Рефераты. Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving Day

Almost in every culture in the world there is a celebration of thanks

for rich harvest. The American Thanksgiving began as a feast of

thanksgiving almost four hundred years ago.

In 1620, a religious community sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to

settle in New World. They settled in what is not known as the state of

Massachusetts. Their first winter in America was difficult. They arrived

too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover, half the Iroquois Indians taught

them also how to grow other crops and how to hunt and fish.

In the autumn of 1621 they got a beautiful harvest of corn, barley,

beans and pumpkins. The colonists had much to be thankful for, so they

planned a feast. The colonists learned from Indians how to cook cranberries

and dishes of corn and pumpkins.

In following years many of the colonists celebrated the harvest with a

feast of thanks. After the United States gained independence, Congress

recommended one yearly day of thanksgiving for the whole country. Later,

George Washington suggested the date November 26 as Thanksgiving Day. Then,

after the civil war, Abraham Lincoln suggested the last Thursday in

November to be the day of thanksgiving.

On Thanksgiving Day, family members gather at the house of an older

relative, even if they live far away. All give thanks for everything good

they have. Charitable organizations offer traditional meal to the homeless.

Foods, eaten at the first thanksgiving, have become traditional. The

traditional thanksgiving meal consists of roast turkey stuffed with herb-

flavored bread, cranberry jelly, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. Other dishes

may vary as to region: ham, sweet, potatoes, creamed corn.

A Celebration of Thanksgiving

The origins of Thanksgiving predated the Pilgrims at least 2,000 years.

After the harvest of each year was safely stored for the winter, Celtic

priests, the Druids, would mark the end of their calendar with prayers to

their sun god for protection during the period of darkness and cold of

winter. These harvest festivals evolved and became combined with a

Christian Feast of Saints.

The first formal celebration of Thanksgiving in North America was held by

an English explorer, Martin Frobisher, who attempted to establish an

English settlement on Baffin Island, after failing to discover a northern

passage to the Orient in 1576. Canada established the second Monday in

October as a national holiday, "a day of general thanksgiving," in 1957.

The Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock held their Thanksgiving in 1621 as a three

day "thank you" celebration to the leaders of the Wampanoag Indian tribe

and their families for teaching them the survival skills they needed to

make it in the New World. It was their good fortune that the tradition of

the Wampanoags was to treat any visitor to their homes with a share of

whatever food the family had, even if supplies were low. It was also an

amazing stroke of luck that one of the Wampanoag, Tisquantum or Squanto,

had become close friends with a British explorer, John Weymouth, and had

learned the Pilgrim's language in his travels to England with Weymouth.

Wild turkey was on the menu, along with corn (Pilgrim's wheat), Indian

corn, barley, peas, waterfowl, five deer (brought by the Indians as their

dish to pass), bass and cod. Since then, we've added such delicacies as

ham, sweet potatoes, corn on the cob, popcorn, cranberry sauce and pumpkin

pie. What? Pumpkin pie is not authentic? The Pilgrims probably made pumpkin

pudding sweetened with honey, but they didn't have sugar, crust or whipped

topping. Life was tough back then.

The turkey tradition was really pushed by Benjamin Franklin, who wanted

to make it the United States national symbol because it is a quick runner,

wary, with sharp eyesight, and exhibited a regal stance, at least to

Franklin. While the bald eagle nudged out the wild turkey for our official

national symbol, Norman Rockwell has probably made the image of the family

Thanksgiving turkey even more famous, and certainly more mouth watering.

The actual day we celebrate Thanksgiving in America was picked by our

presidents, starting with George Washington who declared a one-time

holiday. Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November to be

"...a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth

in the Heavens." Franklin D. Roosevelt moved it to the fourth Thursday of

November in 1939, to prevent a 5 week November from shortening the

Christmas shopping season.

T for time to be together, turkey, talk, and tangy weather.

H for harvest stored away, home, and hearth, and holiday.

A for autumn's frosty art, and abundance in the heart.

N for neighbours, and October, nice things, new things to remember.

K for kitchen, kettles' croon, kith and kin expected soon.

S for sizzles, sights, and sounds, and something special that abounds.

Did You Know?

Americans did not invent Thanksgiving. It began in Canada. Frobisher's

celebration in 1578 was 43 years before the pilgrims gave thanks in 1621

for the bounty that ended a year of hardships and death. Abraham Lincoln

established the date for the US as the last Thursday in November. In 1941,

US Congress set the National Holiday as the fourth Thursday in November.

Frobisher and early colonists, giving thanks for safe passage, as well as

pilgrim celebrations in the US that began the traditions of turkeys,

pumpkin pies, and the gathering of family and friends.


There are three traditions behind our Canadian Thanksgiving Day.

1. Long ago, before the first Europeans arrived in North America, the

farmers in Europe held celebrations at harvest time. To give thanks

for their good fortune and the abundance of food, the farm workers

filled a curved goat's horn with fruit and grain. This symbol was

called a cornucopia or horn of plenty. When they came to Canada they

brought this tradition with them.

2. In the year 1578, the English navigator Martin Frobisher held a formal

ceremony, in what is now called Newfoundland, to give thanks for

surviving the long journey. He was later knighted and had an inlet of

the Atlantic Ocean in northern Canada named after him - Frobisher Bay.

Other settlers arrived and continued these ceremonies.

3. The third came in the year 1621, in what is now the United States,

when the Pilgrims celebrated their harvest in the New World. The

Pilgrims were English colonists who had founded a permanent European

settlement at Plymouth Massachusetts. By the 1750's, this joyous

celebration was brought to Nova Scotia by American settlers from the


At the same time, French settlers, having crossed the ocean and

arrived in Canada with explorer Samuel de Champlain, also held huge

feasts of thanks. They even formed "The Order of Good Cheer" and

gladly shared their food with their Indian neighbours.

After the Seven Year's War ended in 1763, the citizens of Halifax held

a special day of Thanksgiving.

The Americans who remained faithful to the government in England were

known as Loyalists. At the time of the American revolution, they moved

to canada and spread the Thanksgiving celebration to other parts of

the country. many of the new English settlers from Great Britain were

also used to having a harvest celebration in their churches every

autumn. Eventually in 1879, Parliament declared November 6th a day of

Thanksgiving and a national holiday. Over the years many dates were

used for Thanksgiving, the most popular was the 3rd Monday in October.

After World War I, both Armistice Day and Thanksgiving were celebrated

on the Monday of the week in which November 11th occurred. Ten years

later, in 1931, the two days became separate holidays and Armistice

Day was renamed Remembrance Day. Finally, on January 31st, 1957,

Parliament proclaimed....

Now, more than ever, we're reminded to treasure our families,

communities, and the institutions that raise our spirits, help the less

fortunate, and express our passions. As we move forward, join us in a new

tradition. This year, during the Thanksgiving holiday, as you come together

for family, friendship, food and fellowship, celebrate Giving Day.

. Make a Giving Day commitment to support your favorite cause with a

gift of time or money

. Express your values, compassion, and passions with your loved ones by

sharing your Giving Day commitment at Thanksgiving dinner

. Build a new tradition by encouraging others to celebrate Giving Day

|Thanksgiving Day |

|The English Puritans were trying to "purify" the Church of England,|

|but finally they formed their own church. They left England and |

|went to Holland and then to America. They became "Pilgrims" because|

|they were travels in search of religious freedom. |

|In the fall of 1620 the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic Ocean on |

|their ship, the Mayflower. The trip was very difficult, and many |

|people got sick. But while they were on the crowded ship, the |

|Pilgrims agreed on a form of government for their new colony. This |

|agreement, the Mayflower Compact, established the principles of |

|voting and majority rule. |

|Finally on December 22 the travels landed the Plymouth, |

|Massachusetts. There as not enough food for the long, cold winter, |

|and many settlers died. Then some friendly Indians, Samoset, Chief |

|Massasoit, and Squanto, showed to the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, |

|and plant corn, beans, and other foods. Because of their help, the |

|Plymouth settlers had a good harvest the next fall. |

|Governor William Bradford declared some special day of |

|thanksgiving. The Pilgrims and the Indians had three-day feast of |

|deer, wild turkey and fish. There were also nuts, corn, beans, |

|pumpkins wild fruits, cranberries, and other foods. The first |

|Thanksgiving celebration was a great success. |

|President Abraham Lincoln established Thanksgiving as an official |

|national holiday. Now every year on the fourth Thursday of November|

|American families and friends gather, have a feast, and give |

|thanks. Some traditional Thanksgiving food are turkey, dressing, |

|sweet potatoes, cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie. |

Turkey Noodle Casserole

. 1 pkg frozen peas, thawed under cool running water (10 ounce)

. 2 cups diced cooked turkey (or ham)

. 1 1/2 cups cooked noodles

. butter or margarine

. 1/4 cup chopped onion

. 8 ounces sliced mushrooms

. 1 can (10 1/2-ounce) cream of mushroom soup

. 1/2 cup milk

. salt, to taste

. 1/4 teaspoon curry powder

. 1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning

. 1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese

Combine turkey, noodles, and peas in a 2-quart buttered casserole dish.

Melt 2 tablespoons butter in a saucepan. Sautй onion and mushrooms; blend

in soup, milk and seasonings. Pour soup mixture over meat; top with

shredded cheese. Bake in a 350 degree F. for about 20 to 30 minutes.

Serves 4.

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