Рефераты. География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)

География и окружающая среда Англии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии и Шотландии (на английском языке)

Geography of Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland is at its nearest point only 21km (13 miles) from

Scotland. It has 488-km (303-mile) border in the south and vest with the

Irish Republic. At its centre lies Lough Neagh, Britain’s largest

freshwater lake (381sq km, 147sq miles). Many of the principal towns lie in

valleys leading from the lough, including the capital, Belfast, which

stands at the mouth of the river Lagan. The Mourne Mountains, rising

sharply in the south-east, include Slieve Donard, Northern Ireland’s

highest peak (852 m, 2,796 ft).

Environment of Scotland.

Scotland’s countryside contains rich variety of wildlife, with some

species not found elsewhere in Britain. There are 71 national nature

reserves and over 1,300 Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Four regional

parks and 40 national scenic areas have been designated, covering 13 per

cent of the land surface. Four of the 11 forest parks in Great Britain are

in Scotland, and a fifth spans the border between Scotland and England.

Environment of Whales

There are extensive areas of picturesque hill, lake and mountain

country, and the countryside supports a variety of plants and wildlife.

There are three National Parks (Snowdonia, the Brecon Becons and the

Pembrokeshire Coast), five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty and two

national trails as well as 31 country parks and large stretches of heritage

coast. There are about 50 National Nature Reserves and over 800 Sites of

Special Scientific Interest. Nearly all of the rivers and canals are

classified as having water of good or fair quality, and a significant

improvement has been achieved in the quality of bathing waters.

Geographical Position of Great Britain.

The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British

Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great

number of small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 sq. km.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the

North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is

washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It

borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain

consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the

island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the west) and Scotland (the

northern part of the island).

There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the

Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England almost along its middle, the

Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales and the Highlands of

Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis, the tallest

peak of the Highlands, is only 1,343 m high.

There is very little country except in the region known as East Anglia.

Most of the rivers flow into the North Sea. The Thames is the

deepest and the longest of the British rivers, it is over 300 km long. Some

of the British greatest ports are situated in the estuaries of the Thames,

Mersey, Tyne , Clyde and Bristol Avon.

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources, it has some

deposits of coal, and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were

discovered in the North Sea. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean

influence the climate of Great Britain.

Britain forms the greater part of the British Isles, which lie off

the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Its weather is changeable, but

there are few extremes of temperature. Britain is major world producer of

oil, natural gas and coal. Since 1980 it has been self-sufficient in

energy in net terms.

Woodland covers nearly 2-4 hectares in Britain: about 13 per cent

of Scotland, 12 per cent of Wales, 73 per cent of England, and 52 per cent

of Northern Ireland. British woodlands meet 12 per cent of the country’s

consumption of wood and wood products.

Over three-quarters of Britain’s varied landscape is used for


Environmental Protection.

Responsibility for pollution control rests with local and central

government. Integrated pollution control restricts emissions to air, land

and water from the most harmful processes. Recycling of waste will be a

duty of local government.

The National Rivers Authority protects inland waters in England and Wales.

In Scotland the river purification authorities are responsible for water

pollution control.

Total emissions of smoke in the air have fallen by over 85 per cent since

1960. Sulphur dioxide emissions have fallen by about 40 per cent since

1970. Britain has adopted a phased programme of reductions in sulphur

dioxide emissions form existing large combustion plants of up to 60 per

cent by 2003. It has also agreed to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by up

to 30 per cent by 1998. Over 95 per cent of petrol stations in Britain

stock unleaded petrol. Strict controls have reduced carbon monoxide,

hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions.

The Government is committed to the elimination of chlorofluorocarbons,

which damage the ozone layer. They also contribute to the greenhouse

effect, which leads to global warming and rise in sea levels.

Britain stresses the need for improvement in understanding the

science of climate change.

There are nearly 500,000 protected buildings, and 7,000

conservation areas of architectural or historical interest, in Britain. The

Government supports the work of the voluntary sector in preserving the

national heritage. Green belts are where land should be left open and free

from urban sprawl. The Government attaches great importance to their

protection. National parks cover 9 per cent of the total land area of

England and Wales. Some 38 areas of outstanding natural beauty have been

designed - 13 per cent of the same land area. Three regional parks and 40

national scenic areas cover 13 per cent of Scotland. Care is taken to

control development on parts of the coastline.

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