Рефераты. Evolution of Christianity

Evolution of Christianity

Evolution of Christianity

In about 2000 B.C., many displaced tribes were wandering through

Middle East throughout the Middle East because of the political upheavals

that accompanied the collapse of Akkadian kingdom and coming of the

Babylonians. These patriarchal tribes, under guidance of the oldest and

most respected male members, founded communities united by bloodlines,

economic interests, and folk traditions. One of these tribes known as

Hebrews, led by Abraham settled in the territory called Canaan, a region

identified loosely with ancient Israel. These tribes believed that Abraham

was guided by supernatural force, and this supernatural force made a

covenant, or solemn agreement with Abraham to protect his family and bring

prosperity to his offspring if they agreed to obey his divine commands.

These Hebrews enjoyed many prosperous decades in Canaan, and in 1500 B.C.

moved to Egypt at time when it was overrun by Hyksos until Egypt

reconquered their land and enslaved them. In about 1250 B.C. a leader,

Moses led Hebrews to Exodus from Egypt. These events were recorded on

Hebrew scriptures, and it described Moses as a savoir sent by God. Their

religion valued human life as sacred, because it was given by God, who

created and owned all things. The core of Mosaic law was the Ten

Commandments, which set forth the proper behavior of human beings. Hebrews

were called Jew later, and they started to incorporate two new features

into their religion which are eschatology, or the concern with the end of

the world, and apocalypse or prophecies about the coming of God and a day

of judgment. This future world would be led by a Messiah, or Anointed One,

who would bring peace and justice to all. Christianity takes its roots from

Judaism, and it gained much of its power from tremendous moral force of its

central beliefs and values. The surviving sources for the origin of

Christianity are writing in Greek by early believers who were openly

partisan. According to them, Christianity began within the Jewish believers

of Jesus. The outline of Jesus’ life is described in books called Gospels.

The writers of these Gospels were Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and only

two these evangelists who are Matthew and John, were witnesses of Jesus

life on earth. There was a belief at that time that in order to become

Christian you first had to become a Jew. This view of course was changed by

Paul, a Jew converted to Christianity after Jesus’ death. He welcomed led a

group who welcomed gentile, or non-Jewish members. Mark’s Gospel was

written in part to support Paul’s gentile faction. Paul was a citizen of

Rome, and therefore he was able to preach freely Greek-speaking Jew, and

Jewish converts scattered across the Roman Empire. Paul addressed

theological concerns in epistles, or letters which he directed to churches

he either founded or visited across Roman Empire. Paul interpreted Jesus’

life as “Suffering Servant” who was noble and guiltless but misunderstood

and punished on behalf of others. He said that Jesus suffered for our sin

we inherited from Adam and Eve. He also said that human redemption could be

obtained only through believing in Jesus Christ and his sacrifice. The New

Testament which was created after Jesus’ coming to earth, started from

Gospels, which talked about Jesus’ life and his teachings, and ended with

Revelation, that talked about the end of the world, and the Judgment Day.

Adoption of Christianity.

Christianity was adopted by Emperor Constantine of Rome in 313 A.D.

as a official religion of the Roman Empire. The adoption of Christianity

enabled most priests to join army units, and bishops to attend imperial

courts, because they didn’t want to join or attend before. Emperor

Constantine restored faith, returned confiscated property to the church,

built new churches, and gave tax exemptions to bishops during his reign. He

dedicated an entire city to Christianity and named it after his name

Constantinople. Constantine’s successors supported the spread of

Christianity, and by 395 A.D. most of the population was Christian.

Christianity adapted to Rome’s values, promising victory to Roman armies

and a bountiful life to believers. There were many controversies in

Christianity. Distressed by these controversies, Constantine tried to end

major controversy over relationship of Jesus to God. The first group, who

were followers of priest Arius, said that Jesus wasn’t the Son of God, and

that he was a %100 man. Another group lead by bishop Athanasius argued

that Jesus was %100 divine. In 325, under the guidance of Constantine this

issue was settled at a church council at Nicaea in Asia Minor in favor of

Atrhanasius. Even though Arianism was condemned, it divided the church for

decades and remained strong in church’s ruling hierarchy. Many believe that

the adoption of Christianity by Constantine lead to the collapse of the

Roman Empire. The fall of Rome came when a leader of troop of German called

Odoacer, defeated a Roman army in 476, and later the entire Roman Empire

was divided into small Germanic kingdoms. The Roman Empire was already weak

by this time because, after the Roman Empire was divided into two parts

with two rulers on each side, it was reunited as one Empire. And this of

course didn’t last long.

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