Рефераты. Pennsylvania


Romanovska, Mariya, O.

American History – AMH2010

Section 1015

Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania


I. Political history of Pennsylvania

A. Conflict between proprietary and Assembly

B. Conflict between people

II. Economical system of Pennsylvania

A. Agriculture

B. Manufacturing

C. Commerce and Transportation

III. Social and Cultural life in Pennsylvania

A. Different nationalities

B. Variety of religions

C. Arts and learning

Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania

King Charles II owed William Penn Ј16,000, money which

Admiral Penn had lent him. Penn asked the King to grant him land in the

territory between Lord Baltimore's province of Maryland and the Duke of

York's province of New York. With the Duke's support, Penn's petition was

granted. The King signed the Charter of Pennsylvania on March 4, 1681, and

it was officially proclaimed on April 2. The King named the new colony in

honor of William Penn's father; here the history of the successful and

tolerant colony begins. Pennsylvania played a very important role in

development of what we know as United States of America now.

Political history of Pennsylvania is very bright and

controversial. There was a natural conflict between the proprietary and

popular elements in the government. As a result of the English Revolution

of 1688, Penn was deprived of his province. A popular party led by David

Lloyd demanded greater powers for the Assembly. In December 1699, the

Proprietor again visited Pennsylvania and, just before his return to

England, agreed with the Assembly on a revised constitution, the Charter of

Privileges. This gave the Assembly full legislative powers and permitted

the three Delaware counties to have a separate legislature. William Penn's

heirs were often in conflict with the Assembly, which was usually dominated

by the Quakers. The people of the frontier areas contended with the people

of the older, southeastern region for more adequate representation in the

Assembly and better protection in time of war.

Economical system of Pennsylvania is its strength and

proud. From its beginning, Pennsylvania ranked as a leading agricultural

area and produced surpluses for export, adding to its wealth. Wheat and

corn were the leading crops. Prosperous farming area was developed in

southeastern parts of colony. Arts, crafts, and textile production grew

rapidly. Sawmills and gristmills appeared, using the power of the streams.

Shipbuilding became important on the Delaware. The province early gained

importance in iron manufacture. Printing, publishing, and papermaking, as

well as tanning, were significant industries. The rivers were important as

early arteries of commerce and were soon supplemented by roads in the

southeastern area. Trade with the Indians for furs was important in the

colonial period. Later, the transport and sale of farm products to

Philadelphia and Baltimore, by water and road, formed an important

business. Philadelphia became one of the most important foreign trade

centers and the commercial metropolis in the colonies.

Pennsylvania had very rich cultural and social life.

First of all, Pennsylvania was multi-cultural. The failure of all attempts

by Indians and colonists to live side by side led the Indians to migrate

westward, leaving Pennsylvania. Open territories were shared by majority

of English Quakers, thousands of Germans, Scotch-Irish (which became one-

fourth of population), smaller groups of Irish, Welsh, French, Jewish,

Dutch and Swedes and African Americans,(mostly slaves and servants).

Pennsylvania was popular for its religious tolerance. Big Lutheran and

later Catholic churches, as well as smaller sects: Mennonites, Amish,

German Baptist Brethren or "Dunkers," Schwenkfelders, and Moravians were

common for this area. Because of the liberality of Penn's principles and

the freedom of expression that prevailed, the province was noted for the

variety and strength of its intellectual and educational institutions and

interests. An academy which held its first classes in 1740 became the

College of Philadelphia in 1755, and ultimately grew into the University of

Pennsylvania. It was the only nondenominational college of the colonial

period. The arts, the sciences, and the public buildings of Philadelphia

were the marvel of the colonies. Many fine old buildings in the

Philadelphia area still bear witness to the richness of Pennsylvania's

civilization in the 18th century. Newspapers and magazines flourished, as

did law and medicine. Pennsylvania can claim America's first hospital,

first library, and first insurance company.

Established by William Penn Pennsylvania was very

successful, and played an important role in development of Middle English

colonies and America in general. By 1776, the Province of Pennsylvania had

become the third largest English colony in America, though next to the last

to be founded. Its bright political history, (which provided people with

Charter of Privileges), well-developed, prolific economical system, and

rich cultural life during colonial period impresses even nowadays.

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