Рефераты. St Pauls

St Pauls

The Great West Door

Is the main entrance on state occasions into the Cathedral and provides the

central dramatic frontispiece of St Paul's. The North Aisle

Located to the left of the Great West door entrance. Areas of interest

include a case containing the roll of honour of 33,000 members of the

Merchant Navy who lost their lives serving in the Second World War and the

monument to the Duke of Wellington by Alfred Stevens who worked on it for

20 years and was still incomplete on his death in 1875. Wellington is

buried in the Crypt. The North Transept

Is where the font is located that dates from 1727. It is made from Italian

marble. The Dome

The area under the Dome is decorated in a compass design. When the Dome was

being built Wren was hauled up in a basket two or three times a week to see

how work was progressing. His son fixed the last stone in position. The

Dome is among the largest in the world. It's main structure is of Portland

stone from Dorset. The Whispering Gallery

Is located above the arches in the dome. It is called the Whispering

Gallery because a whisper against the blank circular wall can be heard on

the opposite side, some 42 metres away. St Paul's spectacular fresco

paintings are best seen from this gallery. The South Transept

Contains tributes to national figures including the explorer Captain Robert

Falcon Scott (1868-1912) who died on the return journey from the South

Pole. There is also an elaborate memorial to Admiral Horatio Viscount

Nelson (1758-1805). The chief glory in the South Transept is the door case,

originally part of the Choir Screen and organ gallery. In one corner of the

South Transept stands the first statue to be erected in St Paul's to the

philanthropist and campaigner for prison reform, John Howard (1726-90). The


Forms the top of the Cathedral's cross shape and is the most richly

decorated part of the interior. This is where Wren's workmen started

building. Minor Canons' Aisle.

The Organ

Wren called the original organ a 'box of whistles'. The organ has been

divided and enlarged and improved to become the third largest organ in the

country. Although modifications have been made the quality of the sound and

the beauty of the decoration are one of the glories of the cathedral. Such

famous composers as Handel and Mendelssohn both enjoyed playing at. The

powerful trumpets, situated on the West Gallery, are also played from the

organ console. The High Altar

The design echoes the pencil sketch of a baldacchino Wren envisaged as the

focal point of his grand building. The altar is made of a slab of Italian

marble, weighing nearly four tons whilst the cross stands nearly 3 metres

high and the candlesticks on either side, made of gilded and lacquered

bronze coins, stand 1.6 metres high. The American Memorial Chapel

Is located behind the High Altar and was created as a British tribute to

the 28,000 Americans based in Britain who lost their lives in the Second

World War. The Chapel was dedicated in 1958 in the presence of Her Majesty

the Queen and Richard Nixon, Vice-President of the United States. Dean's


The effigy of John Donne was the only figure to survive the Great Fire of

1666 intact. As the old Cathedral burned, the statue fell into the Crypt.

Scorch marks can still be seen around its base. The Dean's Aisle also

contains fragments from the Holy Land including a carved piece of marble

from Herod's Temple. The South Aisle

The Light of the World by Holman Hunt is the most celebrated and famous

painting in the Cathedral. It shows Christ knocking at a humble door which,

significantly, can only be opened from within. The artist is buried in the


The Crypt

Is the largest and most impressive in Europe. Although burials no longer

take place here, some 200 memorials can be seen. Much in the Crypt speaks

of heroism and bravery, but overwhelmingly the tragedy of war is

illustrated by the monuments contained within. O.B.E. Chapel

The Chapel of the Order of the British Empire honours those who have given

distinguished service to their country at home or abroad. Also known as St

Faith's Chapel. Christopher Wren's Tomb

One of the simplest in the Cathedral. Wren himself wanted no memorial.

Nelson's Tomb

Nelson died at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. His body was preserved in a

keg of naval brandy and placed within four coffins before burial in the

crypt. Wellington's Tomb

Wellington's tomb is made of Cornish porphyritic granite supported with a

block of Peterhead granite. The Treasury

Many of the Cathedral's treasures are kept here. Over the centuries much

has been seized by the state or stolen in a major robbery in 1810. There

are over 200 items of liturgical plate lent by churches in the London

Diocese as well as the Jubilee Cope worn during the Queen's Jubilee

celebrations in 1977.

The shop

St Paul's Cathedral shop is situated in the crypt. It has a wide range of

merchandise including religious and theological books, children's books,

CDs and tapes of the choir, greetings cards, postcards and gifts such as

stationery, china and glass, T-shirts and sweat shirts, all inspired by Sir

Christopher Wren's great architectural masterpiece.

The shop can be accessed (free of charge) through the North West Crypt

Door, on the left hand side of the Cathedral as you face it. Opening times

are Monday to Saturday 9.00 to 17.00 and Sunday 10.30 to 17.00.

The Cafe

'The Crypt Cafe' is open every day serving hot and cold drinks, a selection

of delicious sandwiches, pastries, cakes and scones. The Cafe is licensed

and serves morning coffee, light lunches and afternoon teas in the unique

environment of the Cathedral Crypt. Group bookings and parties welcomed -

please telephone the Catering Manager on 0171 246 8358

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