–ефераты. Education in Great Britain






English, history, geography, mathematics, science, a modern foreign

language, technology, music, art and physical education. For special

attention there of these subjects (called Уcore subjectsФ): English,

science, mathematics and seven other subjects are called Уfoundation or

statuary subjectsФ. Besides, subjects are grouped into departments and

teachers work in teams and to plan work.

Most common departments are:

. Humanities Departments: geography, history, economics, English

literature, drama, social science;

. Science Department: chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics;

. Language Department: German, French, English;

. Craft Design and Technology Departments: information and

communications technology, computing, home economics and photography.

The latter brings together the practical subjects like cooing,

woodwork, sewing, and metalwork with the new technology used in those

fields. Students can design a T-shirt on computer using graphics software

and make-up the T-shirt design. Students can also look at way to market

their product, thus linking all disciplines. This subjectТs area

exemplifies the process approach to learning introduced by the NC.

It is worth mentioning here the growing importance of personal

and Social Education. Since the 1970s there has been an emphasis on

УpastoralФ care, education in areas related to life skills such as health

(this includes looking at drug, discussing physical changes related to

poverty, sex education and relationship). There are usually one or two

lessons a week, from primary school through to sixth form and they are an

essential part of the schoolТs aim to prepare students to life in society.

Education in Britain is not solely concentrated on academic

study. Great value is placed on visits and activities like organizing the

school club or field trips, which are educational in a more general sense.

The organization of these activities by teachers is very much taken for

granted in the British school system. Some teachers give up their free

time, evenings and weekends to do this УunpaidФ work. At Christmas teachers

organized concerts, parties and general festivities. It is also considered

a good thing to be УseenФ to be doing this extra work since it is fairly

essential for securing promotion in the school hierarchy.

Classes of pupils are called УformsФ (though it has recently

become common to refer to УyearsФ) and are numbered from one to beginning

with first form. Nearly all schools work a five-day week and are closed on

Saturdays. The day starts at nine oТclock and finishes between three and

four. The lunch break usually lasts about an hour-and-a-quarter. Nearly two-

thirds of pupils have lunch provided by the school. Parents pay for this

except for the 15 per cent who are rated poor enough and have it for free.

Other children either go home for lunch or take sandwiches.

Schools usually divide their year into tree УtermsФ starting at

the beginning of September:

|Autumn |Christmas |Spring |Easter |Summer |Summer |

|term |Holiday |term |Holiday |term |Holiday |

| |(about | |(about 2| | |

| |2weeks) | |weeks) | |(about 6|

| | | | | |weeks) |

Passage from one year to the next one is automatic. At the age of

14 pupils are tested in English, mathematics and science, as well as in

statutory subjects. At that same age in the third or forth pupils begin to

choose their exam subjects and work for two years to prepare for their

qualifications. The exams are usually taken in fifth form at the age of 16,

which is a school-leaving age. The actual written exams are set by outside

examiners, but they must be approved by the government and comply with

national guidelines. There are several examination boards in Britain and

each school decided that boardТs exam its pupils take. Most exams last for

two hours, marks are given for each exams separately and are graded from A

to G (grades A, B, C are considered to be УgoodФ marks).

16 are an important age for school-leaves because they have to

make key decisions as to their future lives and careers. There is a number

of choices for them.

7.Life at School.

The school year is divided into terms, three months each, named

after seasons: autumn term, winter term and spring term.

The autumn term starts on the first Tuesday morning in September.

In July schools break up for eight weeks.

Life at school is more or less similar everywhere. Each group of

30 pupils is the responsibility of a form tutor. Each school day is divided

into periods of 40-50 minutes, time for various lessons with 10-20 minutes

breaks between them. It might be interesting for you to see the УBell

TimesФ at Lawnswood school in Leads.

Bell Times

8.40 a.m. Ц School begins

8.45 a.m. Ц Registration

8.50 a.m. Ц Assembly bell

9.00 a.m. Ц Pupils move to lessons

9.05 a.m. Ц Lesson 1

9.45 a.m. - Lesson 2

10.25 a.m. Ц Lesson 3

11.25 a.m. Ц Lesson 3

11.05 a.m. Ц Break

11.25 a.m. Ц Pupils move to lessons

11.30 a.m. Ц Lesson 4

12.10 p.m. Ц Lesson 5

12.50 p.m. Ц Lunch time

1.40 p.m. Ц Afternoon school begins

1.45 p.m. Ц Registration

1.50 p.m. Ц Lesson 6

2.30 p. m. Lesson 7

3.10 p.m. Ц End of normal lessons

3.10 p.m. Ц Start of additional lessons, clubs, societies, team practice,

detentions.

On important occasions such as end of term or national holiday,

called in English schools speech-days pupils are gathered in the assembly

or hall.

Most of the pupilТs time is spent in a classroom equipped with

desks and a blackboard nowadays often called chalkboard because normally it

is brown or green. The desks are arranged in rows, the space between the

rows is called an aisle.

In addition to classrooms there are laboratories for Physics,

Chemistry and Biology. Technical rooms are for Woodwork, Metalwork,

Technical Drawing. There are rooms for computer studies. Many young people

use them for school exercise. They are now able to write their own games as

well. The Physical Education lessons are conducted at the gymnasium, games-

hall or at the playground in front of the school building. There are also

language laboratories and house craft rooms. Every school has a library and

a school canteen. In student common room boys and girls can relax during

the breaks and lunchtime the Staff common room is for teachers. In case of

illness a schoolchild may go to the sick room.

Pupils at many secondary schools Britain have to wear a school

uniform. This usually means a white blouse for girls (perhaps with a tie),

with a dark-colored skirt and pullover. Boys wear a shirt and tie, dark

trousers and dark-colored pullovers. Pupils also wear blazers-a kind of

jacket-with the school badge on the pocket. They often have to wear some

kind of hat on the way to and from school-caps for boys and berets or some

other kind of hat for girls shoes are usually black or brown. And no high

heels!

Young people in Britain often donТt like their school uniform,

especially the hats and shoes. Sometimes they do not wear the right

clothes. Schools will often give them a warning the first time that this

happens but then will punish them if they continue not to wear the correct

uniform. Senior student donТt have to wear their school uniform.

It sounds logical to say that the schoolТs function is to train a

pupilТs mind and his character should be formed at home. Teachers would be

pleased if the problem could be solved so easily. But children donТt leave

their characters at home when their minds go to school. Many of them have

personality problems of one kind or another.

The pupils who violate various school regulations may be punished in

the following ways: for lateness, truancy they may be reported to the

Headmaster or named in school assembly. They may be detained in school

after ordinary hours.

Corporal punishment has recently been banned in state schools. But in

most public schools it is still allowed. Caning is the usual punishment for

serious misbehavior in class, damage and vandalism. Many teachers remark

that standards of discipline have fallen since corporal punishment was

banned by the government.

You may want to know whether there are any rewards and prizes for the

best pupils. Of course, there are. Each school has its system of rewards:

medals and prizes.

8.Social, Cultural and Sporting Life

Each school or sixth-form college has its School or College Council.

It helps to plan the policy for the whole school. It organizes the social

and cultural life at the school.

School Councils in many schools and colleges are chaired by a student

and have a majority of student members. They run discos and parties, stage

drama productions and decorate the student common room. Music-making is

part of school life. Some students help in local hospitals, homes for the

handicapped and elderly people.

There are many clubs and societies. Very popular, especially with

senior pupils, is а school debating society.

Most clubs meet regularly: daily, weekly or monthly, at lunch time or

after school. Extracurricular activities include various outings, visits to

places of interest and dances. School choirs and orchestras give regular

concerts. Sports are very popular too: running, jogging, swimming, self-

defence, football, soccer, badminton, aerobics, rugby, etc.

There are many national voluntary youth organizations in Britain. You

have probably read about the Scout and Girl Guides Associations. There are

some clubs run by the churches. There three pre-service organizations (the

Sea Cadet Corps, Army, Cadet Force and Air Training Corps) are not very

large. Their activities are related to the work of the armed forces.

But the largest youth organizations, as you probably know, are the

associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. There are about

1,300,000 boys and girls in them. The movement of Boy Scouts was founded by

General Baden-Powell in 1908 and began to spring up in almost every town

and village of the British Isles. Its aim is to help I а Scout (а boy from

8 to 18) to develop into а good man and а useful citizen. He must be able

to handle sails, to use а compass, to lay and light а fire out of doors, he

must know first aid and develop his interest in music, literature, drama,

arts and films. A Scout is а friend to animals, he is 'clean in thought,

word and deedТ. He must obey the Scout Law.

The Girl Guides Association was founded by Lord Baden-Powell in 1910.

It is divided into three sections: Brownies (from 7,5 tо 11), Guides (age

11 Ч 16) and Rangers (age 16 Ч 21). The programmer of training is planned

to develop intelligence and practical skills inculding cookery, needle-work

and childcare. The training and the Law are much the same as those of the

Scouts. Like а Scout а Girl Guide must be а friend to animals. She must be

Сpure in thought, word and deedТ. She must be loyal to God and the Queen.

There are several youth organizations associated with political

parties. The Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (YCND) unites thousands

of young people of Great Britain. It co-operates with the National Union of

Students and many other youth organizations. It organizes mass rallies and

meetings, demonstrations, marches of protest, festivals.

9.Life at College and University

The academic year in Britain' s universities, Polytechnics, Colleges

of Education is divided into three terms, which usually run from the

beginning of October to the middle of December, from the middle of January

to the end of March, and from the middle of April to the end of June or the

beginning of July.

There are about one hundred universities in Britain. The oldest and

best-known universities are located in Oxford, Cambridge, London, Leeds,

Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Southampton, Cardiff, Bristol,

Birmingham.

Good ј-level results in at least two subjects are necessary to get а

place at а university. However, good exam passes alone are not enough.

Universities choose their students after interviews. For all British

citizens а place at а university brings with it а grant from their local

education authority.

English universities greatly differ from each other. They differ in

date of foundation, size, history, tradition, general organization, methods

of instruction, way of student life.

After three years of study а university graduate will leave with the

Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he

may continue to take а MasterТs Degree and then а DoctorТs Degree. Research

is an important feature of university work.

The two intellectual eyes of Britain Ч Oxford and Cam- bridge

Universities Ч date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

The Scottish universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, јberdeen and

Edinburgh date from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

In the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries the

so-called Redbrick universities were founded. These include London,

Manchester, Leeds, Liverpool, Sheffield and Birmingham. During the late

sixties and early seventies some 20 'new' universities were set up.

Sometimes they are called 'concrete and glass' universities. Among them are

the universities of Sussex, York, East Anglia and some others.

During these years the Government set up thirty Polytechnics. The

Polytechnics, like the universities, offer first and higher degrees. Some

of them offer full-time and sandwich courses. Colleges of Education provide

two-year courses in teacher education or sometimes three years if the

graduate specializes in some particular subject.

Some of those who decide to leave school at the age of 16 may go tо а

further education college where they can follow а course in typing,

engineering, town planning, cooking, or hairdressing, full-time or part-

time. Further education colleges have strong ties with commerce and

industry.

There is an interesting form of studies which is called the Open

University. It is intended for people who study in their own free time and

who attend" lectures by watching television and listening to the radio.

They keep in touch by phone and letter with their tutors and attend summer

schools. The Open University students have nо formal qualifications and

would be unable to enter ordinary universities.

Some 80,000 overseas students study at British universities or further

education colleges or train in nursing, law, banking or in industry.

10.Higher education.

As has been mentioned above, there is a considerable enthusiasm for

post-school education in Britain. The aim of the government is to increase

the number of students who enter into higher education. The driving force

for this has been mainly economic. It is assumed that the more people who

study at degree level, the more likely the country is to succeed

economically. A large proportion of young people Ц about a third in England

and Wales and almost half in Scotland Ц continue in education at a more A-

level beyond the age of 18. The higher education sector provides a variety

of courses up to degree and postgraduate degree level, and careers out

research. It increasingly caters for older students; over 50% of students

in 1999 were aged 25 and over and many studied part-time. Nearly every

university offers access and foundation courses before enrolment on a

course of higher education of prospective students who do not have the

standard entry qualifications.

Higher education in Britain is traditionally associated with

universities, though education of University standard is also given in

other institutions such as colleges and institutes of higher education,

which have the power to award their own degrees.

The only exception to state universities is the small University of

Buckingham which concentrates on law, and which draws most of its students

of overseas.

All universities in England and Wales are state universities (this

includes Oxford and Cambridge).

English universities can be broadly classified into three types. First

come the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge that date from the

12th century and that until 1828 were virtually the only English

universities.

11.Oxbridge

Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and most prestigious universities

in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge. Both

universities are independent. Only the education elite go to Oxford or

Cambridge. Most of their students are former public schools leavers.

The normal length of the degree course is three years, after which the

students take the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (¬.ј.). Some courses, such as

languages or medicine, bay be one or two years longer. The students may

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