–ефераты. The profile of an effective manager






rather sensitive issue to most people and requires that managers act

appropriately to gain the trust needed to lead effectively. It is

dangerous to lose trust of an employee as they may not respect your

judgment without it.

Managers who want to engage in trustworthy relationships with their

workers, according to RobbinsТs guidelines, must follow certain practices

that show integrity, competence and consistency.[44] Without these three

characteristics, all aspect of trust becomes meaningless. The normal day

to day actions of a manager affect the level of trust that each employee

will have in him/her.

Managers of different levels and cultures prioritize trust differently.

This is evident when evaluating how managerial decisions can build trust

through the Managerial Linkage System. In УManagerial Leadership at Twelve

OТClockФ Charles Kerns, describes that on one end of the managerial scale

is an untrustworthy manager who accomplishes his goals with lies and

deception to obtain the numbers. On the other end of the scale is a

manager who uses the trust of his workers to accomplish the same numbers.

It is clear that the untrusting manager is taking a shortcut through the

managerial system from 12-9 and the trusting manager has taken the time and

effort to move along from 12-3-6-9 as shown in the figure below.[45]

[pic]

The untrusting managerТs shortcut disregards the concerns of the workers

and in turn ignores the quality of output to the customers. This will

effect worker retention times and create poor customer satisfaction.

Though this manager may achieve sales targets the first time around it will

not last. The second time through the cycle the results will begin to drop

off due to poor management and a lack of trust. Conversely, the trusting

manager gains the trust of the workers and forms a great relationship with

them. Worker retention is much longer and they tend to do a much better

job caring for the customers. With happier customers will come the

increased sales. The second time around the cycle, the trustworthy manager

will have an easier time achieving the same or improved sales. The

Managerial Linkage System demonstrates that having employee trust will

cause business performance to increase.

2. Can we learn how to become an effective manager?

Last decades, many visions thought that we could learn how to become an

effective manager. We could refer to the success of many institutions where

MBA programs are offered. Many young high intelligent business men are

taught how to become successful. Nevertheless the success of these business

schools, there is a lack of correlation between scholastic standing and the

success in business. Clearly, what a student learns about management in

graduate school, does not equip him to build a successful career in

business.

For Livingstone S. (1971) the reason for this failure could be found in the

fact that[46]:Фthey donТt learn from their formal education what they need

to know to perform their job effectively. The tasks that are the most

important in getting results usually are left to be learned on the job,

where few managers ever master them simply because no one teaches them

how.Ф

Formal management education programs typically emphasize the development of

skills which enables the future manager to solve problems and to make

decisions (Сrespondent behaviour). But little attention is given to the

development of skills required to find the problems that need to be solved

(Сoperant behaviourТ). Furthermore, the problem solving in the classroom is

seen as an entirely rational process, while in reality human emotions make

it hard to deal with the problems objectively.

As the research of Norman H. Mackworth revealed[47], the distinction

between the problem-solver and the problem-finder s vital. He concluded

that managers not only should be able to analyze data of financial

statements or other written reports, but even more important they should be

able to scan the business environment for less concrete clues that a

problem exist. These perceptual skills are extremely difficult to develop

in the classroom and must be developed on the job.

We should ask our self the question: Are there people who have more

managerial skills than others, because they are able to learn from their

experience what they need to know to manage effectively. Livingstone S

(1971) found three characteristics of men who learned to manage

effectively.

. Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you should have a

strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others.

Many of those who aspires high- level positions are driven by the

expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to

get effective results through others. Those managers donТt learn how

to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack of

willingness to manage. They are not able to devote enough time and

energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to manage is a

crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in

practice what is necessary to get effective results on the job. For

example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but with

a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely

advance far up the organizational hierarchy because they will be

blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.

. Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with directing

and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by a high

need for power. We could refer to the above chapter about leadership

and power.

. Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is Фthe ability to cope

with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur when people work

together in an organizationФ (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers who are

perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are able

to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because their

affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive. They are

emotionally blind. They are not capable to deal with the emotional

reactions that are crucial in gaining the willing cooperation of

subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how to cope with

human emotions.

So we could conclude that there should be a combination of inborn

characteristics and acquired knowledge and experience to become an

effective manager. There are people wit a higher needs for managing and

power and having a bigger capacity for empathy than others. But these

features are no guarantee for success. They should be combined with

technical and conceptual skills acquired during management education and

job experience.

But the effective manger is one, who is able to adapt his personality,

skills, knowledge and relationships in such a way that it fits the demands

of their specific situation.

3. Can we learn how to become an effective manager?

Last decades, many visions thought that we could learn how to become an

effective manager. We could refer to the success of many institutions where

MBA programs are offered. Many young high intelligent business men are

taught how to become successful. Nevertheless the success of these business

schools, there is a lack of correlation between scholastic standing and the

success in business. Clearly, what a student learns about management in

graduate school, does not equip him to build a successful career in

business.

For Livingstone S. (1971) the reason for this failure could be found in the

fact that[48]:Фthey donТt learn from their formal education what they need

to know to perform their job effectively. The tasks that are the most

important in getting results usually are left to be learned on the job,

where few managers ever master them simply because no one teaches them

how.Ф

Formal management education programs typically emphasize the development of

skills which enables the future manager to solve problems and to make

decisions (Сrespondent behaviour). But little attention is given to the

development of skills required to find the problems that need to be solved

(Сoperant behaviourТ). Furthermore, the problem solving in the classroom is

seen as an entirely rational process, while in reality human emotions make

it hard to deal with the problems objectively.

As the research of Norman H. Mackworth revealed[49], the distinction

between the problem-solver and the problem-finder s vital. He concluded

that managers not only should be able to analyze data of financial

statements or other written reports, but even more important they should be

able to scan the business environment for less concrete clues that a

problem exist. These perceptual skills are extremely difficult to develop

in the classroom and must be developed on the job.

We should ask our self the question: Are there people who have more

managerial skills than others, because they are able to learn from their

experience what they need to know to manage effectively. Livingstone S

(1971) found three characteristics of men who learned to manage

effectively.

. Need to manage: to be able to manage effectively, you should have a

strong desire and satisfaction to influence the performance of others.

Many of those who aspires high- level positions are driven by the

expectations of high salaries or high status, but are not motivated to

get effective results through others. Those managers donТt learn how

to develop an effective managerial career, because there is a lack of

willingness to manage. They are not able to devote enough time and

energy to find a suitable way to manage. So the need to manage is a

crucial factor in determining whether a person will learn and apply in

practice what is necessary to get effective results on the job. For

example, managers who are outstanding individual performers, but with

a lack to motivate others or to delegate tasks to subordinates, rarely

advance far up the organizational hierarchy because they will be

blocked by low performances of a large number of subordinates.

. Need for power: Since managers are primarily concerned with directing

and influencing subordinates, they should be characterized by a high

need for power. We could refer to the above chapter about leadership

and power.

. Capacity for empathy: The capacity for empathy is Фthe ability to cope

with the emotional reactions that inevitably occur when people work

together in an organizationФ (Livingstone S. 1971). Managers who are

perfectly capable to learn from their job experience, or who are able

to apply management techniques successfully, often fail because their

affinity with others is entirely intellectual or cognitive. They are

emotionally blind. They are not capable to deal with the emotional

reactions that are crucial in gaining the willing cooperation of

subordinates. It is very difficult to teach people how to cope with

human emotions.

So we could conclude that there should be a combination of inborn

characteristics and acquired knowledge and experience to become an

effective manager. There are people wit a higher needs for managing and

power and having a bigger capacity for empathy than others. But these

features are no guarantee for success. They should be combined with

technical and conceptual skills acquired during management education and

job experience.

But the effective manger is one, who is able to adapt his personality,

skills, knowledge and relationships in such a way that it fits the demands

of their specific situation.

Attachment 1 [50]

Message Medium

Receiver

Encoding Decoding

Sender Noise

Message

Feedback

1. Message: a purpose to be conveyed

2. Encoding: converting a message into symbols

3. Channel: the medium a message travels along

4. Decoding: retranslating a senderТs message. Difficulties may occur here,

especially in intercultural communication.

5. Feedback: returns the message to the sender and provides a check on

whether understanding has been achieved.

Noise: any disturbance that interferes with the transmission, receipt or

feedback of a message

Attachment 2 [51]

HIERARCHY OF CHANNEL RICHNESS

Channel Type of message Information medium

Richness

Richest Nonroutine, ambiguous

Face-to-face talk

Telephone

Electronic mail

Memos, letters

Flyers, bulletins, general

reports

Leanest Routine, clear

-----------------------

[1] Management, By: Robbins, S.P., 1991, , Prentice-Hall, Inc, p. 4.

[2] Begrippen van Management, By: Jegers M., Moenaert R., Verbeke A., 1994,

, VUB-press, p.17.

[3] The nature of Managerial work By: Mintzberg H., 1973, , New York,

Harper&Row, p. 93-94.

[4] The General Managers, By: Kotter J.P.,1982, , New York Free Press.

[5] Skills of an effective administrator, By: Katz R.L., 1974, , Harvard

Business Reiew 52.

[6] Management, By: Robbins, S.P., 1991, , Prentice-Hall, Inc, p. 4.

[7] The General Managers, By: Kotter J.P.,1982, , New York Free Press, p.

36.

[8] Organization Theory and Design, By Richard L. Daft, 2nd Edition,1983

[9] Actionable learning, By Terrence Morrison, Asia Development Bank

Institute

[10] Human Problem Solving By: Herbert Simon and R. Newel,NY:NORTON,1990

[11] Extract fromФ The Next big IdeaФ By Carol Kennedy, Random House

Business Books, www.cec.globalcources.com

[12] Essentials of Organizational Behavior. By, Robbins, Stephen P. New

Jesrsey: Prentice Hall, 2002

[13] Putting Spirituality to Work. By, Professor Kerns

[14] Why Decisions Fail By: Paul C. Nutt, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.,

San Francisco, CA,2002

[15] Grant, Quacy. Conflict and Conflict Management. Taking It Global -

http://www.takingitglobal.org/express/article.html?cid=1227

[16] Grant, Quacy. Conflict and Conflict Management. Taking It Global -

http://www.takingitglobal.org/express/article.html?cid=1227

[17] Cribbin, James J. Effective Managerial Leadership. American

Management Association, Inc. USA: 1972

[18] Cribbin, James J. Effective Managerial Leadership. American

Management Association, Inc. USA: 1972

[19] Robbins, Stephen P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[20] Kerns, Dr. Charles. УThe Five AТs of Improving Your Personal

EffectivenessФ. Graziadio Business Report. September 2002.

[21] Are you flexible enough to succeed? , By: Raudsepp, Eugene, Manage,

Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4

[22] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,pearson Education

Limited,1978,2001

[23] Are you flexible enough to succeed? , By: Raudsepp, Eugene, Manage,

Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4

[24] George T. Geis, research coordinator at UCLA's Center of Human

Resource Management at Are you flexible enough to succeed? , By: Raudsepp,

Eugene, Manage, Mar90, Vol. 41, Issue 4

[25] The Unblocked Manager, By: Mike Woodcock,Dave Francis,England,GB,1983

[26] Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English,pearson Education

Limited,1978,2001

[27] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.

Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003

[28] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.

Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003

[29] Becoming a Master Manager, By:Robert E.Qiunn,Sue R.Faerman,Michel P.

Thomson, Michael R. McGrath; USA,2003

[30] Mentors Are Guides to Success , By: Wilson, Cheryl F., Black

Collegian, Apr2002, Vol. 32, Issue 3

[31] Do your managers have the right stuff? , By: Simonsen, Piggy,

Workforce, Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8

[32] Do your managers have the right stuff? , By: Simonsen, Piggy,

Workforce, Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8

[33] Do your managers have the right stuff?, By: Simonsen, Piggy,

Workforce, Aug99, Vol. 78, Issue 8

[34] Ellen D. Rothberg, Greg Blencoe

[35] Adaptive Skills , By: Yelverton, Jerry, Vital Speeches of the Day,

0042742X, 09/15/97, Vol. 63, Issue 23

[36] Pankoff Sr., J. A

[37] I will use this book as a lead to construct the rest of this section:

Robbins, Stephen P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice

Hall, pp. 154-216

[38] This classification is subjective and doesnТt claim at all to be

exhaustive.

[39] A remarkable effort to explain these problems was provided by

Hofstede, who placed cultures on a continuum of high-context vs. low-

context cultures. In the former, the context is of extreme importance; what

not is said may be more significant than what is said (for example Japan).

In the latter, words are more important to transfer meaning than the

context in which communication takes place (for example North America). It

is then your task as a manager to take these in consideration.

[40] Here I would like to refer to the interesting theories Deborah Tannen

developed in the С90Тs. One of her conclusions was that men use talk to

emphasize status, whereas women use it to create connection. She even

states that the two sexes belong to two different cultures and speak as

such different genderlects (Tannen, 1991, p. 37). As such, intergender

communication can be a barrier to effective communication. It is then your

task as a manager to take these in consideration.

[41] Szwajkowski, Eugene W. УThe Myths and Realities of Research on

Organizational

[42] Robbins, Stephen P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[43] Robbins, Stephen P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002

[44] Robbins, Stephen P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior. New

Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002

[45] Kerns, Charles D. PhD, MBA. УManagerial Leadership at 12 oТclock.Ф

Graziadio Business Report. Summer 2002.

[46] Myth of the well-educated manager, By:Livingstone S;, 1971,, Harvard

Business Review p.82.

[47] Originality, By: Mackworth N.H., 1969, , in The Discovery of Talent

p.242.

[48] Myth of the well-educated manager, By:Livingstone S;, 1971,, Harvard

Business Review p.82.

[49] Originality, By: Mackworth N.H., 1969, , in The Discovery of Talent

p.242.

[50] Robbins, S. & Coulter, M. УManagerial Communication and information

technologyФ p. 283

[51] Robbins, Stephen P. (2001). Organizational Behavior. New Jersey:

Prentice Hall, p. 295

-----------------------

Generate numerous possibilities

Begin with one problem or question

managers

planning

organizing

leading

controlling

OrganizationТs stated purpose

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