Рефераты. The Spirit of Scotland. Presentation theme.

insurgents. But they were plagued by the indecision of their leader, Lord

Mar, as well as sheer bad luck. Besides, many Scots preferred to sit on

the fence or rise for King George; old rivalries often induced some clans

to oppose a cause for the simple reason that others have joined it. After

much waste of time the one major battle of Sheriffmuir ended in stalemate,

and James Stuart, the titular sovereign, arrived from France too late to

regain his kingdom. A small-scale Jacobite campaign of 1719 also failed

notwithstanding Spanish assistance, but another opportunity still lay


In July, 1745 a French frigate landed on the Scottish islet of Eriskay a

handsome young man of noble mien with only seven companions. Charles

Edward Stuart, affectionately called by his followers \"Bonnie Prince

Charlie\", boldly affirmed his father\'s right to the throne despite the

doubts of local chieftains. In a matter of weeks he raised the Jacobite

banner at Glenfinnan, assembled several thousand men, captured Perth and

entered Edinburgh, where he had James VIII and III proclaimed king again.

Having routed General Cope, the Hanoverian commander, at Prestonpans,

Charles found himself master of Scotland.

He craved for more. In November, at the head of his Highlanders, he

crossed the English border. Carlisle surrendered, as did Preston,

Manchester and Derby. The elated Charles stood a mere hundred miles from

London, where panic was such that George II and his dignitaries considered

evacuation. At this moment, however, his staff insisted on returning to

Scotland, a decision still hotly debated by historians. True, the expected

reinforcements of English Jacobites or French descents did not come, and

three English corps, each one bigger than his own, opposed the Prince. But

these were out-manoeuvred, and the whole course of the campaign showed

that the best chance of success lay in audacity, which took the Scots so


Although Charles won another encounter with the Hanoverians at Falkirk, he

was finally cornered, and on 16 April, 1746 the last battle fought on

British soil, at Culloden, sealed the fate of Scotland. On flat ground,

with little cavalry and no artillery, the Jacobites could not prevail

against well-drilled government troops, a good number of which were

Scottish, too. Hundreds of braves fell on the spot, the wounded were

mercilessly butchered and prisoners shot, hanged or sent to American

plantations. The victors employed every possible measure to humble the

spirit and eradicate the customs of the Gaelic Highlands. Even tartan

garment and bagpipes were banned for a long spell.

This was the end of one of the most marvellous adventures in European

history. Prince Charles survived Culloden, and despite the enormous sum of

-L-30,000 on his head, not one of the people who could well blame him for

their ruin thought of getting the reward during half a year of his

wanderings in the Highlands. His cause died with him in France, but in one

respect it did triumph — dozens of Jacobite ballads are fondly sung in

Scotland today, but nobody would recall a single Hanoverian one.

The Scottish Enlightenment and Beyond

The Jacobite period and its aftermath was not all bloodshed and intrigue.

An efficient school system and four universities in a nation of just over

a million people ensured one of the highest literacy rates and levels of

education in the world. In the Middle Ages Scotland already produced

several scholars of renown, such as \"The Subtle Doctor\" John Duns Scotus,

recently beatified by the Vatican, or John Napier who discovered

logarithms. And then, from the early eighteenth century into the

nineteenth unfolded the incredibly creative trends of the Scottish

Enlightenment. David Hume, one of the pillars of modem philosophy,

observed in 1757: \"It is admirable how many men of genius this country

produces at present... At a time when we have lost our princes, our

parliaments, our independent government, even the presence of our chief

nobility... is it not strange, that in these circumstances we should

really be the people most distinguished for Literature in Europe?\" It

sounds as a vaunt, but there is something to sustain it.

The term \"Literature\" carried a much wider, encyclopedic sense then,

comprising all recorded knowledge or learning, and, indeed, a bright

constellation of Scots excelled in various branches of science and art. No

rigid dogmas were held by all of them, but many shared a profound interest

for practical improvements and social benefits of their enquiries,

stressing the links between different forms of human activity and studying

the principles which underlay them.

Apart from Hume himself, the leading philosophers of the age, whose

influence stretched from America to Russia, were Adam Smith, the father of

political economy, Thomas Reid, head of the \"common sense\" school, and

Adam Ferguson, a pioneer of sociology. Other scientists included the

eminent historian William Robertson; William Cullen, who established

chemistry in its own right; Joseph Black, the investigator of latent and

specific heat; James Hutton, whose \"Theory of the Earth\" gave birth to

modern geology; and the famous medical dynasties of Hunter and Monro.

Learned societies and journals blossomed, and, as a natural offshoot, the

\"Encyclopaedia Britannica\" started in Edinburgh in 1768.

Practice went alongside theory. James Watt revolutionized industry with

his steam engine; William Symington devised the first practical steamboat

(\"Charlotte Dundas\", 1802); Charles Mackintosh patented the water-proofing

process; James Neilson introduced the hot blast for smelting iron; Robert

Brown first recognized the cell nucleus and Brownian motion; John MacAdam

perfected the method of road-construction and Thomas Telford, nicknamed

\"Colossus of Roads\", became the leading civil engineer of his time. Later

on Scots made decisive contributions to the development of electricity,

magnetism, thermodynamics and, eventually, telephone, television and

radar. .

In another sphere, that of travel, the names of African explorers James

Bruce, Mungo Park and David Livingstone would be familiar to geographers.

Alexander Mackenzie traversed North America for the first time, and a

succession of dauntless polar travellers followed. Captain James Cook

himself was a Scot on his father\'s side. All of them left valuable and

fascinating accounts of their discoveries.

In visual arts Scottish achievements are rather less spectacular, but some

figures cannot be overlooked. In architecture Robert Adam and Charles

Cameron are unsurpassed by any eighteenth-century master; the former built

in Britain, the latter in Russia, but both concealed exquisite and

fanciful decorations behind imposing classical facades. Allan Ramsay and

Henry Raeburn led the way in British portrait painting. Subsequently many

gifted Scots took part in various artistic movements, notably the Celtic

Revival, while Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868- 1928) emerged as one of

the prophets of European Art Nouveau.

Three literatures in one

Scottish literature is a remarkable phenomenon if only because it makes

use of three languages: Scotish, Gaelic and English, let alone a good

number of medieval writings in Latin. The first, a Germanic tongue

deriving from old Anglo-Saxon, absorbed many Norse, Gaelic, French and

Dutch elements, and by the fourteenth century markedly diverged from its

southern neighbour. The notion (officially enforced after the Union of

1707) that it is just a sort of \"bad\" or corrupt English is simply

incorrect. Scotish has as long a pedigree as English, and in many of its

forms is closer to the common ancestor. It enjoyed a national and

government status until King James VI with his court departed for London

in 1603, and expressed itself in an outstanding literary tradition,

especially poetry. Scotish came of age by the 1370s, when John Barbour

composed \"The Bruce\", an epic poem, historical chronicle, biography of

King Robert I and chivalous romance all in one. Mention must be made of

other celebrated medieval \"makars\" (authors): King James I, Blind Harry,

Robert Henryson, William Dunbar, Gavin Douglas (translator of Virgil\'s

\"Aeneid\" into Scots), David Lindsay and Alexander Mongomerie.

After a certain lull came the wonderful eighteenth-century resurgence of

Scots in the verse of the prolific native school crowned by Robert Burns.

No one could aspire to the fame of national poet with more justice, not so

much because of his humble origin and farmer\'s toil, but because he was

and is dear to any compatriot, whether a penny less tramp or a mighty

lord. He was equally skillful in English and Scotish, though always

preferred the latter. Many of his poems spring from folk ballads, and to

this day are sung all over the world. He expressed the very soul of

Scotland with such sincerity and depth that their names are inseparable.

Burns is well-known and loved in many lands outside Scotland, but perhaps

nowhere as much as in Russia. Ivan Turgenev admired him as \"a clear

fountain of poetry\".

Owing to its rich legacy, expressive powers and modern works in every

genre, Scotish is now firmly back on British literary scene. In the

recent translation of the New Testament, with typical Caledonian humour,

only one character is speaking English - the devil.

Gaelic tradition in Scotland dates back to first centuries A.D. It shares

with Scots the thankless fate of a native language encroached upon by an

aggressive foreign idiom, and often artficially suppressed, but their

history is as different as Celtic speech is from Germanic. Scottish

Gaelic, naturally, owes much to its sources in Ireland, although by

the sixteenth century the two dialects could be told apart. Oral

communication of lore has always been paramount in the Highlands and

Western Isles even to the present, and hereditary dynasties of bards and

story-tellers thrived at the courts of MacDonald, Campbell or MacLeod

chiefs. One such amazing line, the MacMhuirichs, lasted over eighteen

generations. In time many legends, chronicles, genealogies, etc. were

written down and printed. Another crucial mark of Gaelic literature is

its inextricable link with music and singing, and some of the loftiest

songs appeared in the Jacobite period. Government \"pacification\" of

the Highlands after 1746, eviction of local landholders and their

exodus abroad caused a dramatic decline of Gaelic culture. Today less than

100,000 people can read and write Gaelic, although of late there are some

encouraging signs of recovery.

Ironically, nothing drew more attention to Gaelic heritage than the

English texts of James Macpherson, published in the early 1760s as

translations of the ancient Celtic bard Ossian, son of Fingal. Macpherson,

himself a Gael, toured the Highlands and collected tales and verse there,

although he used the material rather freely and invented much of it. His

success, however, was tremendous. Ossianic poems appeared in all major

European countries, inviting a host of imitations and comparisons with

Homer and Dante.

English-language works of Scottish origin made a late appearance, but

appealed to a wide audience, and several authors proved in no way inferior

to their English colleagues. James Thomson wrote the highly acclaimed

sentimental poem \"The Seasons\" as well as the anthem \"Rule, Britannia\";

Tobias Smollett produced a string of brilliantly grotesque novels

including \"The Adventures of Roderick Random\" and \"The Expedition of

Humphry Clinker\", while James Boswell\'s \"Life of Samuel Johnson\" became

one of the most celebrated biographies ever penned in English.

But arguably the greatest Scottish writer, both in terms of versatility

and impact at home and abroad, is Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832). Fostered

by native lore, he gathered and issued old ballads in his \"Minstrelsy of

the Scottish Border\", composed sublime poetry of his own (\"Lay of the Last

Minstrel\", \"Lady of the Lake\") and wrote numerous dramatic, historical and

antiquarian works. He is best remembered as one of the titans of the

Romantic movement, who almost single-handedly established the form of

historical novel and, according to some, the short story as well. Much of

the action in Scott\'s verse and prose (\"Waverley\", \"Old Mortality\", \"Rob

Roy\", \"Heart of Midlothian\", \"Redgauntlet\", etc.) is set in Scotland, and

he relied on his perfect knowledge of the Scotish tongue to portray his

colourful characters by colloquial means.

Other examples of native literary talent range from the eccentric but

awesome nineteenth-century sage Thomas Carlyle through Robert Louis

Stevenson (who also has many fine poems in Scots) to James Barrie and Alan

Milne, whose serious essays were overshadowed by the youthful glory of

Peter Pan and Winnie the Pooh.

Trotting the Globe

An old joke, \"Rats, lice and Scots: you find them the whole world over\",

is well founded in fact. Strong Scottish detachments fought on the French

side in the Hundred Years\' War (an astonishing figure of over 15,000 men

about the year 1420). In the mid-sixteenth century Scots made up almost

14% of the population of the Danish port Elsinore, while by 1650 their

community in Poland is said to have numbered 30,000. Few corners of Europe

were not frequented by Scots, for whom the continent soon became too


Predictably, they played an outstanding part in the making and running of

the British Empire and the states that succeeded it in America, Africa,

India, Australia and other parts. \"Every line of strength in American

history is colored with Scottish blood\" was the remark of President

Woodrow Wilson. But their reach extended far beyond the English-speaking

world. \"Go into whatever country you will, you will always find Scotsmen.

They penetrate into every climate, you meet them in all the various

departments of travellers, soldiers, merchants, adventurers, domestics...

If any dangerous and difficult enterprise has been undertaken, any

uncommon proofs given of patience or activity, any new countries visited

and improved, a Scotsman has borne some share in the performance\" - no

self-applied boast, but a comment from an English witness.

In the early nineteenth century Lord Cochrane commanded the navies of

Chile and Brazil. Somewhat later Thomas Blake Glover from Fraserburgh

helped to reform Japan along Western lines, and became the first alien to

be decorated by the mikado. In Russia the Scottish record includes the

earliest waterworks in the Moscow Kremlin, first observatory and first

steamship, among other industrial, military and scientific innovations,

while Gordons, Braces, Greigs, Barclays and Lermontovs (whose forebears

came from Dairsie in Fife) have done honour to their ancestral land and

their adopted country. Volumes can be (and have already been) dedicated to

the theme of Scottish impact abroad. Scots integrated with incredible ease

into almost any environment, but even if they left home with nothing but

an edition of Burns, they could never forget where they came from.

\"Scotland forever!\" was the battle cry of Scottish regiments serving

overseas -and the thought of many a peaceful settler on distant shores.


In the end I\'d like to show the main obvious differences between the

Englishman and the Scot? The Scotsman is more self-conscious about his

nationality (and knows as a general rule, much more about his national

history) than the Englishman; he is much less self-conscious about his

social class, about the school and university he went to.

He is more stiff and reserved at a first meeting than the Englishman but

also, when he feels he has made a friend, more frank in the expression of

opinion and in the display both of anger and sentiment. He is more

argumentative, and less tactful than the Englishman; he has often a

heartier or a noisier sense of fun but perhaps a less subtle sense of

humour. His sense of the family is more extended and tenacious than is

common among modern Englishmen, and usually he keeps in touch with uncles,

aunts, and cousins scattered not only over Scotland itself but in London

and in the Dominions, particularly Canada and Australia. The quality of

life which Scotsmen miss abroad and for which they seek each other out, is

certain homeliness. Few Scots ever lose their narative accent. Accent and

manner are, for Scots abroad, badges of mutual recognition, and draw

exiled Scots everywhere together for old school, old university and for

the celebration of Burns\'s Night. The Scotsman\'s idea of a good time is

one had by men together while the women are safely at home looking after

the children. And thus the public house, for instance, in Scotland is not

as in England a family institution, but rather (as in Ireland) a place

where men get away from their families.


Digest, - №1/1996.

English, - издательский дом «Первое сентября» №№1, 8, 17/1995, №12/1999

Kirill\'s and Mephody\'s big encyclopedia (computer encyclopedia).

VisitScotland Magazine-guidebook - 2004

Who is Who in Britain, - Москва, «Просвещение», 2000



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