Рефераты. American Literature books summary

outside, Nately's whore tries to stab him again, and he runs into the



Yossarian - The protagonist and hero of the novel. Yossarian is a

captain in the Air Force and a lead bombardier in his squadron, but he

hates the war. His powerful desire to live has led him to the conclusion

that millions of people are trying to kill him, and he has decided either

to live forever or, ironically, die trying.

Milo Minderbinder - The fantastically powerful mess officer, Milo

controls an international black market syndicate and is revered in obscure

corners all over the world. He ruthlessly chases after profit and bombs his

own men as part of a contract with Germany. Milo insists that everyone in

the squadron will benefit from being part of the syndicate, and that

"everyone has a share."

Colonel Cathcart - The ambitious, unintelligent colonel in charge of

Yossarian's squadron. Colonel Cathcart wants to be a general, and he tries

to impress his superiors by bravely volunteering his men for dangerous

combat duty whenever he gets the chance. He continually raises the number

of combat missions required of the men before they can be sent home.

Colonel Cathcart tries to scheme his way ahead; he thinks of successful

actions as "feathers in his cap" and unsuccessful ones as "black eyes."

The Chaplain - The timid, thoughtful chaplain who becomes Yossarian's

friend. He is haunted by a sensation of deja vu and begins to lose his

faith in God as the novel progresses.

Hungry Joe - An unhinged member of Yossarian's squadron. Hungry Joe is

obsessed with naked women, and he has horrible nightmares on nights when he

isn't scheduled to fly a combat mission the next morning.

Nately - A good-natured nineteen year-old boy in Yossarian's squadron.

Nately comes from a wealthy home, falls in love with a whore, and generally

tries to keep Yossarian from getting into trouble.

Nately's whore - The beautiful whore Nately falls in love with in Rome.

After a good night's sleep, she falls in love with Nately as well. When

Yossarian tells her about Nately's death, she begins a persistent campaign

to ambush Yossarian and stab him to death.

Clevinger - An idealistic member of Yossarian's squadron who argues

with Yossarian about concepts such as country, loyalty, and duty, in which

Clevinger firmly believes. Clevinger's plane disappears inside a cloud

during the Parma bomb run, and he is never heard from again.

Doc Daneeka - The medical officer. Doc Daneeka feels very sorry for

himself because the war interrupted his lucrative private practice in the

States, and he refuses to listen to other people's problems. Doc Daneeka is

the first person to explain Catch-22 to Yossarian.

Dobbs - A co-pilot, Dobbs seizes the controls from Huple during the

mission to Avignon, the same mission on which Snowden dies. Dobbs later

develops a plan to murder Colonel Cathcart, and eventually awaits only

Yossarian's go-ahead to put it in action.

McWatt - A cheerful, polite pilot who often pilots Yossarian's planes.

McWatt likes to joke around with Yossarian, and sometimes buzzes the

squadron. One day he accidentally flies in too low, and slices Kid Sampson

in half with his propellor; he then commits suicide by flying his plane

into a mountain.

Major - The supremely mediocre squadron commander. Born Major Major

Major, he is promoted to major on his first day in the army by a

mischievous computer. Major Major is painfully awkward, and will only see

people in his office when he isn't there.

Aarfy - Yossarian's navigator. Aarfy infuriates Yossarian by pretending

he cannot hear Yossarian's orders during bomb runs. Toward the end of the

novel, Aarfy stuns Yossarian when he rapes and murders the maid of the

officers' apartments in Rome.

Orr - Yossarian's often maddening roommate. Orr almost always crashes

his plane or is shot down on combat missions, but he always seems to


Appleby - A handsome, athletic member of the squadron and a superhuman

ping-pong player. Orr enigmatically says that Appleby has flies in his


Captain Black - The squadron's bitter intelligence officer. He wants

nothing more than to be squadron commander. Captain Black exults in the

men's discomfort and does everything he can increase it; when Nately falls

in love with a whore in Rome, Captain Black begins to buy her services

regularly just to taunt him.

Colonel Korn - Colonel Cathcart's wily, cynical sidekick.

Major de Coverley - The fierce, intense executive officer for the

squadron. Major ----- de Coverley is revered and feared by the men--they

are even afraid to ask his first name-- though all he does is play

horseshoes and rent apartments for the officers in cities taken by American

forces. When Yossarian moves the bomb line on a map to make it appear that

Bologna has been captured, Major ----- de Coverely disappears in Bologna

trying to rent an officers' apartment.

Major Danby - The timid operations officer. Before the war, he was a

college professor; now, he does his best for his country. In the end, he

helps Yossarian escape.

General Dreedle - The grumpy old general in charge of the wing in which

Yossarian's squadron is placed. General Dreedle is the victim of a private

war waged against him by the ambitious General Peckem.

Nurse Duckett - A nurse in the Pianosa hospital who becomes Yossarian's


Dunbar - Yossarian's friend, the only other person who seems to

understand that there is a war going on. Dunbar has decided to live as long

as possible by making time pass as slowly as possible, so he treasures

boredom and discomfort. He is mysteriously "disappeared" as part of a

conspiracy toward the end of the novel.

Chief White Halfoat - An alcoholic Indian from Oklahoma who has decided

to die of pneumonia.

Havermeyer - A fearless lead bombardier. Havermeyer never takes evasive

action, and he enjoys shooting field mice at night.

Huple - A fifteen year-old pilot; the pilot on the mission to Avignon

on which Snowden is killed. Huple is Hungry Joe's roommate, and his cat

likes to sleep on Hungry Joe's face.

Washington Irving - A famous American author whose name Yossarian signs

to letters during one of his many stays in the hospital. Eventually,

military intelligence believes Washington Irving to be the name of a covert

insubordinate, and two C.I.D. (Criminal Investigation Division) men are

dispatched to ferret him out of the squadron.

Luciana - A beautiful girl Yossarian meets, sleeps with, and falls in

love with during a brief period in Rome.

Mudd - Generally referred to as "the dead man in Yossarian's tent,"

Mudd was a squadron member who was killed in action before he could be

processed as an official member of the squadron. As a result, he is listed

as never having arrived, and no one has the authority to move his

belongings out of Yossarian's tent.

Lieutenant Scheisskopf - Later Colonel Scheisskopf and eventually

General Scheisskopf. He helps train Yossarian's squadron in America and

shows an unsettling passion for elaborate military parades. ("Scheisskopf"

is German for "shithead.")

The Soldier in White - A body completely covered with bandages in

Yossarian and Dunbar's ward in the Pianosa hospital.

Snowden - The young gunner whose death over Avignon shattered

Yossarian's courage and opened his eyes to the madness of the war. Snowden

died in Yossarian's arms with his entrails splattered all over Yossarian's

uniform, a trauma which is gradually revealed throughout the novel.

Corporal Whitcomb - Later Sergeant Whitcomb, the chaplain's atheist

assistant. Corporal Whitcomb hates the chaplain for holding back his

career, and makes the chaplain a suspect in the Washington Irving scandal.

ex-P.F.C. Wintergreen - The mail clerk at the Twenty-Seventh Air Force

Headquarters, Wintergreen is able to intercept and forge documents, and

thus wields enormous power in the Air Force. He continually goes AWOL

(Absent Without Leave), and is continually punished with loss of rank.

General Peckem - The ambitious special operations general who plots

incessantly to take over General Dreedle's position.

Kid Sampson - A pilot in the squadron. Kid Sampson is sliced in half by

McWatt's propeller when McWatt jokingly buzzes the beach with his plane.

Lieutenant Colonel Korn - Colonel Cathcart's wily, condescending


Colonel Moodus - General Dreedle's son-in-law. General Dreedle despises

Colonel Moodus, and enjoys watching Chief White Halfoat bust him in the


Flume - Chief White Halfoat's old roommate who is so afraid of having

his throat slit while he sleeps that he has taken to living in the forest.

Dori Duz - A friend of Scheisskopf's wife. Together, they sleep with

all the men training under him while he is stationed in the U.S.

The Catcher in the Rye

Chapter One:

The Catcher in the Rye begins with the statement by the narrator, Holden

Caulfield, that he will not tell about his "lousy" childhood and "all that

David Copperfield kind of crap" because such details bore him. He describes

his parents as nice, but "touchy as hell." Instead, Holden vows to tell

about what happened to him around last Christmas, before he had to take it

easy. He also mentions his brother, D.B., who is nearby in Hollywood "being

a prostitute." Holden was a student at Pencey Prep in Agerstown,

Pennsylvania, and he mocks their advertisements, which claim to have been

molding boys into clear-thinking young men since 1888. Holden begins his

story during the Saturday of the football game with Saxon Hall, which was

supposed to be a very big deal at Pencey. Selma Thurmer, the daughter of

the headmaster, is at the game. Although she is unattractive and a bit

pathetic, to Holden she seems nice enough, for she does not lavish praise

upon her father. Holden, the manager of the fencing team, had just returned

from New York with the team. Although they were supposed to have a meet

with the McBurney School, Holden left the foils on the subway. The fencing

team was angry at Holden, but he thought the entire event was funny in a

way. Holden does not attend the football game, instead choosing to say

goodbye to Spencer, his history teacher, who knew that Holden was not

coming back to Pencey. Holden had recently been expelled for failing four


Chapter Two:

Holden finds the Spencer's house somewhat depressing, smelling of Vicks

Nose Drops and clearly indicating the old age of its inhabitants. Mr.

Spencer sits in a ratty old bathrobe, and asks Holden to sit down. Holden

tells him how Dr. Thurmer told him about how "life is a game" and you

should "play it according to the rules" when he expelled him. Mr. Spencer

tells him that Dr. Thurmer was correct, and Holden agrees with him, but

thinks instead that life is only a game if you are on the right side.

Holden tells Mr. Spencer that his parents will be upset, for this is his

fourth private school so far. Holden tells that, at sixteen, he is over six

feet tall and has some gray hair, but still acts like a child, as others

often tell him. Spencer says that he met with Holden's parents, who are

"grand" people, but Holden dismisses that word as "phony." Spencer then

tells Holden that he failed him in History because he knew nothing, and

even reads his exam essay about the Egyptians to him. At the end of the

exam, Holden left a note for Mr. Spencer, admitting that he is not

interested in the Egyptians, despite Spencer's interesting lectures, and

that he will accept if Mr. Spencer fails him. As Holden and Mr. Spencer

continue to talk, Holden's mind wanders; he thinks about ice skating in

Central Park. When Mr. Spencer asks why Holden quit Elkton Hills, he tells

Mr. Spencer that it is a long story, but explains in narration that the

people there were phonies. He mentions the particular quality of the

headmaster, Mr. Haas, who would be charming toward everyone but the "funny-

looking parents." Holden claims he has little interest in the future, and

assures Mr. Spencer that he is just going through a phase. As Holden

leaves, he hears Mr. Spencer say "good luck," a phrase that he particularly


Chapter Three:

Holden claims that he is the most terrific liar one could meet. He admits

that he lied to Spencer by telling him that he had to go to the gym. At

Pencey, Holden lives in the Ossenburger Memorial Wing of the new dorms.

Ossenburger is a wealthy undertaker who graduated from the school; Holden

tells how false Ossenburger seemed when he gave a speech exalting faith in

Jesus and how another student farted during the ceremony. Holden returns to

his room, where he puts on a red hunting hat they he bought in New York.

Holden discusses the books that he likes to read: he prefers Ring Lardner,

but is now reading Dinesen's Out of Africa. Ackley, a student whose room is

connected to Holden's, barges in on Holden. Holden describes Ackley as

having a terrible personality and an even worse complexion. Holden tries to

ignore him, then pretends that he is blind to annoy Ackley. Ackley cuts his

nails right in front of Holden, and asks about Ward Stradlater, Holden's

roommate. Ackley claims that he hates Stradlater, that "goddamn

sonuvabitch," but Holden tells Ackley that he hates Stradlater for the

simple reason that Stradlater told him that he should actually brush his

teeth. Holden defends Stradlater, claiming that he is conceited, but still

generous. Stradlater arrives, and is friendly to Holden (in a phony sort of

way), and asks to borrow a jacket from Holden. Stradlater walks around

shirtless to show off his build.

Chapter Four:

Since he has nothing else to do, Holden goes down to the bathroom to chat

with Stradlater as he shaves. Stradlater, in comparison to Ackley, is a

"secret" slob, who would always shave with a rusty razor that he would

never clean. Stradlater is a "Yearbook" kind of handsome guy. He asks

Holden to write a composition for him for English. Holden realizes the

irony that he is flunking out of Pencey, yet is still asked to do work for

others. Stradlater insists, however, that Holden not write it too well, for

Hartzell knows that Holden is a hot-shot in English. On an impulse, Holden

gives Stradlater a half nelson, which greatly annoys Stradlater. Stradlater

talks about his date that night with Jane Gallagher. Although he cannot

even get her name correct, Holden knows her well, for she lived next door

to him several summers ago and they would play checkers together.

Stradlater barely listens as he fixes his hair with Holden's gel. Holden

asks Stradlater not to tell Jane that he got kicked out. He then borrows

Holden's hound's-tooth jacket and leaves. Ackley returns, and Holden is

actually glad to see him, for he takes his mind off of other matters.

Chapter Five:

On Saturday nights at Pencey the students are served steak; Holden believes

this occurs because parents visit on Sunday and students can thus tell them

that they had steak for dinner the previous night, as if it were a common

occurrence. Holden goes with Ackley and Mal Brossard into New York City to

see a movie, but since Ackley and Brossard had both seen that particular

Cary Grant comedy, they play pinball and get hamburgers instead. When they

return, Ackley remains in Holden's room, telling about a girl he had sex

with, but Holden knows that he is lying, for whenever he tells that same

story, the details always change. Holden tells him to leave so that he can

write Stradlater's composition. He writes about his brother Allie's

baseball mitt. Allie, born two years after Holden, died of leukemia in

1946. The night that Allie died, Holden broke all of the windows in his

garage with his fist.

Chapter Six:

Stradlater returned late that night, thanked Holden for the jacket and

asked if he did the composition for him. When Stradlater reads it, he gets

upset at Holden, for it is simply about a baseball glove. Since Stradlater

is upset, Holden tears up the composition. Holden starts smoking, just to

annoy Stradlater. Holden asks about the date, but Stradlater doesn't give

very much information, only that they spent most of the time in Ed Banky's

car. Finally he asks if Stradlater "gave her the time" there. Stradlater

says that the answer is a "professional secret," and Holden responds by

trying to punch Stradlater. Stradlater pushes him down and sits with his

knees on Holden's chest. He only lets Holden go when he agrees to say

nothing more about Stradlater's date. When he calls Stradlater a moron, he

knocks Holden out. Holden then goes to the bathroom to wash the blood off

his face. Even though he claims to be a pacifist, Holden enjoys the look of

blood on his face.

Chapter Seven:

Ackley, who was awakened by the fight, comes in Holden's room to ask what

happened. He tells Holden that he is still bleeding and should put

something on his wounds. Holden asks if he can sleep in Ackley's room that

night, since his roommate is away for the weekend, but Ackley says that he

can't give him permission. Holden feels so lonesome that he wishes he were

dead. Holden worries that Stradlater had sex with Jane during their date,

because he knew that Stradlater was capable of seducing girls quickly.

Holden asks Ackley whether or not one has to be Catholic to join a

monastery. He then decides to leave Pencey immediately. He decides to take

a room in a hotel in New York and take it easy until Wednesday. He packs

ice skates that his mother had just sent him. The skates make him sad,

because they are not the kind that he wanted. According to Holden, his

mother has a way of making him sad whenever he receives a present. Holden

wakes up Woodruff, a wealthy student, and sells him his typewriter for

twenty bucks. Before he leaves, he yells "Sleep tight, ya morons."

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