Рефераты. Museums

who brought her body from Peterborough and gave her a tomb even more

magnificent than that which he had erected for his cousin Elizabeth.I.

In the same aisle lies Henry YII’s mother, Margaret Beaufort, Countess

of Richmond. Her effigy, a bronze by Torrigiani, shows her in old age.

She was known for her charitable works and for her intellect - she founded

Christ’s and St John’s Colleges at Cambridge - and these activities are

recorded in the inscription composed by Erasmus. Also in this aisle is

the tomb of Margaret, Countess of Lennox.

THE CHAPEL OF ST EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, containing his shrine, lies

east of the Sanctuary at the heart of the Abbey. It is closed off from the

west by a stone screen, probably of fifteenth-century date, carved with

scenes from the life of Edward the Confessor; it is approached from the

east via a bridge from the Henry YII Chapel.

The shrine seen today within the chapel is only a ghost of its former

self. It originally had three parts: a stone base decorated with Cosmati

work, a gold feretory containing the saint’s coffin, a canopy above which

could be raised to reveal the feretory or lowered to protect it. Votive

offerings of gold and jewels were given to enrich the feretory over the

centuries. To this shrine came many pilgrims, and the sick were frequently

left beside it overnight in the hope of a cure. All this ceased at the

Reformation The shrine was dismantled and stored by the monks; the gold

feretory was taken away from them, but they were allowed to rebury the

saint elsewhere in the Abbey.

It was during the reign of Mary I that a partial restoration of the

shrine took place. The stone base was re-assembled, the coffin was placed,

in the absence of a feretory, in the top part of the stone base and the

canopy positioned on top. The Chapel has a Cosmati floor, similar to that

before the High Altar, and a blank space in the design shows where the

shrine once stood; it also indicates that the shrine was originally

raised up on a platform, making the canopy visible beyond the western

screen. The canopy of the shrine has recently been restored, and hopefully

one day the rest of the shrine will also be restored.

And within the chapel can be seen the Coronation Chair and the tombs

of five kings and four queens. At the eastern end is the tomb and Chantey

Chapel of Henry Y, embellished with carvings including scenes of

Henry Y’s coronation. The effigy of the king once had a silver head and

silver regalia, and was covered in silver regalia, and was covered in

silver gilt, but this precious metal was stolen in 1546.

Eleanor of Castle, first wife of Edward I, lies beside the

Chapel. Her body was carried to Westminster from Lincoln, a memorial

cross being erected at each place where the funeral procession rested.

Beside her lies Henry III, responsible for the rebuilding of the

Abbey, in a tomb of Purbeck marble. Next to his tomb is that of Edward I.

Richard II and Anne of Bohemia, Edward III and Philippa of Hainnault, and

Catherine de Valois, Henry Y’s Queen, also lie in this chapel.

THE SOUTH TRANSEPT is lit by a large rose window, with glass dating

from 1902. Beneath it, in the angles above the right and left arches, are

two of the finest carvings in the Abbey, depicting sensing angels. In

addition to the many monuments there are two fine late thirteen-century

wall-paintings, uncovered in 1936, to be seen by the door leading into St

Faith’s Chapel. They depict Christ showing his wounds to Doubting Thomas,

and St Christopher. Beside the south wall rises the dormer staircase, once

used by the monks going from their dormitory to the Choir for their

night offices.


One of the most well-known parts of Westminster Abbey, Poet’s

Corner can be found in the south Transept. It was not originally designated

as the burial place of writers, playwrights and poets; the first poet to be

buried here, Geoffrey Chaucer, was laid to rest in Westminster Abbey

because he had been Clerk of Works to the Palace of Westminster, not

because he had written the Canterbury Tales. However, the inscription over

his grave, placed there by William Caxton - the famous printer whose press

was just beyond the transept wall - mentioned that he was a poet.

Over 150 years later, during the flowering of English

literature in the sixteenth century, a more magnificent tomb was erected

to Chaucer by Nicholas Brigham and in 1599 Edmund Spencer was laid to rest

nearby. These two tombs began a tradition which developed over succeeding


Burial or commemoration in the abbey did not always occur at or

soon after the time of death - many of those whose monuments now stand here

had to wait a number of years for recognition; Byron, for example, whose

lifestyle caused a scandal although his poetry was much admired, died in

1824 but was finally given a memorial only in 1969. Even Shakespeare,

buried at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1616, had to wait until 1740 before a

monument, designed by William Kent, appeared in Poet’s Corner. Other poets

and writers, well-known in their own day, have now vanished into obscurity,

with only their monuments to show that they were once famous.

Conversely, many whose writings are still appreciated today have

never been memorialised in Poet’s Corner, although the reason may not

always be clear. Therefore a resting place or memorial in Poet’s Corner

should perhaps not be seen as a final statement of a writer or poet’s

literary worth, but more as a reflection of their public standing at the

time of death - or as an indication of the fickleness of Fate.

Some of the most famous to lie here, in addition to those detailed

on the next two pages include BenJonson, John Dryden, Alfred, Lord

Tennyson, Robert Browning and John Masefield, among the poets, and William

Camden, Dr Samuel Johnson, Charles Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray,

Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Rudyard Kipling and Thomas Hardy among the


Charles Dickens’s grave attracts particular interest. As a writer

who drew attention to the hardships born by the socially deprived and who

advocated the abolition of the slave trade, he won enduring fame and

gratitude and today, more than 110 years later, a wreath is still laid on

his tomb on the anniversary of his death each year.

Those who have memorials here, although they are buried elsewhere,

include among the poets John Milton, William Wordworth, Thomas Gray, John

Keats, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Robert Burns, William Blake, T.S. Eliot and

among the writers Samuel Butler, Jane Austen, Oliver Goldsmith, Sir Walter

Scott, John Ruskin, Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte and Henry James.

By no means all those buried in the South Transept are poets or

writers, however. Several of Westminster’s former Deans, Archdeacons,

Prebendaries and Canons lie here, as do John Keble, the historian Lord

Macaulay, actors David Garrick, Sir Henry Irving and Mrs Hannah Pritchard,

and, among many others, Thomas Parr, who was said to be 152 years of age

when he died in 1635, having seen ten sovereigns on the throne during his

long life.


Coronation have taken place at Westminster since at least 1066, when

William the Conqueror arrived in London after his victory at the battle of

Hastings. Whether or not Harold, his predecessor as monarch, had been

crowned in Edward the Confessor’s Abbey is uncertain - coronations do not

seem to have had a fixed location before 1066, though several monarchs

were crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames, where the King’s Stone still exists

- but William was determined to reinforce his victory, which gave him the

right to rule by conquest, with the sacred hallowing of his sovereignty

which the coronation ceremony would give him. He was crowned in the old

Abbey - then recently completed and housing Edward the Confessor’s body-

on Christmas Day 1066.

The service to-day has four parts: first comes the Introduction

,consisting of: the entry of the Sovereign into the Abbey; the formal

recognition of the right of the Sovereign to rule - when the Archbishop

presents the Sovereign to the congregation and asks them if they agree to

the service proceeding, and they respond with an assent; the oath, when

the Sovereign promises to respect and govern in accordance with the lows

of his or her subjects and to uphold the Protestant reformed Church of

England and Scotland; and the presentation of the Bible to the Sovereign,

to be relied on as the source of all wisdom and low. Secondly, the

Sovereign is anointed with holy oil, seated on the Coronation Chair.

Thirdly, the Sovereign is invested with the royal robes and insignia, then

crowned with St Edward’s crown. The final ceremony consists of the

enthronement of the Sovereign on a throne placed on a raised platform,

bringing him or her into full view of the assembled company for the first

time, and there he or she receives the homage of the Lords Spiritual, the

Lords Temporal and the congregation, representing the people of the realm.

The service has changed little - English replaced Latin as the main

language used during the ceremony following Elizabeth Ist coronation, and

from 1689 onwards the coronation ceremony has been set within a service of

Holy Communion although indeed this was a return to ancient custom rather

than the creation of a new precedent).

Coronations have not always followed an identical pattern. Edward

YI, for example, was crowned no less than three times, with three

different crowns placed in turn upon his head; while at Charles I’s

coronation there was a misunderstanding and, instead of the congregational

assent following the Recognition Question, there was dead silence, the

congregation having finally to be told to respond - an ill omen for the

future, as it turned out. Charles II’s coronation, following on the

greyness of the puritan Commonwealth, was a scene of brilliant colour and

great splendour. As the old regalia had been destroyed, replacements were

made for the ceremony, and the clergy were robed in rich red copes - the

same copes are still used in the Abbey

George IY saw his coronation as an opportunity for a great

theatrical spectacle and spent vast sums of money on it. He wore an auburn

wig with ringlets, with a huge plumed hat on top, and designed his own

robes for the procession into the Abbey. After the coronation, because

Queen Caroline had been forcibly excluded from the ceremony, the crowds in

the streets were extremely hostile to him and he had to return to Carlton

House by an alternative route.

In complete contrast, William IY took a lot of persuading before he

would agree to have a coronation at all, and the least possible amount

of money was spent no it - giving it the name the «penny coronation».

Despite his dislike of extravagant show and ceremony, he still brought a

slightly theatrical touch to the scene by living up to his nickname of the

«sailor king» and appearing , when disrobed for the Anointing, in the full-

dress uniform of an Admiral of the Fleet.

The last three coronations have demonstrated continuing respect

for the religious significance of the ceremony and recognition of the

importance of such a public declaration by Sovereign of his or her personal

dedication to the service of the people.

At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 , for the first time

the service was televised and millions of her subjects could see and hear

the ceremony taking place. It is possible that few watching realised just

how far back into history the roots of that historic ceremony starched, and

how little fundamental change had occurred over the centuries.


mention упоминание

stock хранилище

masterpiece шедевр

mankind человечество

satisfy удовлетворять

aesthetic эстетический

to be in touch with быть в контакте с

script рукопись

humdrum суета

acquire обретать


rank among быть в ряду с

tаke up поглощать

stretch простираться

arrangement расположение

fabulous сказочный

span миг, пролет

applied art прикладное искусство

enamel эмаль

lace кружево

ivory слоновая кость

excavation раскопки

scope размах


accessible доступный

merchant купец

purchase покупка

favourable благоприятный

due to the care благодаря заботе

fill up заполнять

gap пробел

deficiencies недостаток

accumulation накопление

at smb’s disposal в чьем-либо распоряжении


portraiture портретная


landscape пейзаж

potteryware фарфор

possess обладать

vanquish преодолевать

presumably вероятно

gain получать

vividness очевидность

merge граничить

ascribe приписывать


reflect отражать

spirit дух

permanent постоянный

rapidly быстро

intrinsic присущий

amass собирать

hereby при сем

distinctive очевидный


intend намереваться

palatial дворцовый

carry out осуществлять

substitute заменять

scheme схема

throng трон

lavish щедрый

wing крыло

lay out располагать

ill-fated несчастливый

attempt попытка

mulberry tree шелковица

dignity достоинство

suitor поклонник

eccentrisity эксцентричность

remedy лекарство


chain of fortification цепь укреплений

access доступ

proximity близость

timber строевой лес

alteration перемена,


improvement улучшение

reddent of chivalry носитель рыцарства

non-metropolitan нестоличный

austerity строгость

sequence последовательность

wainscot обшивка

inspiration вдохновение

marble мрамор

association ассоциация

inherit наследовать

apogee апогей


reorient переориентировать

legitimate законный

descendant потомок

spiritual духовный

inlaid инкрустированный

depict описывать,


disuse неупотребление

subsequent последовательный


monk монах

consecration посвящение

burial погребение

demolish разрушать

shrine храм

reerect перестроить

clumsy неуклюжий

fan-vaulting веерный свод

predecessor предшественник

buttress опора

underneath под

grave могила

chaplain капеллан

confer присуждать

bequeath завещать

intricate сложный

embelish украшать

effigy портрет

regalia регалия

depict отражать

dormitory спальня


commemoration память

occur at иметь место в

vanished исчезнувший

obsqurity препятствие

deprive лишать

abolition уничтожение

reinforce укреплять

conquest завоевание

sovereignty монархия

accordance соответствие

insignia знаки различия

congregation община

realm власть


I. Choose the correct definition to the following:

1. take up a) careful study or

investigation, esp.in order to

discover nnew facts or information

2. due to sth or sb b)to become or make sth completely


2. fill up c)to fill or occupy an amount of space or


3. research on d)caused by sth,sb; because of sth,sb.

4. carry out e)to do sth,as required or

specified; to fulfil sth.

Exercise II. Make all the changes necessary to produce five sentences:

I. /The collections/ are distributed/ and/ possessed/ by/ among/

departments/ over forty/ exhibition/ the museum/ its/ permanent/ seven/.

2. /An important/ the museum/ part/ is taken by/ collection/ among/ the

numismatic/ possessions/.

3./The aquisitionn of complete/of individual works/ in the 19th/ the

previous/ century/ period/ was continued/ but/ collections/ of art/ and/

on a more modest scale/ during/ than/.

4. /The Hermitage/ section/ of the very/ on the Continent/ contains/ for /

pictures/ is/ which/ a special/ few/ English/ one/.

4. /Joshua Reynolds/ all/ in/ by/ is/ 1780s/ represented/ the/ canvases/

painted/ four/.

Exercise III.Fill in the blanks with the following pronouns:

in of from on by

1. The collection has no paintings __ William Hogarth, but some __ his

prints selected ___ a large and representative collection possessed __

the Museum are usually ___ show.

2. The State Hermitage __ St Petersburg ranks among the world’s most

outstanding art museums.

3. The Museum numbers among its treasures monuments __ ancient Greece and

Rome and those__ the Greek settlements __ the North coast __ the Black


4. Most helpful __ the Museum’s research work is the Hermitage Library.

5. It is open to every student __ art.

6. A number __ 17th -18th century works are __ show too.


Exercise I. Choose the correct sentence:

1. a/ The Tretiakov Gallery was founded by a Russian painter - Tretiakov.

b/The Tretiakov Gallery was founded by a Moscow merchant and art

patron - Tretiakov.

2. a/The Gallery’s centenary was widely celebrated throughout Russia in

June 1956.

b/The Gallery’s centenary was widely celebrated throughout Russia in

May 1856.

3. a/The Gallery’s collection has grown considerably in the years since the


b/The Gallery’s collection has not grown since the Revolution.

4. a/The early Russian Art department and the collections of sculpture and

drawings were constant.

b/The early Rassian Art department and the collections of scylpture and

drawings were enlarged.

5. a/Tretiakov spent his life collecting the works of Russian painters.

b/Tretiakov spent 10 years collecting the works of Russiann painters.

Exercise II. Read the informatuion about the Tretiakov Gallery and answer

the following questions:

I. Is the Tretiakov Gallery one of the best-known picture galleries of the

world? Why?

2.What do you know about the history of the Tretiakov Gallery?

3.Who was it founded by?

4.When and how did Tretiakov begin his collection?

5.Did he collect antique icons?

6.He was on friendly terms with many progressive, democratic Russian

painters, wasn’t he?

7.Why did his collection grow rapidly?

8.What pictures do you know from the Tretiakov Gallery?

9.What do you know about the Tretiakov Gallery’s collection of


10.What were the first pictures of Tretiakov’s collection?


Exercise I. Choose the correct word to complete the sentence:

1. Buckingham Palace is the official /residence,home/ of the Her Majesty

The Queen.

2. The Queen’s House was gradually /ruined, modernised/.

3. John Nash had rightly /predicted,promised/ that the Palace would prove

too small, but this was a fault capable of remedy.

4. In 1847 the architect Edward Blore /added, took away/ the East front.

5. It /isn’t, is/ the centre of a large office complex.

6. The business of monarchy /sometimes, never/ stops.

7. Buckingham Palace became the /administrative, juriditial/ centre of the


8. Buckingham Palace /is, was/ built for Jihn, first Duke of Buckingham,

between 1702 and 1705.

9. The director of the Royal Collection is /responsible, look after/ for

one of the finest collections of works of art in the world.

10. The Royal collection is a vast assemblage of works of art of all

/sizes, kinds/

Exercise II. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and

expressions and use them in your own sentences:

1.potent symbols 2.carry out 3.suitor 4.predict


6.ill-fated 7.dignity 8.eccentricity 9.accredit 10.require


Exercise I. True or false?

1. Windsor Castle is the youngest royal residence.

2. The Castle covers an area of nearly 30 acres.

3. The Castle was founded by William the Conqueror in 1080.

4. Norman castles were built to a special plan.

5. Queen Victoria spent the smallest part of a year at Windsor.

6. St George’s Chapel is the spiritual home of of the Prodder of the

Garter,Britain’s senior Order of Chivalry.

7. Windsor is only the place of beauty without any functions.

8. St George is the patron saint of the Order.

9. The Valley Gardens are open only in summer.

10. The vaulted ceiling of the Albert Memorial Chapel is decorated in gold

mosaic by Antonio Salviati.

Exercise II. Fill in the blanks with the correct tense forms of the

verbs in brackets:

In many ways Windsor Castle ____(enjoy) its apogee in the reign of

Queen Victoria. She ____ (spend) the largest portion of every year at

Windsor, and in her reign it ____(enjoy) the position of principal palace

of the British monarchy and the focus of the British Empire as well as

nearly the whole of the royal Europe. The Castle____(visit) by heads of

state from all over the world and ___(be) the scene of a series of splendid

state ____ (use) for their original purpose by royal guests.

Exercise III.

Retell the text about St George’s Chapel using the following:

spiritual home; founded by; medieval style; to bury; represented by.


Exercise I. Give Russian equivalents to the following words and

expressions from

the text about Westminster Abbey and use them in sentences of your own:

1.reerect 2. clumsy 3.grave 4. intricate 5.the domer staircase 6.

Commemoration 7.

abolition 8. conquest 9. congregation 10. an auburn wig

Exercise II. Fill in the blanks with the following prepositions:

of on from for by

1.Westminster Abbey is one __ the most famous, historic and widely

visited churches not only ___ Britain but ___ the whole Christian world.

2.___ 1920 the body ___ another unknown soldier was brought back ___ the

battlefields to be reburied ___ the Abbey ___ 11 November.

3.The Henry YII Chapel, beyond the apse, was begun ___ 1503 as a bural

place ___ Henry YII, ___ the orders ___ Henry YII, but it was Henry YII

himself who was finally buried here, ___ an elaborate tomb.

4.At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II ___1953 ,___ the first time

the service was televised and millions ___ her subjects could see and hear

the ceremony taking place.

5.The last three coronations have demonstrated continuing respect ___ the

religious significance ___ ceremony and recognition ___ the importance ___

such a public declaration ___ sovereign ___ his or her personal dedication

to the service ___ the people.

Exercise III. Answer the following questions:

1.Why is Westminster Abbey so popular not only in Britain but in the whole


2.When was the Lady Chapel rebuilt as the magnificent Henry YII Chapel?

3.The Nave was begun by Abbot Litlington, wasn’t it?

4.What was originally the part of the Abbey where the monks worshiped?

5.Where does the High Altar stand?

6.Who was the first poet buried in the Abbey?

7.What do you know about processes of coronation today?

8.Have coronations always followed an identical pattern?

9.Who was crowened no less than three times?

10.What was special in the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II?


Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519, an Italian painter

Manet 1832-1883,a French painter

Michelangelo 1475-1564,an Italian


Millet 1814-1875,a French painter

Monet 1840-1926,a French painter

Murillo 1617-1682,a Spanish painter

Phidias 5th cent.BC,a Greek sculptor

Pissaro 1830-1903, a French painter

Potter 1625-1654,a Dutch painter

Raphael 1483-1520,an Italian painter

Rembrandt 1606-1669,a Dutch painter

Reynolds 1841-1919,an English painter

Roerich 1874-1947,a Russian painter

Rubens 1577-1640,a Flemish painter

Sargent 1856-1925,an American painter

Scott,Gilbert 1811-1878,an English architect

Show, Norman 1831-1912,an English architect

Titan 1477-1576,an Italian painter

Turner 1775-1881,an English landscape painter

Van Der Helst 1613-1676,aDutch portrait painter

Van Gogh 1853-1890,a Dutch painter

Vasari 1511-1571,an Italian painter and art


Velasques 1599-1660,a Spanish painter

Whistler 1834-1903,an American painter

Zurbaran 1598-1662,a Spanish painter

Лицей №6






Ученица 11-А класса

Криворотько И.Н.


Койлис Н.Г.



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