–ефераты. Category of number of the noun






Category of number of the noun

2. Category of Number of the Noun.

Regular Ц one.

Plural Ц more than one.

Regular Plurals:

1. Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z])

2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])

3. Цs,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])

4. Цo: -es-hero-heroes. But:

-os:

after a vowel Ц bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos.

In proper names Ц Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.

In abbreviations - kilos, photos, pros(professional).

Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos.

In other cases the spelling is -oes (tomatoes, echoes, Negroes, potatoes,

vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes)

Цoes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s

5. Consonant+y - -ies (sky-skies). But:

-ys

After vowels, except nouns ending Цquy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies)

In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys

In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.

Penny: pence-the British currency(денежна€ сумма), pennies-for individual

coins.

6. Цf(e)

Цves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves, calf-

calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves.

Цs: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes, cliff-cliffs, gulf-

gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs

Цves/-s: scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves.

7. Цth - -ths (mouth-mouths)

8. in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS, p.(page)-pp.,

Mr-

Irregular Plurals.

1. By vowel change (Man-men, woman-women, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-

geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice).

2. Цen (ox-oxen, child-children)

3. Identical

(sheep-sheep, swine-swine(свинь€), deer-deer, grouse-grouse(куропатка).

But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes, trout-trout(s), carp-

carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote hunting

quarries. (We caught a few fish, five salmon); the regular plural Ц

different individuals, species.

Nationality nouns in Цese, -ss: Chinese, Swiss. And: Englishmen = the

English, Dutchmen = the Dutch.

Latin & French nouns: series-series(р€д, сери€), species-species(вид,

порода, род), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (корпус, род войск).

Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head (поголовье): 2 dozen

of children, dozens of children.

4.

Loans of Greek origin -(-is - -es: basis-bases, crisis-crises, analysis,

thesis, parenthesis, axis[вал, ось, шпендель], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on Ц

a: criterion Ц criteria, phenomenon, -a Ц ata: miasma-miasmata)

Loans of Latin origin (-us - -i, -ora, -era: stimulus-stimuli, nucleus-

nuclei[€дро],radius-radii[тело], genus-genera[род]; -a - -ae: formula-

formulae(formulas), antenna, vertebra[позвонок]; -um - -a: datum-

data[данна€ величина], stratum-strata[описка], erratum-errata[опечаток];

-es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix)

Other loan nouns (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o - -i: tempo-

tempi)

2 variants (memorandum Цmemoranda, memorandums, curriculum-curricula,

curriculums[курс обучени€], formula-formulae, formulas, cherub-

cherubim[херувим], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses)

Different meaning index-indexes-list of contents of books, indices-

показатель; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-духи, домовые)

Plural in compound nouns

1. The 2nd component takes the plural form as a rule (housewives, tooth-

brushes)

2. Цful Ц at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)

3. man & woman Цthe 1st components(men-servants, women-docters)

4. ending Цman Ц men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds)

5. prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element

only Ц the 1st noun takes the plural form(editors-in-chief-главный

редактор, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-главнокомандующий, coats-

of-mail-кольчуга, men-of-war-военный корабль)

6. compounds = conjunction as a linking element Ц the plural is taken by

the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics)

7. compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the 1st element-

plural(passers-by, lookers-on-зритель, courts-material-военно-полевой

суд, attorneys-general-министр юстиции)

8. when the compound is a substantivized phrase which doesnТt contain a

noun, the last element Цplural(forget-me-nots-незабудка, breakdowns-

поломка, stand-bys-запасной, grown-ups, close-ups-крупный план, pick-ups-

случайные знакомства, drop-outs-дезертир, go-betweens-посредник)

Invariable nouns(canТt change their number)

Singular invariable nouns

1. Non-count

Material(tea, sugar) But:cheeses-kind of cheese

Abstract-music, anger

2. Proper nouns The Thames, Henry

3. Some ening-s

news(10 oТclock news), means-by this means(этими средствами),

Gallows(виселица)

diseases(mumps-свинка, measles-корь, rickets-рахит, shingles-краснуха)

games(billiards, bowls-гольф, dominoes, draughts)

some proper nouns(Algiers, Athens, Brussels, Flanders, Marseilles, Naples,

Wales, The United Nations, the United States.

Nouns ending Цics(classics, phonetics)

Plural invariable nouns

1. Marked

Names of toolsЕconsisting 2 equal parts(bellows-мехи, binoculars, breeches-

бриджи, braces-фигурные скобки, flannels-фланелевые брюки, glasses, pants-

брюки, трусы, pincers-щепцы, pliers-щипчики, плоскогубцы, pyjamas, scales,

scissors, shorts, spectacles-очки, suspenders-подт€жки, tights-колготки,

tongs-щипцы, trousers, tweezers-пинцет)

Miscellaneous nouns(смешанный) (annals, antics, archives, arms, ashes, the

Commons, contents, customs, customs-duty, customs-house, earnings, goods,

goods train, greens, holidays, manners, minutes, outskirts, quarters,

stairs, suds, surroundings, thanks, troops, wages, whereabouts, the Middle

Ages)

Some proper nouns (the East Indies, the West Indies, the Hibrides, the

Highlands, the Midlands, the Netherlands)

2. Unmarked(nouns of multitude & collective):

C: the family was large, m: the family were fond of their house.

Ways of showing partition

A piece of, a loaf of, a stick of, a bar of, a sheet of, lump, blade,

block, strip, grain, pile, heap, word, item, article, fit

2. Category of Case of the noun

Shows the relation of the noun with other words in the sentence

Common case-zero inflexion

Genitive case-apostrophe s(Сs)

1. Genitive

Pronunciation:

[z]-after vowels & voiced consonans-negroТs, dogТs

[s]-after voiceless consonants-studentТs

[iz]-after sibilants(свист€щий)- princeТs, judgeТs; MarxТs ideas

zero ending-girlsТ, boysТ

with regular plural nouns(boysТ)

greek nouns in Цs(SocratesТ wife, XerxesТ(зерксис)

other names: 2 variants Ц BurnsТ & BurnsТs poems

Compound nouns-s joined to the final component(the editor-in chiefТs

office)

Group genitive(when Сs can be joined)

1. 2 persons possess or are related to smth they have in common(mom & dadТs

room, John & MaryТs car)

2. to a more extensive phrase which may even contain a clause(the Duke of

NorfolkТs sister, the secretary of stateТs room, the man I saw

yesterdayТs son)

3. to a noun(pronoun)+a pronoun group(someone elseТs benefit)

4. to a group ending in a numeral(in an hour or twoТs time)

The main meaning of the genitive case-possession, Possessive case, main

modifications:

1. the idea of belonging: JohnТs coat

2. Different kinds of relations:

Relation of the whole to its part(JonТs leg)

Personal or social relations(JohnТs wife)

3. subjective relations(The doctorТs arrival, the ChekhovТs book)

4. authorship(ByronТs poem)

5. objective relations(JohnТs arrest-he was arrested)

6. measure(an hourТs trip, a mileТs distance)

Сs lost the meaning of possession (womanТs work, idiotТs smile, womenТs

college, angelТs eyes)

The use of genitive case & its equivalent of-phrase

with nouns denoting persons & animals(JohnТs idea, swalowТs nest). With

other nouns-of+noun phrase

with nouns denoting time & distance(minute, moment, year & substantivized

adverbs - today)todayТs papers-сегодн€шние, the papers of today-

сегодн€шнего дн€)

with the names of countries & towns(BritainТs national museum, CanadaТs

population)

with the names of newspapers denoting different kinds of

organizations(companyТs plan, GuardianТs analysis, Geographical SocietyТs

gold medal)

with the nouns world, nation, country, city, town(the nationТs health)

with the nouns ship, boat, car(shipТs crew)

with nouns denoting planets(sun, moon, earth)(this earthТs life)

set expressions: to one heartТs content(desire), at deathТs door, at armТs

length, out of harmТs way, a hairТs breadth, a needleТs eye, at a stoneТs

throe, to move at a snailТs pace, at the waterТs edge

The syntactical function of the genitive Цattribute. ItТs always used as a

premodifier & sometimes called the depend genitive.

The absolute genitive Ц when the genitive case is not followed by the

headword & when it stands for the whole noun phrase:

It is used:

to avoid repetition(our house is better than MaryТs(house))

after the preposition of(an old frend of my motherТs)

to denote shops(the grocerТs, the bakerТs)

saintsТ nameSt PaulТs(cathedral)

places of residence(at my uncleТs, at TimothyТs)

Double genitive

My motherТs fatherТs people

The boyТs half-hourТs run



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