Рефераты. New Zealand

Southern alps rise above the ocean.

700 A.D.

Possible early settlement on the South Island by an archaic Maori

population originating in Polynesia.


Date of discovery of New Zealand by Polynesian navigator Kupe according to

Maori legend. Islands named Aotearoa, "Land of the Long White Cloud".


Settlement of the North Island.

13 and 14C

"Great Migration" from the Society Islands. Dwindling moa population.

Warrior society established.


Dutch explorer Abel Tasman discovers west coast of the South Island. Dutch

name the country "Nieuw Zeeland" after the Dutch island province of



Captain James Cook circumnavigates and charts both islands, taking

possession of "New Zealand" for Britain.


First European settlement (in the Bay of Islands).


Intertribal wars abate due to introduction of musket and wholesale



Treaty of Waitangi signed. Maoris cede sovereignty to Britain, obtain

guarantees of land ownership and "rights and privileges of British



"Wool period" with importation of sheep from Australia. Also a period of

war and conflict over land ownership.


Refrigerated ships introduced. Farmers turn to meat and dairy production.


New Zealand becomes the first country in the world to give women the vote.


Independence from UK.


One of every three men between 20 and 40 killed or wounded fighting for

Britain in World War I.


New Zealand sends troops to fight for the Allies in Europe.


Threatened by Japan, defended by United States Navy (eventually led to

ANZUS pact in 1951, a defensive alliance with the U.S. and Australia).


New Zealand becomes independent by adopting Statue of Westminster.


Britain joins European Economic Community and adopts their trade barriers

to New Zealand's agricultural products. Combined with high oil prices, this

was enough to devastate the economy.


Robert Muldoon's National Party expands welfare state and government

interventionism, running huge budget deficits financed with overseas money.

High inflation and unemployment cause massive emigration to Australia.


Treaty of Waitangui Act passed to settle Maori land claimson the basis of

original treaty.


New Labour government eliminates agricultural subsidies and wage and price

controls, lowers tax rates, begins a radical program of privatization.


The bombing of the Rainbow Warrior from Greenpeace in Auckland by French

secret service agents. One man was killed (Fernando Pereira).


Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an agrarian economy

dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open free market economy

that can compete on the global scene. The government had hoped that dynamic

growth would boost real incomes, reduce inflationary pressures, and permit

the expansion of welfare benefits. The results have been mixed: inflation

is down from double-digit levels, but growth has been sluggish and

unemployment, always a highly sensitive issue, has exceeded 10% since May

1991. In 1988, GDP fell by 1%, in 1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%, and was

flat in 1990-91. Current (1994) growth is around 2-4% and rising.

The economy is based on agriculture (particularly dairy products, meat, and

wool (68 m sheep, 2 m dairy cows)), food processing, wood and paper

products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and

insurance, tourism, mining. Fish catch reached a record 0.5 m tonnes in

1988. Highly dependent on external trade, New Zealand is currently trying

to move from being a primary to a secondary producer.


Decimal system based on New Zealand dollar, with cent denominations. Coins

are 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents, 1 and 2 dollars. Notes are 5, 10, 20, 50, and

100 dollars. Major credit cards are accepted widely.


Same as overseas.

Interest Rates

Fluctuating between 6 and 8% depending on overseas markets.


New Zealand operates a Goods and Services Tax of 12.5 per cent on ALL goods

and services sold and this is usually included in the display price. The

exceptions are purchases at duty free shops. Visitors cannot claim refunds

on this tax however when a supplier agrees to export a major item to a

visitors home address then GST will not be charged on the goods or the


Income tax 24% on first $30,874/year, 33% for every $ above this. There are

various rebates for things like low incomes, children, donations,

Housekeeper, Home/Farm/Vessel Ownbership, and others.

|Government Revenue Source|How it was expected to be |

|(1990) |spent (1990) |

|Income Tax |$16,95|Education |$3,912.|

|Gost and Service |0 |Health |5 |

|Tax |$5,500|Transport |$3,791.|

|Other Direct | |Administration |1 |

|Taxes |$360 |Development of |$711.6 |

|Excise Duties |$1,670|Industry |$2,769.|

|Highway tax | |Government |0 |

|Other Indirect |$670 |Borrowing |$1,231.|

|Tax |$790 |Foreign Relations |3 |

| | |Social Services |$575.1 |

| | | |$1,733.|

| | | |7 |

| | | |$10,292|

| | | |.1 |

|Total |$25,94|Total |$25,016|

| |0 | |.4 |

Life in General

Business Hours

Banks 9:00am to 4:30pm - can vary slightly. Otherwise, Monday to Friday

9:00am to 5:30pm. Late night for shopping is either Thursday or Friday.

Changes to the Shop Trading Hours Act means that most shops are open for

longer hours than this. Almost all are open Saturday morning, many are open

on Sunday with some shops and markets remaining open later during the week.

Automatic teller machines are widely available including a system in many

supermarkets and petrol stations called EFTPOS where you can buy goods with

your card and a PIN number and/or obtain cash. All international credit

cards are accepted in New Zealand. Travellers cheques can be changed in

banks, hotels, stores, etc.

There is no restriction on the amount of foreign currency which may be

brought into or taken from New Zealand. Funds may be in the form of bank

notes, coins, travellers cheques or any other instrument of payment.

Visitors may convert surplus New Zealand currency at any outlet authorised

to deal in foreign exchange.


Some of the noteworthy cultural events include: Summer City Programme

(January to February; Wellington) which is a series of festivals around the

city; Marlborough Food & Wine Festival (2nd week in February; Blenheim);

International Festival of the Arts (February, even-numbered years only;

Wellington), an entire month of national and international culture; Golden

Shears Sheep-Shearing Contest (March; Masterton), a must for lovers of

sheep, scat and sweat; and Canterbury Show Week (November; Christchurch)

which has agricultural exhibits, rides and local entertainment.


Tipping is not unheard of in New Zealand. Employed people don't depend on

tips for their income and service charges are not [usually] added to hotel

and restaurant bills. Tip for service if you think it's deserved.

Getting There & Away

The overwhelming majority of visitors arrive by air. There are three

airports that handle international flights: Auckland (the major exit/entry

point), Wellington and Christchurch. Departure tax on international flights

is NZ$20. A few cruise ships visit New Zealand, but there are no regular

passenger ship services and working your way across the Pacific as crew on

a yacht now seems a thing of the past.

Getting Around

Although New Zealand is a compact country and generally easy to get around,

it makes good sense to fly - especially for the views over the mountains or

volcanoes. A variety of discounts also makes flying economical. New Zealand

has two major domestic airlines: Air New Zealand and Ansett New Zealand.

Several smaller airlines - Mt Cook Airline, Eagle Air and Air Nelson - are

partly owned by Air New Zealand and have been grouped together as `Air New

Zealand Link'. This network provides thorough coverage of the country.

New Zealand also has an extensive bus network, with the main operator being

InterCity (servicing both the North Island and South Island). The two other

major bus operators are Newmans (North Island) and Mt Cook Landline (South

Island). Services on main bus routes are frequent (at least once a day);

unfortunately they can be expensive and slow. A good alternative is to use

shuttle bus companies which are smaller, cheaper and friendlier than the

large bus companies. Some of them are designed to cater especially for

foreign travellers and/or backpackers and have lots of little `extras' that

make them particularly attractive; other companies, perhaps drawing on the

experiences of Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, can take you around New

Zealand on `alternative' buses which are often an unhurried way of seeing

the country.

Main train routes are few, though train travel is reasonably quick. Trains

are modern and comfortable, and the fares are sometimes cheaper than those

by bus on the same routes.

Car travel (New Zealanders drive on the left) is recommended as the roads

are good and well signposted and the distances short. Rentals of cars,

motorcycles and campervans are popular with a range of special deals


There are plenty of boat services, including the Interislander ferry

(operating between Wellington in the North Island and Picton in the South


And finally, there's always cycling around the country. Many travellers

describe New Zealand as a cyclists' paradise: it's clean, green, uncrowded

and unspoiled, and there are plenty of places where you can camp or find

cheap accommodation. Bicycle rental can be daily, weekly or monthly and is



While it may be `safe' compared to most other countries, serious crime does

exist here and visitors should take sensible precautions. Always lock your

vehicle, and don't leave it in isolated locations for extended periods.

Avoid leaving valuables visible in the car. Avoid areas/situations which

appear unwholesome. The emergency phone number (police, ambulance, fire) is

111, and ask the operator for the service required (this can be used from

payphones without paying).


New Zealand operates a no-fault accident compensation scheme which covers

residents and visitors. Personal injury through accident entitles the

injured party to compensation for reasonable expenses related to the

accident. Due to abuse, this has been reworked recently and compensation is

far harder to obtain.

Water Supply

New Zealand cities and towns have good public water. Water is safe to drink

out of the tap. The water in Christchurch *is* totally untreated and is

supposed to be the purist domestic water supply in the world...

In bush walking areas giardia has been found so its advisable to check

before drinking from rivers or streams. Boiling water for five minutes or

more is advised where advice is not available.


Telephone Country Code = 64

The Telephone is similar to British Telecom style. Uses BT 600 plug (not RJ-

11) Phone line is pins 2 and 5 of the BT 600 plug (RJ-11 is pins 3 & 4).

Hotels will have difficulty in converting plugs styles but conversion

cables are available from retailers.

Most New Zealand telephone systems can handle DTMF tone dialling. BEWARE:

New Zealand pulse dialing is the reverse of most countries. The digit are

reversed and so produce different numbers of pulses. The conversion is:

digit | # of Pulses


0 | 10

1 | 9

2 | 8


8 | 2

9 | 1

The best solution is to use tone dialing.


The normal electricity supply is 230 volts 50 hertz alternating current


3 pin appliance socket from a viewpoint looking at the wall or a plug seen

from the inside as one would while wiring it up.

phase ----- / \ ---- neutral

(or live)

| --------- earth

If the wires you have are brown, blue, and green [yellow or white striped],

then; brown = phase, blue = neutral, green = earth. The old code is red,

black, green respectively. If you have ANY doubts, please consult a

qualified electrician.

Most hotels will have shaver plugs suitable for all international appliance

of low power rating, and which will supply 110 and 230 volts. These plugs

may be for shavers only.

TV Information

New Zealand runs on PAL G on UHF. This gives the same picture and sound

spacing (5.5MHz), but the channel spacing is slightly wider - the same as

that used for 6MHz intercarrier spacing. Standard 50 hertz field rate, 25

hertz frame rate. We also use NICAM for stereo tv, rather than one of the

various analogue systems.

In the Southern Hemisphere, the locally-vertical component of the field is

in the opposite direction to where it would be an equivalent distance north

of the equator. This affects the colour convergence of video monitors. It's

not a *huge* difference, and it took computer companies until the late

1980s' to wake up to the difference and ship different monitor versions to

New Zealand, South America, and Australia. Northern hemisphere monitors

*work* but the colours won't be as crisp as you'd expect.

North Island

In ancient Maori mythology, the North Island is Te Ika a Maui (the Fish of

Maui). According to the story, Maui was fishing with his brothers when he

hooked the North Island from the ocean. His ravenous brothers, ignoring

orders not to touch the fish, began gnawing at its flesh, causing the fish

to writhe and thresh about - this frenzy of movement is the reason behind

the island's undulant and mountainous landscape.

There are snow-fringed mountains in the Tongariro National Park,

exclamatory geysers and bubbling mud pools in Rotorua and a profusion of

rivers, lakes and streams. But the North Island is more than rips and

fissures: it has its share of rolling pastures, forest-clad hills and

stretches of long, sandy beaches. It also has New Zealand's two largest

cities - Auckland to the north and the country's capital, Wellington, to

the south - which are focal points for arts and entertainment, historic

buildings, great dining and a variety of accommodation.


The largest city in New Zealand, Auckland, is almost enclosed by water and

covered in volcanic hills. Auckland has a spectacular harbour and bridge

(and a fanatical number of yachting enthusiasts) which has earned it the

sobriquet 'City of Sails'. A magnet for the people of the South Pacific

islands, Auckland now has the largest concentration of Polynesians in the

world. Highlights include the Auckland Museum, which houses a memorable

display of Maori artefacts and culture, and Kelly Tarlton's Underwater

World & Antarctic Encounter, a unique simulacrum of ocean and exploration


There is great shopping in the suburbs of Parnell and Newmarket, well-

preserved Victorian buildings in Devonport, Polynesian handicrafts, cafes,

restaurants and markets in Ponsonby, panoramic views of the city from the

extinct volcano One Tree Hill, and good swimming beaches including

Kohimarama and Mission Bay.

The Hauraki Gulf off Auckland is dotted with islands such as Rangitoto,

Great Barrier and Waiheke, which have affordable accommodation, a number of

walks and diving possibilities and, in the case of Waiheke Island,

excellent art galleries. Auckland is also a good starting-point for

visiting the amazingly scenic Coromandel Peninsula and Hauraki Plains

regions to the south-east.


Northland is the cradle of both Maori and Pakeha culture: it was here that

the Pakeha first made contact with the Maori, the first whaling settlements

were established and the Treaty of Waitangi was signed. Often referred to

as the 'winterless north' because of its mild year-round temperatures,

Northland has a number of interesting museums (Otamatea Kauri & Pioneer

Museum), glorious, blonde beaches (Ninety Mile Beach) and diving spots

(Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve, reckoned by Jacques Cousteau to be

among the top 10 diving sites in the world), historic towns (Pahia and

Waitangi), game fishing (Bay of Islands) and flora and fauna reserves

(Waipoua Kauri Forest).

Great Barrier Island

Great Barrier Island at the mouth of the Hauraki Gulf has acres of long,

white sandy beaches on its eastern shore, deep-water sheltered inlets on

its western shore, and a rugged spine of steep ridges running down the

centre. The 80,000 hectare preserve has a number of walking tracks which

combine old logging trails and tramways. Natural hot springs, towering

kauri forests and a serene aura make it a perfect escape. Flights and

ferries operate from Auckland, 88 km south.

Bay of Plenty

The Bay of Plenty, given its name by Captain Cook in 1769 because of the

number of thriving Maori settlements, has a consistently mild climate year-

round, good beaches and is the home of the kiwi fruit - a fuzzy, brown,

sweet-tasting fruit and a major source of export revenue for the region.

The city of Tauranga offers activities such as jet-skiing, water-skiing,

windsurfing, parasailing, diving, surfing, fishing and harbour cruises.

Across the inlet from Tauranga is Mt Maunganui, a popular holiday resort

with beaches and saltwater pools. Rotorua, one of the most visited cities

in New Zealand, is famous for its kinetic thermal activity (Whakarewarewa

is the best known site and the location of Pohutu, an active geyser that

gushes forth every hour), a large and influential Maori population, trout

springs and wildlife parks.

East Cape

The East Cape, as opposed to the Bay of Plenty, is little visited, but its

isolation belies an area endowed with native forest, wild coasts and

picturesque bays, inlets and coves. During the summer, the coastline turns

vermilion with the explosion of flowers from the pohutukawa trees lining

the shores.

Cape Runaway

A succession of picturesque bays leads to Whangaparaoa (Cape Runaway), at

the very tip of the East Cape. The beaches are deeply shelved and littered

with driftwood, and the old Anglican church, nestled under Norfolk pines on

a lone promontory, should not be missed. Cape Runaway can only be reached

by foot and it's advisable to seek permission before going on private land.

Central North Island

Hamilton, New Zealand's largest inland city, is surrounded by some of the

world's richest dairy farming and agricultural regions. It is a city of

museums, zoos and parks, and offers river cruises on the Waikato River, the

country's longest (425 km). Further south is the region of King Country,

once the stronghold of powerful Maori chiefs. The town of Waitomo is famous

for its limestone caves and subterranean black-water rafting (a wetsuit,

caver's helmet, inner tube and abundant courage are all that's required)

while Te Kuiti, named after the belligerent Maori leader Te Kooti, is

recognised as 'the shearing capital of the world'. Even further south is

Taumaranui, which makes a good base for kayaking, rafting and jet-boating

on the Whanganui River.

The west coast region of Taranaki is dominated by Mt Taranaki (also

officially known as Mt Egmont), a dormant volcano rising 2518 metres. Other

highlights in Taranaki include the Egmont National Park and the region's

world-class surfing and windsurfing beaches. New Zealand's largest lake,

and the geographical centre of the North Island, is Lake Taupo. Dotted

around its shores are towns with cheap accommodation and great dining

possibilities (trout is a speciality). Nearby are the spectacular Tongariro

and Whanganui national parks; the former is renowned for its ski slopes

while the latter has several excellent walking tracks and recreational

water activities on the Whanganui River. East of the national parks is the

Art Deco city of Napier, with its splendid weather and beautiful beaches.


The capital city of New Zealand, Wellington, is situated on a splendid

harbour at the southern tip of the North Island. Often maligned by its

northern counterparts for its ill-tempered weather - the winds are often of

gale-force calibre in winter - Wellington is a lively city of culture and

arts (with festivals almost every month), and great ethnic restaurants and

cafes. It is also home to the country's government and national treasures.

Buildings of interest include: the modernist Beehive (the executive wing of

Parliament); the old Government Building (one of the largest all-wooden

buildings in the world); the National Library (housing the most

comprehensive collection of books in the country); and the Katherine

Mansfield Memorials (the property where the famous author was born in

1888). In addition, there are museums, a zoo and stunning views of the city

from atop Mt Victoria. Cuba Street has great shopping, Thorndon has

historic sites of interest, Lambton Quay is the primary business street and

Mt Victoria is the place to go for cheap accommodation and dining.

South Island

The South Island crams in glaciers, fiords, turbulent rivers, trout

streams, rainforests, mossy beech forests, palmy beaches and a number of

mountains that top 3000 metres - a repertoire to inspire even the most

sluggish arms, legs and lungs. It's an island where you can fish, paddle,

pedal, raft, hike and walk in some of the most gorgeous scenery on earth.

Most journeys begin in postcard-perfect Picton, where the ferry from the

North Island arrives, or Christchurch, a city under the delusion that it is

somewhere in southern England. From either of these points, you can make

your way to any number of attractions: the labyrinth of tributaries known

as the Marlborough Sounds; nearby Nelson, a city famous for its wines and

succulent seafood; Mount Cook National Park, where New Zealand's tallest

peaks are found; Queenstown, nestled beneath the saw-toothed peaks of The

Remarkables; and, further south, the reserves of podocarp forests and fauna

found in the Catlins. The people, much like the weather and topography, are

robust. The roads are excellent for a self-drive holiday.

Marlborough Sounds

The convoluted waterways of the Marlborough Sounds, formed when the sea

invaded a series of river valleys after the ice ages, are home to bays,

islands and coves. Separated by forested knuckles of land that rise from

the sea, the Sounds are an exhilarating place with activities such as sea

kayaking and white-water rafting and interesting wildlife that includes sea

gannets, tuatara lizards (relics from the dinosaur age), even carnivorous

snails! There are also great walks, including the Queen Charlotte Walkway

(a 58-km track among lush forest) and the Abel Tasman Coastal Track in the

Abel Tasman National Park (220 sq km of beaches, sea coves, forest and

granite gorges).

Wine, good food and a climate conducive to year-round activity are features

of the towns of Nelson, Picton and Blenheim. The crayfish from Kaikoura are

superb but it is a town famous for much larger fry - sperm whales.

Whalewatch and dolphin swimming tours are manifold and inexpensive.

West Coast

Wild, craggy and desolate, the West Coast is an area buffeted by heavy seas

and drenching rain. Keri Hulme, the Booker Prize winner, calls the region

home, drawing inspiration from its 'bleak and ascetical' landscape.

Understandably, those who live here - commonly known as `Coasters' - occupy

a unique place in the national folklore. Activities include canoeing and

riding the rapids down Moeraki River, fishing for brown trout in the lakes,

watching penguins and fur seals lazing on the greenstone beaches, and

squelching through forests (which are much to the liking of the rapacious

ringtail possum).


Harihari, a small town on the West Coast, made world headlines in 1931,

when Guy Menzies completed the first solo flight across the Tasman Sea from

Australia. The journey was hassle-free but the landing proved a disaster:

the aircraft overturned in a swamp, and Menzies, on undoing his safety

straps, fell - much to the delight of the cheering locals - head first into

the mud. The town is now known as a base for coastal walks, birdwatching

and trout and salmon fishing.

Westland National Park

The Westland National Park has over 60 glaciers, with the most accessible

being the Fox Glacier and Franz Josef Glacier: you can almost hear the

strangulated groans, tweaks and gurgles as they slowly advance down the

mountainside. The town of Greymouth is the western terminal for the

passenger train TranzAlpine Express, which winds its way over the Southern

Alps - through beech forests, glacial valleys and mountains - on to



The hub of the South Island, Canterbury is one of the driest and flattest

areas of New Zealand. The predominant feature of the region is the

capacious Canterbury Plains, situated between the coast and the mountain

foothills, which is devoted to farming and agriculture.

Paradoxically, Canterbury contains most of New Zealand's highest mountains

such as Mt Cook and Mt Tasman. The area's major city is Christchurch which

has genteel, sylvan suburbs, up-market eateries and cafes, and is home to

the Wizard, a Rabelaisian figure who dominates lunchtime discussion in

Cathedral Square. Gently steering its course through the city and suburbs

is the ankle-deep, willow-lined Avon River - perfect for punting.

To the east of Christchurch is the feral coastline of Banks Peninsula,

dominated by gnarled volcanic peaks; it is also the location of Lyttelton,

which has excellent arts and crafts stores. A good day trip from

Christchurch is to the Frenchified town of Akaroa which boasts the best

fish & chips in the country. West of Christchurch is the settlement of

Arthurs Pass, which is a great base for tackling walks, climbs and skiing

in Arthurs Pass National Park. To the south lie the picturesque towns of

Geraldine and Fairlie, the high, tussock-grass plateau known as the

Mackenzie Country and the World Heritage Area that is Mt Cook National

Park. The imperious Mt Cook (3755 metres) is the highest peak in

Australasia, and offers plenty of walks and unlimited scope for tramping,

rock climbing, lung-cleansing and sightseeing.

Copland Pass

The gruelling four-day Copland Pass trek in the Mt Cook National Park is a

once-in-a-lifetime adventure that can only be completed in good weather by

well-prepared, experienced teams or with professional guides. The terrain

varies from glaciers and snowfields to rainforest and thermal pools. The

pass is 2150 metres high and is surrounded by dramatic 3000-metre peaks.

This is no stroll and should only be attempted by professional masochists

experienced in the use of ice axes, crampons and alpine route-finding.

Apparently the sense of achievement in crossing the pass entitles you to

enter an elite club of euphoric high-achievers.


Queenstown, set in a glacial valley on the edge of Lake Wakatipu, is a town

synonymous with hairy adventures: parasailing; schussing down icy rapids in

jet boats; white-water rafting; and bungy jumping off Skippers Canyon

Bridge - the latest and most terrifying stunt is plunging 300 metres from a


Fiordland National Park

Fiordland National Park, which takes its name from its glacier-carved

coast, is a wilderness of mountains, ice and beech forests. The scenic

climax of Fiordland is undoubtedly Milford Sound where cruise ships bob toy-

like beneath the shadows of towering mountains and waterfalls. There are

classic alpine walks, including the Routeburn Track (in Mt Aspiring

National Park), the Hollyford Valley and the Milford Track (billed as the

'finest in the world').

Otago Peninsula

Otago Peninsula is a significant wildlife area with woodland gardens,

albatross, penguin and seal colonies, plus aquariums, museums and historic

sites. Dunedin, a student city on the peninsula, is a hub for arts and

entertainment, and is famous for producing an eclectic pool of

internationally successful rock bands. Scottish to its core, the city has a

rich architectural heritage with many museums, galleries and castles.


There are a series of huge lakes in the area, including Hawea and nearby

Wanaka in Otago, and Lake Te Anau in Southland. Te Anau, gouged out by a

huge glacier, is New Zealand's second largest lake and features caves full

of glow worms, and waterfalls and whirlpools. The Catlins, the largest

remaining area of native forest on the east coast of the South Island, is

between Invercargill and Dunedin. It has reserves of rarefied plants and

trees, plus fauna such as fur seals, sea lions, penguins and ducks.

Stewart Island

New Zealand's third largest island, Stewart Island is an ornithologist's

delight: tuis, parakeets, kakas, bellbirds, fernbirds and robins abound.

The kiwi, rare in both the North and South Island, is common over much of

the island, particularly around beaches. A good network of walking tracks

and huts exist in the northern part of the island but the south is

forgettable, being undeveloped and isolated. The people (a paltry 450 in

all) are hardy, taciturn and suspicious of mainlanders, the weather is

changeable and the accommodation is basic; there are, however, excellent-

value homestays on the island.

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