Рефераты. Mass media.

Mass media.

` Mass media.

Mass media ( that is the press, the radio and television ) play an

important role in the life of society. They inform, educate and entertain

people. They also influence the way people look at the world and make them

change their views. Mass media mould public opinion.Millions of people in

their spare time watch TV and read newspapers.

Everybody can find there something interesting for him. On the radio

one can hear music, plays, news and various discussions or commentaries of

current events. Lot\'s radio or TV games and films attract a large

audience. Newspapers uses in different ways,but basically they are read.

There is a lot of advertisment on mass media. Some of the TV and radio

stations and newspapers are owned by different corporations. The owners

can advertise whatever they choose.

But it is hardly fair to say that mass media do not try to raise cultural

level of the people or to develop their artistic taste. Mass media brings

to millions of homes not only entertaiment and news but also cultural and

educational programs.

There are more then six TV channels and lot\'s of radio stations and

newspapers now in the Russian Federation.

Education in Russia

An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things.I think it is

very important that everyone should be educated.Each pupils ought todo his

best to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important

in our life. Going on educational excursions gives us opportunities to

acquire some scientific knowledge.

In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsary. Pupils begin

to go to school at the age of six. When they complete high grades they can

either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a

professional school where they study not only main subjects , but are able

to learn some profession. When school pupils leave school they can try to

continue their educaton in institutes or universities.

There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized,

politecnical, musical art and others. Nowdays appeared some new types of

schools: gimnasiums and colledges.

The educational system of Great Britain.

The educational system of G.B. is extreamely complex and bewildering.

It is very difficult to generalise about particular types of schools as


differ from one to the other. The departament of education and science is

responsible for national educational policy,but it doesn\'t employe teacher

or prescribe corricular or text books.

Each school has it\'s own board of governers consisting of teachers,

parents, local politicians, members of local community, businessmen and

sometimes pupils. According to the law only one subject is compulsary.

Such as religious instruction.

Schooling for children is compulsary from 5 to 16, though some provision

is made for children under 5 and some pupils remain at school after 16 to

prepare for higher education.

The state school system is usually devided into 2 stages (secondary and

primary).The majority of primary schools are mixed.They are subdevided

into infant schools(ages 5 to 7),and junior schools(ages 7 to11). In

junior schools pupils were often placed in A,B,C or D-streams, according

to their abilities. Under the pressue of progressive parents and teachers

the 11+ examination has now been abolished in most parts of the country.

There are some types of schools in G.B.Grammar schools provided an

academical cause for selected pupils from the age of 11 to 18. Only those

children who have the best results are admitted to these schools. They

give pupils a high level of academic education wich can lead to the


Technical Schools offer a general education with a technical bias and

serve those pupils who are more mecanically minded. The corricular

includes more science and mathematics. Secondary modern schools were

formed to provide a non-academic education for children of lesser

attainment. The corricular includes more practical subjects. The

comprehensive schools brings about a general improvement in the system of

secondary education.

Leasure time.

Everybody sometimes has a free time. Somebody prefer\'s only to sleep in

their liesure time, but the largest part of us prefer to do a great amount

of things which are pleasant and interesting for us. It may be reading, a

various types of sport game, watching TV, listening music and others. If

we have a few day or a week we prefer to go to the attractive places. Many

peoples thing that pupils and studients have too much liesure ,but in my

opinion, they are wrong. We are very busy. Many pupils have six or se-ven

lessons a day and go to school live or six day a week. Even during the

holiday we learn our lessons after school. And we just no time to go

some-there. Oldest of us are working after school or institutes. I\'am not

spend my time at school and ofter I have a free time. The large part of my

free time devote to reading. I like to read books about another

coun-tries, another times and another worlds. Also I read books about

history of our country. Besides reading I like to do physical exercises. I

and my school friends often gather after school and play basketball,

fooftball or other active games. But my favorite hobby is travelling.

Usually I travel in summer and ofter it is a trip to the south, to the

warm sea. thing all peoples must have other occupation besides their basic

work, because it extand the bounduries of the familar world and teach us

something new about people and thing.

Customs and traditions of english speaking countries.

Every country and every nation has it\'s own traditions and customs.It\'s

very important to know traditions and customs of different people.it will

help you toknow more about the history and life of different nations and

countries.One cannot speak about england without speaking about it\'s

traditions and customs .They are very important in the life of english

people.Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them

up. There are six public holidays a year in G.B.Cristmas day is one of

their favorite holidays.It\'s celebrated on the 25-th of december. There

are some traditions connected with it.One of them is to give presents to

each other.It is not only choldren and members of family.It\'s a tradition

to give cristmas presents to the people you work with.Another tradition is

to send cristmas cards.All these cards are brightly and coloured.Most of

big cities of G.B.,especially London, are decorated with coloured lights

and cristmas trees. On Trafalgar Square,in the center of London stands a

big cristmas tree.It is a gift from the people of Oslo.It is over 50 feet

high. Many families celebrate cristmas day in the open air near the

cristmas tree in order to catch the spirit of cristmas.Children find

cristmas presents in their stockings.The traditional english dinner on

cristmas is turkey and pudding. Other great holidays are:Father\'s

day,Mother\'s day,Helloween and other.


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