Рефераты. Cyberterrorism


Computer crimes -> cyberterrorism, hacking

Defined broadly, the term "computer crime" could reasonably include a

wide variety of criminal offenses, activities, or issues. The potential

scope is even larger when using the frequent companion or substitute term

"computer-related crime." Given the pervasiveness of computers in everyday

life, even in the lives of those who have never operated a computer, there

is almost always some nontrivial nexus between crime and computers.

By the FBI's definition, cyberterrorism is well beyond the scope of

this paper. With increasing frequency this term is being used by the mass

media. Absent any evidence of activity, we'll leave it in the "eye of the

beholder" to determine whether cyberterrorism is currently being deterred,

is a phantom menace…or somewhere in between.

A key distinction between electronic civil disobedience and politicized

hacking is anonymity. The motive for remaining secret is simple: the

majority of politically motivated hacks are clearly illegal. Most

institutions recognize that breaking into an opponent's computer and

adding, changing or deleting (HTML) code, even if it is juvenile graffiti,

violates some other’s rights. Attitudes and opinions begin to diverge

markedly around this point however. One person’s activist is another’s


"A lot of groups are claiming that they're hacking into sites for a

higher moral purpose, but they're hiding beyond anonymity or pseudonymity.

Taking responsibility is not something we see happening."

At the heart of this discussion is the question of motive. Opinions

differ just as much within the hacker community as outside over the

efficacy of certain actions. The spate of (zombie) DDoS attacks against

prominent e-commerce sites that occurred in February 2000 sparked a debate

between two prominent hacker collectives. The Electrohippies Collective

claims the Internet as a public space liable to be used by groups and

individuals as a means of protest. As activists, they admit no practical

difference between how cyberspace and the street are used by society.

Recent actions on the Internet against e-commerce sites represent a

fundamental disagreement about the purposes of the Internet, and the

increasing emphasis on the use of the ‘Net as a vehicle for profitable

trade rather than of knowledge and discussion.

The cDc, says, the targeted sites were selected for their name

recognition and prestige value, not for their commercial attributes or


You may make yourself feel good and get a lot of attention, but when

you crack a Web site, you are violating another person's rights. …what does

that mean? CRIME!

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