colours of the Brigade of Guards (as were aircraft in the early days of

Royal flying).

Today, the BAe 146 and HS 125 of No 32 (The Royal) Squadron and the Royal

Household's S-76 are used for official duties by The Queen and, at her

discretion, other members of the Royal family, continuing a tradition begun

with a single aircraft more than 60 years ago.



In her role as Head of State The Queen is supported by members of the

Royal Family, who carry out a wide range of public and official duties. The

biographies in this section contain information about various members of

the Royal Family, including early life and education, professional careers,

official Royal work, involvement with charities and other organisations,

personal interests and more


The Queen was born in London on 21 April 1926, the first child of The

Duke and Duchess of York, subsequently King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.

Five weeks later she was christened Elizabeth Alexandra Mary in the chapel

at Buckingham Palace.

The Princess's early years were spent at 145 Piccadilly, the London

house taken by her parents shortly after her birth; at White Lodge in

Richmond Park; and at the country homes of her grandparents, King George V

and Queen Mary, and the Earl and Countess of Strathmore. When she was six

years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park as their

own country home.


Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich,

was born Prince of Greece and Denmark in Corfu on 10 June 1921; the only

son of Prince Andrew of Greece. His paternal family is of Danish descent -

Prince Andrew was the grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark. His mother

was Princess Alice of Battenberg, the eldest child of Prince Louis of

Battenberg and sister of Earl Mountbatten of Burma. Prince Louis became a

naturalised British subject in 1868, joined the Royal Navy and rose to

become an Admiral of the Fleet and First Sea Lord in 1914. During the First

World War he changed the family name to Mountbatten and was created

Marquess of Milford Haven. Prince Philip adopted the family name of

Mountbatten when he became a naturalised British subject and renounced his

Royal title in 1947.

Prince Louis married one of Queen Victoria's granddaughters. Thus, The

Queen and Prince Philip both have Queen Victoria as a great-great-

grandmother. They are also related through his father's side. His paternal

grandfather, King George I of Greece, was Queen Alexandra's brother.


The Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip,

Duke of Edinburgh, is heir apparent to the throne.

The Prince was born at Buckingham Palace on 14 November 1948, and was

christened Charles Philip Arthur George.

When, on the accession of Queen Elizabeth in 1952, he became heir

apparent, Prince Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall under a

charter of King Edward III dating back to 1337, which gave that title to

the Sovereign's eldest son. He also became, in the Scottish Peerage, Duke

of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and

Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.

The Prince was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in 1958. In

1968, The Prince of Wales was installed as a Knight of the Garter. The Duke

of Rothesay (as he is known in Scotland) was appointed a Knight of the

Thistle in 1977. In June 2002 The Prince of Wales was appointed to the

Order of Merit.


The Duke of York was born on 19 February 1960 at Buckingham Palace. He is

the second son and the third child of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh.

He was the first child to be born to a reigning monarch for 103 years.

Named Andrew Albert Christian Edward he was known as Prince Andrew until

his marriage, when he was created The Duke of York, Earl of Inverness and

Baron Killyleagh.


The Earl of Wessex is the third son and youngest child of The Queen and

The Duke of Edinburgh. He was born on 10 March 1964 and christened Edward

Antony Richard Louis at Buckingham Palace. He was known as Prince Edward

until his marriage, when he was created The Earl of Wessex and Viscount

Severn; at the same time it was announced that His Royal Highness will

eventually succeed to the title of The Duke of Edinburgh.

In March 1989, The Queen appointed Prince Edward a Commander of the Royal

Victorian Order.


The Princess Royal, the second child and only daughter of The Queen and

The Duke of Edinburgh, was born at Clarence House, London, on 15 August

1950, when her mother was Princess Elizabeth, heir presumptive to the

throne. She was baptised Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise at Buckingham Palace

on 21 October 1950.

She received the title Princess Royal from The Queen in June 1987; she

was previously known as Princess Anne. Her Royal Highness is the seventh

holder of the title.

In 1994 The Queen appointed The Princess a Lady of the Most Noble Order

of the Garter. In 2000, to mark her 50th birthday, The Princess Royal was

appointed to the Order of the Thistle, in recognition of her work for



Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester is the widow of the late Duke of

Gloucester, third son of George V.

Lady Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott was born on Christmas Day,

1901 at Montagu House, London. She was the third daughter of the seventh

Duke of Buccleuch, who had been a fellow midshipman of the future king

George V.

Lady Alice was educated at home until the age of 12. She then went to

school at West Malvern, spending a year in Paris before returning home to

be presented at Court in 1920. Lady Alice has greatly enjoyed outdoor

pursuits, including skiing, and has been an accomplished watercolourist.

She also travelled widely, living for many months in Kenya and also

spending time in India on a visit to her brother.


Born in 1944, The Duke of Gloucester is the second son of the late Duke

of Gloucester and Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester. He is a grandson

of George V and a first cousin to The Queen. He succeeded his father as

Duke of Gloucester in June 1974.

In July 1972 Prince Richard (as he was then known) married Birgitte Eva

van Deurs from Odense, Denmark at St Andrew's Church, Barnwell,

Northamptonshire. The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester have three children:

(Alexander) Earl of Ulster, born in 1974; The Lady Davina Windsor, born in

1977; and The Lady Rose Windsor, born in 1980.

The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester both carry out a large number of

official engagements each year, individually and together. They undertake

visits in regions throughout the United Kingdom and travel abroad on

official visits and to support their varied patronages.


Born in 1935, HRH The Duke of Kent is the son of the late Prince George,

fourth son of King George V, and the late Princess Marina, daughter of

Prince Nicholas of Greece. He is cousin to both The Queen and The Duke of

Edinburgh. The present Duke of Kent inherited his title following the death

of his father in 1942.

In 1961 The Duke of Kent became engaged to Miss Katharine Worsley and

they married in York Minster. The couple have three children: George, Earl

of St Andrews, born in June 1962; Lady Helen Taylor, born in April 1964 and

Lord Nicholas Windsor, born on 25 July 1970.

The Duke and The Duchess of Kent undertake a large number of official

Royal engagements. Each has close associations with many charities,

professional bodies and other organisations.


Prince Michael was born on 4 July 1942 at the family home in Iver,

Buckinghamshire. He was christened Michael George Charles Franklin and one

of his godfathers was President Roosevelt. He is a cousin to both The Queen

and The Duke of Edinburgh, and his older brother and sister are The Duke of

Kent and Princess Alexandra. Prince Michael's father, Prince George, was

the fourth son of George V and his mother, Princess Marina, was the

daughter of Prince Nicholas of Greece.

The Prince is a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.


Princess Alexandra was born on Christmas Day 1936 at 3, Belgrave Square,

her family's London home. She is the second child and only daughter of the

late Duke and Duchess of Kent (her brothers are the present Duke of Kent

and Prince Michael of Kent). Much of her childhood was spent at their

country home, Coppins, in Buckinghamshire. Her father was killed in a

wartime flying accident in 1942 when she was just five years old.



4 August 1900 - 30 March 2002

Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother died peacefully in her sleep

on Saturday 30 March 2002, at Royal Lodge, Windsor. Queen Elizabeth was a

much-loved member of the Royal Family. Her life, spanning over a century,

was devoted to the service of her country, the fulfilment of her Royal

duties and the support of her family.


21 AUGUST 1930 - 9 FEBRUARY 2002

Her Royal Highness The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon died

peacefully in her sleep on Saturday 9 February, 2002, in The King Edward

VII Hospital, London.

The younger daughter of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen

Mother, and sister to The Queen, Princess Margaret was a hardworking and

much-loved member of the Royal Family.

Read more about the Princess and her funeral and memorial services in

this section.


Diana, Princess of Wales died on Sunday, 31 August 1997 following a car

crash in Paris. There was widespread public mourning at the death of this

popular figure, culminating with her funeral at Westminster Abbey on

Saturday, 6 September 1997. Even after her death, however, the Princess's

work lives on in the form of commemorative charities and projects set up to

help those in need.



The Royal Collection, one of the finest art collections in the world, is

held in trust by The Queen as Sovereign for her successors and the Nation.

It is on public display at the principal royal residences and is shown in a

programme of special exhibitions and through loans to institutions around

the world.


Shaped by the personal tastes of kings and queens over more than 500

years, the Royal Collection includes paintings, drawings and watercolours,

furniture, ceramics, clocks, silver, sculpture, jewellery, books,

manuscripts, prints and maps, arms and armour, fans, and textiles. It is

held in trust by The Queen as Sovereign for her successors and the Nation,

and is not owned by her as a private individual. Curatorial and

administrative responsibility for the Collection is held by the Royal

Collection Department, part of the Royal Household.

The Collection has largely been formed since the Restoration of the

Monarchy in 1660. Some items belonging to earlier monarchs, for

example Henry VIII, also survive. The greater part of the magnificent

collection inherited and added to by Charles I was dispersed on

Cromwell's orders during the Interregnum. The royal patrons now chiefly

associated with notable additions to the Collection are Frederick, Prince

of Wales; George III; George IV; Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; and

Queen Mary, Consort of George V.

The Royal Collection is on display at the principal royal residences, all

of which are open to the public. Unlike most art collections of national

importance, works of art from the Royal Collection can be enjoyed in the

historic settings for which they were originally commissioned or acquired.

Much of the Collection is still in use at the working royal palaces.

The official residences of The Queen have a programme of changing

exhibitions to show further areas of the Collection to the public,

particularly those items that cannot be on permanent display for

conservation reasons. The Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty The Queen will be

marked by the creation of two flagship exhibition spaces at Buckingham

Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse.

Loans are made to institutions throughout the world, as part of the

commitment to make the Collection widely available and to show works of art

in new contexts. Touring exhibitions remain an important part of the Royal

Collection's work to broaden public access.

Over 3,000 objects from the Royal Collection are on long-term loan to

museums and galleries around the United Kingdom and abroad. National

institutions housing works of art from the Collection include The British

Museum, National Gallery, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Museum of

London, the National Museum of Wales and the National Gallery of Scotland.

The Royal Collection is the only collection of major national importance

to receive no Government funding or public subsidy and is administered by

the Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity. The Trust was set up by

The Queen in 1993 under the chairmanship of The Prince of Wales, following

the establishment of the Royal Collection Department as a new department of

the Royal Household in 1987. Income from the public opening of Windsor

Castle, Buckingham Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse and from

associated retail activities supports curatorial, conservation and

educational work, loans and travelling exhibitions and major capital

projects. These projects include the restoration of Windsor Castle after

the fire in 1992, the rebuilding of The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham

Palace and the construction of an entirely new gallery at the Palace of



The Royal Collection is the only collection of major national importance

to receive no Government funding or public subsidy. It is administered by

the Royal Collection Trust, a registered charity established by The Queen

in 1993 under the chairmanship of The Prince of Wales. The role of the

Trust is to ensure that the Collection is conserved and displayed to the

highest standards and that public understanding of and access to the

Collection is increased through exhibition, publication, education and a

programme of loans.

These wide-ranging activities are funded by monies raised through the

Trust's trading arm, Royal Collection Enterprises, from the public opening

of Windsor Castle, Buckingham Palace and the Palace of Holyroodhouse and

from retail sales of publications and other merchandise. Current projects

funded through the Royal Collection Trust include the major expansion of

exhibition space at Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse to

mark The Queen's Golden Jubilee in 2002.

The Royal Collection Trust determines how the income generated should be

used in pursuit of its stated objectives.

The Trust's primary aims are to ensure that:

- the Collection is subject to proper custodial control;

- the Collection is maintained and conserved to the highest possible


- as much of the Collection as possible can be seen by members of the


- the Collection is presented and interpreted so as to enhance the public's

appreciation and understanding;

- appropriate acquisitions are made when resources become available.


Royal Collection Enterprises Limited, the trading subsidiary of the Royal

Collection Trust, generates income for the presentation and conservation of

the Royal Collection, and for projects to increase public access. It is

responsible for the management and financial administration of public

admission to Windsor Castle and Frogmore House, Buckingham Palace,

including the Royal Mews, and The Queen's Galleries. Royal Collection

Enterprises also promotes access to the Royal Collection through

publishing, retail merchandise and the Picture Library.


Publishing forms an important part of the Royal Collection Trust's

ongoing programme to extend knowledge and enjoyment of the Collection's

treasures. Over fifty books about the Royal Collection have been produced

in recent years, ranging from scholarly exhibition catalogues to books for


In the mid-1990s the Royal Collection established its own imprint to

build a definitive series about the royal residences and the works of art.

These books are written by or in consultation with the Royal Collection's

own curators.

Royal Collection publications are available from the Royal Collection

shops at the Royal Mews, Windsor Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the

Summer Opening of the State Rooms at Buckingham Palace.

All profits from the sale of Royal Collection publications are dedicated

to the Royal Collection Trust.


The Royal Collection comprises the contents of all the royal palaces.

These include the official residences of The Queen, where the Collection

plays an important part in the life of a working palace - Buckingham

Palace, Windsor Castle and the Palace of Holyroodhouse (administered by the

Royal Collection Trust); the unoccupied residences - Hampton Court Palace,

Kensington Palace (State Apartments), Kew Palace, the Banqueting House,

Whitehall and the Tower of London (administered by the Historic Royal

Palaces Trust); and Osborne House (owned and administered by English


Items from the Collection may also be seen at the private homes of The

Queen - Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle.


Dedicated gallery spaces allow works from the Collection to be presented

and interpreted in different contexts, outside their historic settings, and

give public access to items that cannot be on permanent display for

conservation reasons. The exhibitions in The Queen's Galleries are

accompanied by full catalogues, bringing to the public new research on the

subject by the Royal Collection's curators.


The new Queen's Gallery at the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh was

inaugurated by Her Majesty The Queen on 29 November 2002 and opened its

doors to the public the following day, St Andrew's Day. The inaugural

exhibition is Leonardo da Vinci: The Divine and the Grotesque (30 November

2002 - 30 March 2003), the largest exhibition devoted to Leonardo da Vinci

ever held in Scotland and the first to examine the artist's life-long

obsession with the human form. All 68 works come from the Royal Collection,

which holds the world's finest group of Leonardo's drawings.

A new exhibition also opened at Windsor Castle in the Drawings Gallery on

9 November 2002. The exhibition celebrates the centenary of the Order of

Merit with a series of original drawings of holders of the honour, past and

present. It also features manuscripts and badges from former holders.


Some 3,000 objects from the Royal Collection are on long-term loan to 160

institutions across the UK and overseas. These include the Raphael

Cartoons of The Acts of the Apostles at the Victoria and Albert Museum, the

Van der Goes Trinity Altarpiece at the National Gallery of Scotland, and

the Roman sculpture The Lely Venus, at The British Museum.

Every year hundreds of objects from the Collection are lent to special

exhibitions worldwide. These loans support international scholarship and

enable material to be seen in new contexts.

Touring exhibitions of works from the Royal Library are an important way

to broaden access to items that, for conservation reasons, cannot be on

permanent display. The millennial exhibition Ten Religious Masterpieces

was the year 2000's most popular art exhibition outside London, attracting

over 200,000 visitors over the period of its tour.


The residences associated with today's Royal Family are divided into the

Occupied Royal Residences, which are held in trust for future generations,

and the Private Estates which have been handed down to The Queen by earlier

generations of the Royal Family.

Beautifully furnished with treasures from the Royal Collection, most of

the Royal residences are open to the public when not in official use.

These pages contain details of the history and role of these Residences

and Estates, and provide information for visitors on opening times and

admission prices for those that are open to the public.


Throughout the centuries, Britain's kings and queens have built or bought

palaces to serve as family homes, workplaces and as centres of government.

The residences associated with today's Royal Family are divided into the

Occupied Royal Residences, which are held in trust for future generations,

and the Private Estates which have been handed down to The Queen by earlier

generations of the Royal Family.



Buckingham Palace has served as the official London residence of

Britain's sovereigns since 1837. It evolved from a town house that was

owned from the beginning of the eighteenth century by the Dukes of

Buckingham. Today it is The Queen's official residence. Although in use for

the many official events and receptions held by The Queen, areas of

Buckingham Palace are opened to visitors on a regular basis.

The State Rooms of the Palace are open to visitors during the Annual

Summer Opening in August and September. They are lavishly furnished with

some of the greatest treasures from the Royal Collection - paintings by

Rembrandt, Rubens, Vermeer, Poussin, Canaletto and Claude; sculpture by

Canova and Chantrey; exquisite examples of Sиvres porcelain, and some of

the finest English and French furniture in the world.

Visits to Buckingham Palace can be combined with visits to The Queen's

Gallery, which reopened in May 2002.



The Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace is a permanent space dedicated

to changing exhibitions of items from the Royal Collection, the wide-

ranging collection of art and treasures held in trust by The Queen for the

nation. Constructed forty years ago on the west front of Buckingham Palace

out of the bomb-damaged ruins of the former private chapel, the gallery has

recently been redeveloped. It was reopened by The Queen on 21 May 2002 and

is now open to the public on a daily basis.

The inaugural exhibition of the redeveloped gallery is a spectacular

celebration of the individual tastes of monarchs and other members of the

royal family who have shaped one of the world's greatest collections of

art. Mixing the famous with the unexpected, the selection of 450

outstanding works for Royal Treasures: A Golden Jubilee Celebration has

been made across the entire breadth of the Royal Collection, from eight

royal residences and over five centuries of collecting.


One of the finest working stables in existence, the Royal Mews at

Buckingham Palace provides a unique opportunity for visitors to see the

work of the Royal Household department that provides road transport for The

Queen and members of the Royal Family by both horse-drawn carriage and

motor car.

The Royal Mews has a permanent display of State vehicles. These include

the magnificent Gold State Coach used for Coronations and those carriages

used for Royal and State occasions, State Visits, weddings and the State

Opening of Parliament. A State motor vehicle is also usually on display.

For much of the year visitors to the Royal Mews can also see the 30 or so

carriage-horses which play an important role in The Queen's official and

ceremonial duties.



Windsor Castle is an official residence of The Queen and the largest

occupied castle in the world. A royal palace and fortress for over 900

years, the Castle remains a working palace today. Visitors can walk around

the State Apartments, extensive suites of rooms at the heart of the working

palace; for part of the year visitors can also see the Semi State rooms,

which are some of the most splendid interiors in the castle. They are

furnished with treasures from the Royal Collection including paintings by

Holbein, Rubens, Van Dyck and Lawrence, fine tapestries and porcelain,

sculpture and armour.

Within the Castle complex there are many additional attractions. In the

Drawings Gallery regular exhibitions of treasures from the Royal Library

are mounted. Another popular feature is the Queen Mary's Dolls' House, a

miniature mansion built to perfection. The fourteenth-century St. George's

Chapel is the burial place of ten sovereigns, home of the Order of the

Garter, and setting for many royal weddings. Nearby on the Windsor Estate

is Frogmore House, an attractive country residence with strong associations

to three queens - Queen Charlotte, Queen Victoria and Queen Mary.

In celebration of the Golden Jubilee of Her Majesty The Queen, a new

landscape garden has been created by the designer and Chelsea Gold

Medallist Tom Stuart-Smith. The garden, the first to be made at the Castle

since the 1820s, transforms the visitor entrance and provides a setting for

band concerts throughout the year. The informal design takes its

inspiration from Windsor's historic parkland landscape and the picturesque

character of the Castle, introduced by the architect Sir Jeffry Wyatville

for George IV in the 1820s.



Frogmore House lies in the tranquil setting of the private Home Park of

Windsor Castle. A country residence of various monarchs since the

seventeenth century, the house is especially linked to Queen Victoria. The

house and attractive gardens were one of Queen Victoria's favourite

retreats. In the gardens stands the Mausoleum where Queen Victoria and her

husband Prince Albert are buried.



Founded as a monastery in 1128, the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh

is The Queen's official residence in Scotland. Situated at the end of the

Royal Mile, the Palace of Holyroodhouse is closely associated with

Scotland's turbulent past, including Mary, Queen of Scots, who lived here

between 1561 and 1567. Successive kings and queens have made the Palace of

Holyroodhouse the premier royal residence in Scotland. Today, the Palace is

the setting for State ceremonies and official entertaining.



Balmoral Castle on the Balmoral Estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland is the

private residence of The Queen. Beloved by Queen Victoria and Prince

Albert, Balmoral Castle has remained a favourite residence for The Queen

and her family during the summer holiday period in August and September.

The Castle is located on the large Balmoral Estate, a working estate which

aims to protect the environment while contributing to the local economy.

The Estate grounds, gardens and the Castle Ballroom are open to visitors

from the beginning of April to the end of July each year, under the

management of the Balmoral Estate Office.



Sandringham House in Norfolk has been the private home of four

generations of Sovereigns since 1862. The Queen and other members of the

Royal family regularly spend Christmas at Sandringham and make it their

official base until February each year.

Like Balmoral, the Sandringham Estate is a commercial estate managed

privately on The Queen's behalf. Sandringham House, the museum and the

grounds are open to visitors.


St. James's Palace is the senior Palace of the Sovereign, with a long

history as a royal residence. As the home of several members of the Royal

Family and their household offices, it is often in use for official

functions and is not open to the public.



Kensington Palace in London is a working Royal residence. Of great

historical importance, Kensington Palace was the favourite residence of

successive sovereigns until 1760. It was also the birthplace and childhood

home of Queen Victoria. Today Kensington Palace accommodates the offices

and private apartments of a number of members of the Royal Family. Although

managed by Historic Royal Palaces, the Palace is furnished with items from

the Royal Collection.



Some of the most celebrated Royal residences used by former kings and

queens can still be visited today.

The Tower of London, begun by William I, is a fascinating complex

constructed over several centuries. It provided historic Royal families

with a residence for more than five centuries, and was a prison for other

Royal figures, including Lady Jane Grey. The Tower housed the Royal Mint

until 1810. There were also armouries and workshops in which weapons were

designed and manufactured; items including armour worn by Henry VIII remain

there today. The Tower remains the storehouse of the Crown Jewels and

regalia, as it has done for nearly 700 years. Today the Tower is under the

management of the Historic Royal Palaces Trust.

Hampton Court Palace is also managed by Historic Royal Palaces. Given by

Cardinal Wolsey to Henry VIII c.1526, the palace was a residence for

figures including Mary I and Elizabeth I, Charles I, William III and Mary

II, and retains many furnishings and objects from their times. It houses

some important works of art and furnishings in the Royal Collection.

The Banqueting House in Whitehall is the only remaining part of London's

old Palace of Whitehall. It was created by Inigo Jones for James I. Charles

I commissioned Rubens to paint the vast ceiling panels, which celebrate

kingship in general and the Stuart reign in particular. It was from the

Banqueting House that Charles I stepped on to the scaffold on 30 January

1649. In 1689 the Prince and Princess of Orange went to the Banqueting

House to accept the crown, becoming joint Sovereigns William III and Mary

II. Today the Banqueting House is managed by Historic Royal Palaces.

Other historic Royal residences which can be visited include Osborne

House, the beloved home of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert on the Isle of

Wight, and the Brighton Pavilion, former residence of George IV when he was

Prince Regent.


Thorpe, Lewis, trans., Geoffrey of Monmouth: The History of the Kings of

Britain, Penguin Books, London, 1966;

G. R. Elton, Modern Historians on British History, 1485–1945:

A Critical Bibliography, 1945–1969 (1971);

P. Catterall, British History, 1945–1987:

C. Read, Bibliography of British History: Tudor Period, 1485–1603 (2d ed.

1959, repr. 1978);

C. L. Mowat, Great Britain since 1914 (1971);

G. Davies, Bibliography of British History: Stuart Period, 1603–1714 (1928;

2d ed., ed. by M. F. Keeler, 1970);

Sir George Clark, ed., The Oxford History of England (2d ed., 16 vol.,


G. S. Graham, A Concise History of the British Empire (1971);

F. E. Halliday, A Concise History of England (1980);

F. M. L. Thompson, ed., The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750–1950


Encyclopedia Britannica


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