Рефераты. Джордж Вашингтон

Джордж Вашингтон



By: Katya Zemtsova

9D, school № 17

supervisor: Beletskaya S. A.


Министерство образования Российской Федерации


по английскому языку

Тема: « Джордж Вашингтон »

Работу выполнила

Земцова Екатерина

ученица 9 “Д” класса

школы № 17

Работу проверила


Белецкая С.А





1. Name

2. Physical Description

3. Personality

4. Ancestors

5. Father

6. Mother

7. Siblings

8. Collateral relatives

9. Children

10. Birth

11. Childhood

12. Education

13. Religion

14. Recreation

15. Early romance

A) Betsy Fauntleroy

B) Mary Philipse

C) Sally Fairfax

16. Marriage

17. Military Service

18. Career before the presidency

A) French and Indian War, 1754 – 1763

B) Member of House of Burgesses (1759 – 1774)

C) Delegate to Continental Congress (1774 – 1775)

D) Commander of Chief of Continental Army during Revolution (1775 –


E) President of Constitutional Convention, 1787

19. Election as President, First Term, 1789

20. Election as President, Second Term, 1792





A) Secretary state:

B) Secretary of the treasury

C) Secretary of war

D) Attorney General


A) Presidents

B) Indian Affairs

C) Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793

D) Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

E) Jay’s. Treaty, 1795

F) Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795

G) Farewell Address, 1796

H) Sates Admitted to the Union

I) Constitutional Amendments Ratified


26. Ranking in 1962 historians poll

27. Retirement

28. Death

29. Washington’s praise (speech)

30. Washington’s criticized (speech)

31. Washington’s quote(s) (speech)

NAME: George Washington. He was probably named after George Eskridge, a

lawyer in whose charge Washington's mother had been left when she was


PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Washington was a large, powerful man—about 6 feet

2 inches tall, 175 pounds in his prime, up to more than 200 pounds in later

years. Erect in bearing, muscular, broad shouldered, he had large hands and

feet (size 13 shoes), a long face with high cheekbones, a large straight

nose, determined chin, blue-gray eyes beneath heavy brows and dark brown

hair, which on formal occasions he powdered and tied in a queue. His fair

complexion bore the marks of smallpox he contracted as a young man. He lost

his teeth, probably to gum disease, and wore dentures. According to Dr.

Reidar Sognnaes, former dean of the University of California at Los Angeles

School of Dentistry, who has made a detailed study of Washington's

bridgework, he was fitted with numerous sets of dentures, fashioned

variously from lead, ivory, and the teeth of humans, cows, and other

animals, but not from wood, as was popularly believed. Moreover, he was not

completely toothless. Upon his inauguration as president, Washington had

one of his own teeth left to work alongside the dentures. He began wearing

reading glasses during the Revolution. He dressed fashionably.

PERSONALITY: A man of quiet strength, he took few friends into complete

confidence. His critics mistook his dignified reserve for pomposity. Life

for Washington was a serious mission, a job to be tackled soberly,

unremittingly. He had little time for humor. Although basically good-

natured, he wrestled with his temper and sometimes lost. He was a poor

speaker and could become utterly inarticulate without a prepared text. He

preferred to express himself on paper. Still, when he did speak, he was

candid, direct, and looked people squarely in the eye. Biographer Douglas

Southall Freeman conceded that Washington's "ambition for wealth made him

acquisitive and sometimes contentious." Even after Washington had

established himself, Freeman pointed out, "he would insist upon the exact

payment of every farthing due him" and was determined "to get everything

that he honestly could." Yet neither his ambition to succeed nor his

acquisitive nature ever threatened his basic integrity.

ANCESTORS: Through his paternal grandmother, Mildred Warner Washington,

he descended from King Edward III (1312-1377) of England. His great-great-

grandfather the Reverend Lawrence Washington (c. 1602-1653) served as

rector of All Saints, Purleigh Parish, Essex, England, but was fired when

certain Puritan members accused him of being a "common frequenter of

Alehouses, not only himself sitting daily tippling there, but also

encouraging others in that beastly vice." His great-grandfather John

Washington sailed to America about 1656, intending to remain just long

enough to take on a load of tobacco. But shortly after pushing off on the

return trip, his ketch sank. Thus John remained in Virginia, where he met

and married Anne Pope, the president's great-grandmother.

FATHER: Augustine Washington (16947-1743), planter. Known to friends as

Gus, he spent much of his time acquiring and overseeing some 10,000 acres

of land in the Potomac region, running an iron foundry, and tending to

business affairs in England. It was upon returning from one of these

business trips in 1730 that he discovered that his wife, Jane Butler

Washington, had died in his absence. On March 6, 1731, he married Mary

Ball, who gave birth to George Washington 11 months later. Augustine

Washington died when George was 11 years old. > Because business had kept

Mr. Washington away from home so much, George remembered him only vaguely

as a tall, fair, kind man.

MOTHER: Mary Ball Washington (c. 1709-1789). Fatherless at 3 and

orphaned at 12, she was placed, in accordance with the terms of her

mother's will, under the guardianship of George Eskridge, a lawyer.

Washington's relationship with his mother was forever strained. Although

she was by no means poor, she regularly asked for and received money and

goods from George. Still she complained, often to outsiders, that she was

destitute and neglected by her children, much to George's embarrassment. In

1755, while her son was away serving his king in the French and Indian War,

stoically suffering the hardships of camp life, she wrote to him asking for

more butter and a new house servant. Animosity between mother and son

persisted until her death from cancer in the first year of his presidency.

SIBLINGS: By his father's first marriage, George Washington had two

half brothers to live to maturity—Lawrence Washington, surrogate father to

George after the death of their father, and Augustine "Austin" Washington.

He also had three brothers and one sister to live to maturity—Mrs. Betty

Lewis; Samuel Washington; John Augustine "Jack" Washington, father of

Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington; and Charles Washington, founder

of Charles Town, West "Virginia.

COLLATERAL RELATIVES: Washington was a half first cousin twice removed

of President James Madison, a second cousin seven times removed of Queen

Elizabeth II (1926-) of the United Kingdom, a third cousin twice removed of

Confederate General Robert E. Lee, and an eighth cousin six times removed

of Winston Churchill.

CHILDREN: Washington had no natural children; thus, no direct

descendant of Washington survives. He adopted his wife's two children from

a previous marriage, John Parke Custis and Martha Parke Custis. John's

granddaughter Mary Custis married Robert E. Lee.

BIRTH: Washington was born at the family estate on the south bank of

the Potomac River near the mouth of Pope's Creek, Westmoreland County,

Virginia, at 10 A.M. on February 22, 1732 (Old Style February 11, the date

Washington always celebrated as his birthday; in 1752 England and the

colonies adopted the New Style, or Gregorian, calendar to replace the Old

Style, or Julian, calendar). He was christened on April 5, 1732.

CHILDHOOD: Little is known of Washington's childhood. The legendary

cherry tree incident and his inability to tell lies, of course, sprang

wholly from the imagination of Parson Weems. Clearly the single greatest

influence on young George was his half brother Lawrence, 14 years his

senior. Having lost his father when he was 11, George looked upon Lawrence

as a surrogate father and undoubtedly sought to emulate him. Lawrence

thought a career at sea might suit his little brother and arranged for his

appointment as midshipman in the British navy. George loved the idea.

Together they tried to convince George's mother of the virtues of such

service, but Mary Washington was adamantly opposed. George, then 14, could

have run away to sea, as did many boys of his day, but he reluctantly

respected his mother's wishes and turned down the appointment. At 16 George

moved in with Lawrence at his estate, which he called Mount Vernon, after

Admiral Edward Vernon, commander of British forces in the West Indies while

Captain Lawrence Washington served with the American Regiment there. At

Mount Vernon George honed his surveying skills and looked forward to his

twenty-first birthday, when he was to receive his inheritance from his

father's estate—the Ferry Farm, near Fredericksburg, where the family had

lived from 1738 and where his mother remained until her death; half of a

4,000-acre tract; three lots in Fredericksburg; 10 slaves; and a portion of

his father's personal property.

EDUCATION: Perhaps because she did not want to part with her eldest son

for an extended period, perhaps because she did not want to spend the

money, the widow Washington refused to send George to school in England, as

her late husband had done for his older boys, but instead exposed him to

the irregular education common in colonial Virginia. Just who instructed

George is unknown, but by age 11 he had picked up basic reading, writing,

and mathematical skills. Math was his best subject. Unlike many of the

Founding Fathers, Washington never found time to learn French, then the

language of diplomacy, and did not attend university. He applied his

mathematical mind to surveying, an occupation much in demand in colonial

Virginia, where men's fortunes were reckoned in acres of tobacco rather

than pounds of gold.

RELIGION: Episcopalian. However, religion played only a minor role in

his life. He fashioned a moral code based on his own sense of right and

wrong and adhered to it rigidly. He referred rarely to God or Jesus in his

writings but rather to Providence, a rather amorphous supernatural

substance that controlled men's lives. He strongly believed in fate, a

force so powerful, he maintained, as "not to be resisted by the strongest

efforts of human nature."

RECREATION: Washington learned billiards when young, played cards, and

especially enjoyed the ritual of the fox hunt. In later years, he often

spent evenings reading newspapers aloud to his wife. He walked daily for


EARLY ROMANCE: Washington was somewhat stiff and awkward with girls,

probably often tongue-tied. In his mid-teens he vented his frustration in

such moonish doggerel as, "Ah! woe's me, that I should love and conceal,/

Long have

I wish'd, but never dare reveal,/ Even though severely Loves Pains I

feel." Before he married Martha, Washington's love life was full of


Betsy Fauntleroy. The daughter of a justice and burgess from Richmond

County, Virginia, she was but 16 when she attracted Washington, then 20. He

pressed his suit repeatedly, but, repulsed at every turn, he finally gave


Mary Philipse. During a trip to Boston to straighten out a military

matter in 1756, Washington stopped off in New York and there met Mary

Philipse, 26, daughter of Frederick Philipse, a wealthy landowner. Whether

he was taken with her charms or her 51,000 acres is unknown, but he

remained in the city a week and is said to have proposed. She later married

Roger Morris, and together they were staunch Tories during the American


Sally Fairfax. From the time he met Sarah Gary "Sally" Fairfax as the

18-year-old bride of his friend and neighbor George William Fairfax,

Washington was infatuated with her easy charm, graceful bearing, good

humor, rare beauty, and intelligence. Although the relationship almost

certainly never got beyond flirtation, the two had strong feelings for each

other and corresponded often. In one letter written to her in 1758, at a

time when he was engaged to Martha, he blurted his love, albeit cryptically

lest the note fall into the wrong hands. He confessed he was in love with a

woman well known to her and then continued, "You have drawn me, dear Madam,

or rather I have drawn myself, into an honest confession of a simple Fact.

Misconstrue not my meaning; doubt it not, nor expose it. The world has no

business to know the object of my Love, declared in this manner to you,

when I want to conceal it." As heartbroken as Washington appears to have

been over the hopelessness of the relationship, the anguish might have been

greater had he pressed the affair, for the Fairfaxes would not come to

share Washington's passion for an independent America. In 1773, the year

American resentment over British taxes erupted in the Boston Tea Party,

Sally and George Fairfax left Virginia for England, where they settled

permanently, loyal subjects to the end.

MARRIAGE: Washington, 26, married Martha Dandridge Custis, 27, a widow

with two children, on January 6, 1759, at her estate, known as the White

House, on the Pamunkey River northwest of Williamsburg. Born in New Kent

County, Virginia, on June 21, 1731, the daughter of John Dandridge, a

planter, and Frances Jones Dandridge, Martha was a rather small, pleasant-

looking woman, practical, with good common sense if not a great intellect.

At 18 she married Daniel Parke Custis, a prominent planter of more than

17,000 acres. By him she had four children, two of whom survived childhood.

Her husband died intestate in 1757, leaving Martha reputedly the wealthiest

marriageable woman in Virginia. It seems likely that Washington had known

Martha and her husband for some time. In March 1758 he visited her at White

House twice; the second time he came away with either an engagement of

marriage or at least her promise to think about his proposal. Their wedding

was a grand affair. The groom appeared in a suit of blue and silver with

red trimming and gold knee buckles. After the Reverend Peter Mossum

pronounced them man and wife, the couple honeymooned at White House for

several weeks before setting up housekeeping at Washington's Mount Vernon.

Their marriage appears to have been a solid one, untroubled by infidelity

or clash of temperament. During the American Revolution she endured

considerable hardship to visit her husband at field headquarters. As the

First Lady, Mrs. Washington hosted many affairs of state at New York and

Philadelphia (the capital was moved to Washington in 1800 under the Adams

administration). After Washington's death in 1799, she grew morose and died

on May 22, 1802.

MILITARY SERVICE: Washington served in the Virginia militia (1752-1754,

1755-1758), rising from major to colonel, and as commander in chief of the

Continental army (1775-1783), with the rank of general. See "Career before

the Presidency."

CAREER BEFORE THE PRESIDENCY: In 1749 Washington accepted his first

appointment, that of surveyor of Culpepper County, Virginia, having gained

much experience in that trade the previous year during an expedition across

the Blue Ridge Mountains on behalf of Lord Fairfax. Two years later he

accompanied his half brother Lawrence to Barbados. Lawrence, dying of

tuberculosis, had hoped to find a cure in the mild climate. Instead, George

came down with a near-fatal dose of smallpox. With the deaths of Lawrence

and Lawrence's daughter in 1752, George inherited Mount Vernon, an estate

that prospered under his management and one that throughout his life served

as welcome refuge from the pressures of public life.

French and Indian War, 1754-1763. In 1752 Washington received his first

military appointment as a major in the Virginia militia. On a mission for

Страницы: 1, 2, 3

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.