Рефераты. Genetic Manipulation

Genetic Manipulation

Human Genetic Manipulation

By Svetlana Levanova, 512 AE

Genes are working portions of DNA and the biological units of

heredity. Specific genes code for specific traits that are found in a given

organism. For example, one gene may code for eye color while another one

may code for shoe size. DNA is an extremely complicated biological system.

Many, if not most diseases stem from a defect in one's genetic code. There

are two ways for one to get a genetic defect or mutation. A mutation can be

inherited from one or both parents, or a genetic mutation can be acquired.

Gene therapy is the process by which cells are supplied with healthy

copies of missing, flawed, or desirable genes. Gene therapy can possibly be

a cure for the genetic mutations that are constantly occurring in nature.

There is a heated discussion in the society about both genetically modified

food and human gene engineering and the possible repercussion from them,

which we may be able to get only in a certain period of time.

Still this burning issue has arguments both in favor of and against

gene technology. The success of genetic manipulation will result in a

better quality of life for people. Nearly all diseases can potentially be

cured. Cancer will be wiped out, as cancer causing genetic defects will no

longer be a problem. As a result of genetic testing, risk prevention is

also a benefit. If I find that I am genetically inclined to have a heart

attack, I can reshape my habits around my genetic dispositions. Or, if I

know that I have a recessive gene for a disease, I will know not to have a

child by another person with that gene. Also we get more than just medical

benefits. If it is found out that genes are responsible for the work of the

mind, than who is to say that someday people won't be able to endow their

children with certain qualities. Many see this as an advantage. Before my

child is even conceived, I can give him brown hair, green eyes, 6 feet in

height and an intellect to match! In a nutshell, the benefits are long

lives, less disease and tailored children.

As for the arguments against gene technology, there are many ethical

and religious reasons against gene manipulation. Many say that it will be

an invasion of one's genetic privacy. Once the technology becomes

widespread, genetic testing will be mandated, and genetic information will

have to be disclosed. Many people don't want to know about their own

genetic destiny, let alone allow others to know. The fact that genetic

information may one day become easily accessible leads to the possibility

of genetic discrimination and violation of genetic privacy. People can most

certainly be judged and oppressed on the basis of genetic information as

well as skin color. Why should I hire a man who has a genetic risk of

developing heart disease? Why should I offer him insurance?

Many people feel that genetic technology will have organizational

problems. For example, that the practice will be poorly regulated and that

people can do as they please with developing genetic engineering. Also, it

is feared that this new technology will be available only to the wealthy,

for their own benefit and exploitation. People fear also the fact that

genetically modified humans will decrease the diversity of the human

species, which will make the human population susceptible to diseases. This

is a far-fetched notion, but the possibility exists. Finally, it is feared

that creating new types of people is undermining God's natural order. Just

as above it was stated as a benefit, many also view having the power to

"select" your child as a problem. They feel the humans should not have the

power to create a child like it is some sort of machinery. Life should be

held in higher regard than that.

Human curiosity and innovation will always manage to conjure up some

sort of scientific breakthrough. Genetic manipulation is no exception. Like

all new technologies, it has its pros and cons that must be weighed. The

potential for reward and for disaster are both great in this issue. With

sufficient regulation and responsibility, the benefits of genetic

manipulation can far outweigh the drawbacks. It is a situation that must be

handled delicately.

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.