Рефераты. Lexicology of the English Language

/or/, /oh/, /o/. etc.

Translation dictionaries give words and their equivalents in the other

language. There are English-Russian dictionaries by I.R. Galperin, by

Y.Apresyan and others. Among general dictionaries we can also mention

Learner’s dictionaries. They began to appear in the second half of the 20-

th century. The most famous is «The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary» by A.S.

Hornby. It is a unilingual dictionary based on COD, for advanced foreign

learners and language teachers. It gives data about grammatical and lexical

valency of words. Specialized dictionaries of synonyms are also widely

used, one of them is «A Dictionary of English Synonyms and Synonymous

Expressions» by R.Soule. Another famous one is «Webster’s Dictionary of

Synonyms». These are unilingual dictionaries. The best known bilingual

dictionary of synonyms is «English Synonyms» compiled by Y. Apresyan.

In 1981 «The Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English» was compiled, where

words are given in 14 semantic groups of everyday nature. Each word is

defined in detail, its usage is explained and illustrated, synonyms,

antonyms are presented also. It describes 15000 items, and can be referred

to dictionaries of synonyms and to explanatory dictionaries.

Phraseological dictionaries describe idioms and colloquial phrases,

proverbs. Some of them have examples from literature. Some lexicographers

include not only word-groups but also anomalies among words. In «The Oxford

Dicionary of English Proverbs» each proverb is illustrated by a lot of

examples, there are stylistic references as well. The dictionary by

Vizetelli gives definitions and illustrations, but different meanings of

polisemantic units are not given. The most famous bilingual dictionary of

phraseology was compiled by A.V. Koonin. It is one of the best

phraseological dictionaries.

Etymological dictionaries trace present-day words to the oldest forms of

these words and forms of these words in other languages. One of the best

etymological dictionaries was compiled by W. Skeat.

Pronouncing dictionaries record only pronunciation. The most famous is D.

Jones’ s «Pronouncing Dictionary».

Dictionaries of neologisms are : a four-volume «Supplement to NED» by

Burchfield, «The Longman Register of New Words»/1990/, «Bloomsury

Dictionary of New Words» /1996/.


Seminar 1

Language units.

The smallest language unit.

The function of a root morpheme.

The main function of suffixes.

The secondary function of suffixes.

The main function of prefixes.

The secondary function of prefixes.

Splinters and their formation in English.

The difference between affixes and splinters.

Structural types of words in English.

The stem of a word and the difference beween a simple word, a stem and a


The difference between a block compound and a nominal benomial.

The difference between a word and a phraseological unit.

The similarity between a word and a phraseological unit.

Analyze the following lexical units according to their structure. Point

out the function of morphemes. Speak about bound morphemes and free

morphemes. Point out allomorphs in analyzed words:

accompany unsystematic forget-me-not

computerise expressionless reservation

de-restrict superprivileged moisture

lengthen clannish pleasure

beautify workaholic reconstruction

beflower inwardly counterculture

specialise moneywise three-cornered

round table Green Berets to sandwich in

Seminar 2.


Classification of suffixes according to the part of speech they form.

Classification of suffixes according to the stem they are added to.

Classification of suffixes according to their meaning.

Classification of suffixes according to their productivity.

Classification of suffixes according to their origin.

Classification of prefixes according to their meaning.

Classification of prefixes according to their origin.

Classification of prefixes according to their productivity.

Analyze the following derived words, point out suffixes and prefixes and

classify them from different points of view:

to embed nourishment unsystematic

to encourage inwardly to accompany

translatorese dispensable clannishness

to de-restrict workaholic jet-wise

reconstruction to overreach thouroughly

afterthought foundation childishness

transgressor to re-write completenik

gangsterdom pleasure concentration

refusenik counter-culture brinkmanship

allusion self-criticism to


slimster reservation


Seminar 3

Compound words.

Characteristic features of compound words in different languages.

Characteristic features of English compounds.

Classification of compound words according to their structure.

Classification of compound words according to the joining element.

Classification of compound words according to the parts of speech.

Classification of compound words according to the semantic relations

between the components.

Ways of forming compound words.

Analyze the following compound words:

note-book speedometer son-in-law

to job-hop brain-gain video-corder

fair-haired forget-me-not Anglo-Russian

teach-in back-grounder biblio-klept

theatre-goer well-dressed bio-engineer

to book-hunt mini-term to baby-sit

blood-thirsty good-for-nothing throw-away

do-gooder skin-head kleptomania

sportsman para-trooper airbus

bus-napper cease-fire three-


tip-top brain-drain bread-and-


Compare the strucure of the following words:

demagougery tablewards heliport

tobbacoless money-wise non-formal

booketeria go-go motel

counter-clockwise to frontpage productivity

giver-away newly-created nobody

Seminar 4.


Conversion as a way of wordbuilding.

Different points of view on the nature of conversion.

Semantic groups of verbs which can be converted from nouns.

The meanings of verbs converted from adjectives.

Semantic groups of nouns which can be converted from verbs.

Substantivised adjectives.

Characteristic features of combinations of the type «stone wall».

Semantic groups of combinations of this type.

Analyze the following lexical units:

to eye a find to


a grown-up to airmail steel helmet

London season resit sleep

a flirt a read


to weekend a build-up supersonics

a non-formal to wireless to submarine

to blue-pencil to blind - the blind - blinds

distrust a jerk to


news have-nots the


to co-author to water to winter

a sit-down mother-in-law morning star

undesirables a walk a find

dislike log cabin finals

Seminar 5.

Shortenings and abbreviations.

Lexical and graphical abbreviations,the main differences between them.

Types of graphical abbreviations.

Types of initias, peculiarities of their pronunciation.

Lexical shortenings of words, their reference to styles.

Compound-shortened words, their structural types.

Analyze the following lexical units:

aggro /aggression/ Algol / algorythmic language/

apex /eipeks/ - advanced purchased excursion/ payment for an excursion

ninety days before the time of excursion/

A-day /announcement Day - day of announcing war/

AID / artifitial insemination by a donor/

AIDS / acquired immunity deficiency syndrome/

Ala / Alabama/ a.s.a.p. /as soon as possible/

bar-B-Q ,barb /barbecue/ to baby-sit / baby-sitter/

A-level /advanced level/ BC /birth certificate/

burger /hamberger/ Camford, Oxbridge

CALL /computer-assisted language learning/

CAT /computer-assisted training/

cauli / cauliflower/ COD / cash on delivery/

COBOL / k ubol/ /common business-oriented language/

co- ed comp /komp, k mp/ /accompaniment/

DINKY /double income ,no kids yet/

E-Day /entrance day //Common Market/ expo/exposition/

edbiz/ educational business/ el-hi / elementary and high

schools/, ex lib/ex libris/ /from the library of/

etc Euratom fax /facsimile/

G-7 / group of seven: GB, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, Italy, Spain/.

FORTRAN /formula translation/.

Seminar 6.

Phraseological units.

Ways of forming phraseological units.

Semantic classification of phraseological units.

Structural classification of phraseological units.

Syntactical classification of phraseological units.

Analyze the following phraseological units according to their meaning,

structure, syntactical function and the way they are formed:

When pigs fly /never/. To leap into marriage.

To be a whipping boy. To be behind scenes.

Girl Friday /a man’s assistant/. Fire in the belly.

Man Friday /a true friend/. A dear John.

To be on the beam. Game, set and match.

Country and western. To jump out of one’s skin.

As smart as paint. It’s my cup of tea.

Robin Crusoe and Friday / seats at a theatre divided by a passage/.

Fortune favours fools. To be in the dog house.

The green power. Green Berets.

Culture vulture. To get off one’s back.

To make headlines. On the nose.

With a bump. To have a short fuse.

To vote with one’s feet. Nuts and bolts.

Blackboard jungle. The sky is the limit.

Cash and carry. To nose out.

To sandwich in. Berlin wall.

A close mouth catches no flies. To speak BBB.

To sound like a computer. As dull as lead.

Last but not least. On the stroke of.

Seminar 7.

Phraseological units.

Students choose ten phraseological units from Koonin’s dictionary of

phraseological units and a unilingual dictionary of idioms and analyze them

in the written form. During the seminar they analyze their phrasological

units chosen from dictionaries at the blackboard.

Seminar 8.


Classification of borrowings according to the language from which they

were borrowed:

Latin borrowings.

French borrowings.

Italian borrowings.

Scandinavian borrowings.

German borrowings.

Russian borrowings.

Classification of borrowings according to the borrowed aspect: phonetic

borrowings, semantic borrowings, translation loans, morphemeic borrowings,


Classification of borrowings according to the degree of assimilation:

fully assimilated borrowings, partly assimilated borrowings, barbarisms.

Borrowings partly assimilated semantically, grammatically, phonetically and


Analyze the following borrowings:

school represent sky-blue

degree rhythm immobility

chandelier the Zoo vase

mot /mou/ hybrid bouffant

illuminate keenly communicative

possessiveness to reproach command

moustache gifted boutique

skipper cache-pot well-scrubbed

nouveau riche emphatic mysteriously

dactyl Nicholas group

to possess chenile psychological

garage guarantee contempt

trait/trei/ triumph stomach

sympathy cynical Philipp

schoolboy Christianity paralyzed

system hotel cyclic

diphtheria kerchief dark-skinned.

Seminar 9


Word and notion.

Lexical meaning and notion.





Classifications of homonyms when applied to analysis.

Classifications of antonyms when applied to analysis.

Analyze the following lexical units applying the above mentioned

classifications of homonyms and antonyms:

present - absent, present - to present

like , to like - to dislike - dislike

sympathy - antipathy

progress - to progress, regress - to regress

success - failure, successful- unsuccessful

left - left/to leave/, right adj. - right n.

inflexible - flexible

unsafe - safe adj. - safe n.

fair n. - fair adj. unfair, foul

piece - peace

dark-haired - fair-haired

a row - a row /rou/ - /rau/

a fan - a fan

superiority - inferiority

different - similar, indifferent, alike, difference - similarity

meaningful - meaningless

after prep.- before -before adv., before conj.

to gossip - a gossip

shapeless - shapy

air - to air - air

fearless - fearful

bright - dim, dull, sad

to fasten - to unfasten

something - nothing

eldest - oldest -youngest

to husband - husband

obscure - to obscure

unaccustomed - accustomed

to exclude - to include

to conceal -to reveal

too - too- two

somewhere - nowhere

a drawer - a drawer

with - without

Seminar 10.


Neology «blowup» and the work of R.Berchfield.

Semantic neologisms, transnomination and proper neologisms.

Semantic groups of neologisms connected with computerization.

Social stratification and neologisms.

Semantic groups of neologisms referring to everyday life.

Phonological neologisms and borrowings as strong neologisms.

Morphological and syntactical neologisms.

Changes in pronunciation.

Analyze the following neologisms from the point of view of neology theory

and also from the point of view of their morphemic structure and the way

they were formed :

to clip-clip AIDS coup

sound barrier to Vice-Preside boutique

to re-familiarize tourmobile sevenish

to de-dramatize non-formals to baby-sit

to scrimp and save fireside chat hide-away

coin-in-the-slot cashless society memo

We shall overcome. to dish old wine in new bottles

to-ing and fro-ing multinationals the Commons

hyperacidity religiosity D-Day

face-to-face/tuition/ femme-fatalish to the wingtips

to river singer-songwriter beatnik

communication gap laundered money cheeseburger

Don’t change horses. to put a freeze on micro-surgical

SA out-doorsy medicare

Cold War self-exile public-


brain-drainer movers and shakers Euroyuppie

Seminar 11.

Control work on the analysis of language units. Each student gets

six language units of different types / simple words, derived words,

compound words, phraseological units, combinations of the type «stone

wall», borrowings, abbreviations, antonyms, homonyms, neologisms ,

abbreviations/ and is to analize them from all points of view which were

studied during the seminars.

Seminar 12.


Analysis of the control paper.

Historical development of British lexicography.

Historical development of American lexicography.

Classification of dictionaries.

Student reports on dictionaries they use in their work.


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Canon G. Historical Changes and English Wordformation: New

Vocabulary items. N.Y., 1986.

Ginzburg R.S. et al. A Course in Modern English Lexicology.

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Jespersen ,Otto. Growth and Structure of the English

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Halliday M.A.K. Language as Social Semiotics. Social

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Howard Ph. New words for Old. Lnd., 1980.

Labov W. The Social Stratification of English in New York

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