international

ratios is traditionally high.

In a context of a common global situation Russia forced to be

reconciled with a determination of military basses of USA in region of its

traditional interests.

Taking into account all these circumstances, Russia faces to necessity

of the policy in Central Asia. The further prolongation above-mentioned

tendencies will have painful enough consequences for it.

Despite of some variation of a role of Russia in Central Asia, for

Kazakhstan the strategic interests in a ratio of Russia continue to be


The necessity of activation of ratios with Russia and holding of

constructive cooperating on much important directions for Kazakhstan is

dictated as well by that in case of essential weakening of Russia in

Central Asia it will be fraught with negative consequences. The situation

in region can become unstable and badly forecast.

In the whole traditional interests of Kazakhstan in a ratio of Russia

are founded on four factors having long-time character.

First, the maintenance partner of ratios with Russia is necessary

valid intercontinental of an arrangement of Kazakhstan, for which the exit

on the world market is vital for an economic development. Russia in this

respect occupies the strategically important position; being by the state,

on which region pass vital strategy of transport and communication.

Secondly, Russia is one of the important subjects of the international

system, having significant political weight and rather large military-

engineering opportunities. The Russian factor in many respects determines

external policy in a situation around of Kazakhstan, both on regional, and

at the international level.

Thirdly, Russia is the major economic partner Republic of Kazakhstan.

It not only imports different production and techniques to Kazakhstan, but

also is the market of selling of Kazakhstan production. About 70 % of

Kazakhstan industrial potential is involved on economy.

In - fourth, both states are combined with a historical generality,

spiritual and cultural links. In region of Russia the man is Kazakh

Diasporas including 740 thousand. In Kazakhstan Russians are second on

number ethnic group, making about 30 percents of the population of the


In this context the Russian direction of exterior policy of Kazakhstan

remains to one of priority and strategic.

As a whole at the present stage in the Russian-Kazakhstan ratios the

following most priority and perspective directions of cooperating are


• Mutual trade.

• Interaction in oil and gas and power sphere.

• Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.

• Cooperating in sphere of safety.

2. Mutual Trade.

The interests of both countries are answered with magnifying of mutual

trade. Russian Federation traditionally occupies the first place among the

basic trade partners of Kazakhstan both on export, and on import.

It is necessary to mark, that last years the growth of a share of

Russian Federation in import and reduction in export is watched. The

specific gravity of Russia in total amount of the Kazakhstan export is

sequentially reduced and is augmented in import. Within several last

years Kazakhstan has negative trade balance with Russian Federation.

Considering structure of export and import on groups of the commodity

spectrum, it is possible to select the following characteristic features.

Export. Structure of export Republic of Kazakhstan in Russian

Federation for the last few years has varied, the separate commodity

groups have occupied a leading position.

Now on four commodity groups (fuel mineral, oil and petroleum; products of

inorganic chemistry; grain bread and ores) are necessary about 80 % of the

Kazakhstan export in Russia, whereas in 1994 on the pointed groups it was

necessary 53,3 %. In 2001 as contrasted to 2000 the separate outbound

delivering tended to lowering, so, for example, the specific gravity of

export of a grain was reduced from 12 % up to 6 %; the export of products

of inorganic chemistry was reduced from 14 % up to 13 %. Certainly, on

lowering of export in Russia renders influence a variance between the in-

house prices and prices of outbound delivering.

At the same time it is necessary to mark, that the reduction of export

has taken place not on all basic groups of the commodity spectrum. The

specific gravity of export of ore has increased from 8 % up to 10 % and

export of fuel from 46 % up to 47 %.

Import Republic of Kazakhstan goes into first five of the countries of

the basic trade partners of Russia in import. The specific gravity of

import of Russia has increased in total amount of the Kazakhstan import

from 36,7 % per 1999 up to 45,4 % per 2001. There were insignificant

variations in groups of imported commodity production. So, the volumes of

import were reduced

The analysis of export and import displays, that in structure of

import as against export there is no predominance of separate commodity

groups at the same time a specific gravity of articles of food, products of

processing ready articles grows.

From 89 regions of Russian Federation 72 have trade - economic links

with Republic of Kazakhstan.

Feature of transport -geographical interregional links of regions of

Russia with Kazakhstan is the directedness mutual goods traffic primarily

with Ural, Western and East Siberia, and also with Moscow and Moscow


The important place in the Russia -Kazakhstan links occupies frontier

cooperating, on which share it is necessary 71,5 % from common commodity

circulation. In export of many frontier subjects of Federation significant

volume is necessary on production of a petrochemical industry.

The significant experience of mutual economic cooperating with frontier

regions of Kazakhstan accumulated in the Orenburg region, and also Pavlodar

region of Kazakhstan with frontier regions of Russia. Now 18 % of the

Orenburg export and more than 40 % of import have on Kazakhstan.

As a whole before Kazakhstan in mutual trade with Russia there is a

series of perspective tasks, which decision will influence definitely on a

common economic situation in the country.

One of the important tasks is the variation of trade balance of

Kazakhstan and Russian Federation from negative in positive. Besides the

gradual variation of structure commodity circulation in favorable for

Republic of Kazakhstan direction is desirable.

Radiating from interests of two states, it is expedient in the nearest

perspective to consider a complex of measures on hardening links of

frontier regions. The necessity of creation of legal fundamentals of a

development of frontier regions does not call doubts. On our sight, it is

necessary to speed up development of the defining laws. Among them there

are Laws About state support of a socio economic development of frontier

territories of Republic of Kazakhstan, About free economic regions, About

frontier trade.

Obvious presence of potential and mutually advantageous opportunities

of Russia and Kazakhstan also is of use of the optimum shapes of

specialization, density of the industrial and financial capital, use of

effective financial instruments, architecture of optimum commodity,

financial and transport streams. In this connection special urgency in a

development Kazakhstan – Russia links was got with problems of a

synchronization of legislative and normative basis of the countries.

Not less important the coordinated marketing strategy of Kazakhstan and

Russia in the international markets is represented, where the saving and

hardening of common positions is quite possible. The priority direction

represents perfecting the organizational shapes of activity Kazakhstan and

Russian suppliers in the world markets. They can become cartel of the


3. Cooperating in oil gas and power sphere.

The given direction of cooperating between two countries is one of

perspective. The structure of the Kazakhstan export of oil on the countries

in 2001 is characterized by lowering of a share of delivering in the

countries of CIS (17 %) and expansion of geography of export of oil in the

cities of foreign countries (83 %).

The indexes of export of petroleum in 2001 essentially have varied as

contrasted to 2000. Alongside with export Kazakhstan realizes import of

petroleum. And 98 % of all imported volumes of petroleum are necessary on

Russian Federation.

Kazakhstan more than 50 % depends on Russia in a ratio of delivering of

crude oil on refinery factory in Shimkent and Pavlodar which receive west

Siberian oil on the manifold from Omsk. Pavlodar refinery factory on 100 %

depends on west Siberian oil.

Its technological dependence on Russia falls into basic problems

Pavlodar refinery factory: the production cycle of the enterprise is

calculated for consumption west Siberian oil with the low contents of

sulphur and paraffin. The perspective flagship of the Kazakhstan oil

processing is complicated with its neighborhood with the Russian factories

- competitors:

Omsk, Ufa, Volgograd refinery factories, they have stable access to

crude oil, besides on reduced prices.

The cooperating in oil and gas branch explicates also through link of

share development of the Kazakhstan deposits. Russia in the projects on

natural resources users in region of Republic of Kazakhstan.

The large interest in relation to Kazakhstan is expressed with the large

oil Russian company “Yokus” which has received a section for developments

in Russia and region of Kazakhstan.

Since 2000 the electric power system of Kazakhstan works in a parallel

condition from European Economic Community of Russia and grid system of the

countries of Central Asia.

The parallel operation of electric power systems considerably has

boosted quality of electrical power and reliability of electro supply of

consumers of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Russian Federation, and also has

allowed operatively to realize surplus of electricity and transit of

electrical power, it is more rational to use power powers of electrical

stations. The electric power system of Kazakhstan and Russian Academy of

Science, European Economic Comminity of Russia are called secure each other

in case of crashes.

In the whole cooperating of Kazakhstan and Russia in fuel and energy

sphere has noticeable perspectives.

The major factor of a development of the power market is the deepening

of cooperating in the field of scientific researches and developments of

advanced techniques in manufacture of power, electro technical equipment.

Now all aspects of equipment for power stations are made in Russia. With

disintegration of Union economic links between the manufacturers and

consumers of a utilities, equipment considerably have worsened, that is

negatively reflected in availability index of product of power complexes of

the country. On this question it is expedient except of concrete measures

at a level of Government.

4. Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.

Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications one of the most

perspective regions of a development of two-sided ratios between Kazakhstan

and Russia. Both states in a context of a development of transport

cooperating have a strategic value for each other, as, apart from a wide

national transport web, occupy defining a geographical position.

Kazakhstan and Russia are closely coupled by the transport

communications. In this connection, Kazakhstan is sensitive reacting to any

variations under the tariffs for freight traffic on region of Russia.

One of key questions here - transportation of oil and gas through

region of Russia. In the aggregate transportation of the Caspian oil and in

the whole oil is one of the major sides of the Russia -Kazakhstan


In a period from 1995 till 1999 Russia gave Kazakhstan such quota,

which did not allow the Kazakhstan exporters to involve the algorithm

manifold Atyrau – Samara on an apparent watts its annual channel capacity

in 10,5 mln of tons of oil. And only in 1999 the algorithm manifold was

loaded almost on 100 %. The agreement on magnifying of a quota at transit

of oil in long-distance foreign countries at first up to 5 mln of tons

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