–ефераты. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

useful for them to comprehend the real message in the real-life situation

dealing with a native speaker.

Thus, we can distinguish certain similarities and differences, which we

can encounter comparing them. They are both direct aiming at checking one

exact skill; however, CFC is integrative, but TOEFL is discreet point test.

Moreover, the test formats differ as well. CFC is richer in activities,

than TOEFL test, which offer the students just multiple-choice items test.

The author of the paper presumes that CFC listening part is more testee-

friendly, while TOEFL listening part is more УreservedФ and does not allow

the students fill free, but alarmed.

Writing Part

Writing part of CFC test tests the studentsТ ability to write different

types of writing texts. These could be transactional letters, simple

letters, compositions, descriptions, reports, etc. Moreover, the students

could be asked to write an opinion composition and even an article

(examples available in Appendix p.38).

Transactional letters are aimed at making somebody do something. Writing

them, the students have to keep in mind that they are supposed to get a

relevant answer.

There are different types of transactional letters, such as a letter of

complaint, a letter of invitation, a letter asking for information and a

letter describing something. The task requiring the students ability to

write these letters will supply the students with necessary information,

may be even pictures, and usually will ask for the studentsТ personal

opinion. Moreover, the students have to be aware of the style that should

be used depending on the requirements. Furthermore, the students will have

to know how the letters are structured, for it will be the factor that will

be evaluated as well.

Another writing task such as writing articles for a magazine will require

the students to display their writing abilities, the knowledge of the

vocabulary, the style and letter organization knowledge (examples available

in Appendix 38).

Writing a report will be based on the studentsТ capability to gather

facts and analyse them. It could involve a kind of a research work and

knowledge how to express and link the ideas together (examples available in

Appendix 30).

Writing a narrative story will ask the creativity from the students to

make it interesting and original. Again the students will have to be able

to express and link their ideas to produce a meaningful text.

Opinion composition will involve the studentsТ abilities to state

advantages and disadvantages of the topic being discussed, expressing own

opinion, stating the problem and possible solutions of it and expansion on

the topic analysing various aspects of a topic.

Another writing task could be a book review. The students will have to

know how to plan and organize the review, giving brief information about an

author and some essential details about a book. Moreover, personal opinion

of the students will be required as well.

Thus, looking at the facts stated above we can declare that the writing

part of CFC is purely integrative type of test, for it involves all

possible written tasks and strategies that should be used to accomplish the

tasks effectively. Furthermore, it will be a direct testing aimed at

testing the studentsТ writing skills. The tasks and activities presented in

this part of CFC reflect the studentsТ needs they may meet in a real-life

situation, for every possible writing piece is given.

The writing part of TOEFL test will generally involve essay writing.

There will not be any letters or book reviews. The students will be given a

topic that is typically a statement and they will have to expand it and

write about it giving the facts, ideas and sometimes even a personal

opinion, i.e.: У If the earth to be saved from environmental catastrophe,

we shall all have to make major changes in our lifestylesФ (Gear, Cambridge

preparation for the TOEFL test, 1996). This type of writing will focus on

expressing ideas and their linking as well. To write a good essay the

students will require the knowledge of the topic, or schemata, the

knowledge of a relevant vocabulary, appropriate style and organization of

the written text, i.e. thesis sentence, paragraphs, etc (examples available

in Appendix p. 377 Ц 378).

Therefore, we can conclude that the writing part of TOEFL test could be

called also an integrative type of test involving the range of strategies.

Moreover, it could be defined as direct testing, for it implies testing

exactly the writing skill. Furthermore, it is totally based on the

knowledge how to organize an essay with all necessary paragraphs,

introductions and conclusions.

Use of English or Structure and Written Expressions

An import role in both tests is occupied by use of English or as it is

called in TOEFL Structure and Written Expressions part. It aims at testing

the studentsТ knowledge of grammar and vocabulary used in the English


CFC offers the students a range of various activities and task to be done

during the testing time. They are multiple choice cloze, open cloze, key

word transformations, error correction and word formation. Whereas, the

usual procedure of the same part in TOEFL test will mostly include multiple-

choice cloze and error correction.

The multiple choice cloze in CFC will usually be in the form of a gapped

text followed by fifteen multiple questions with four options, as always

the only one will be the correct. It will mostly be concerned with

vocabulary items or grammar issues (examples available in Appendix p.44).

For example:

Robin Williams was creative and gifted from an early age. He was a/an

(1)_______________child and at school was always a (2)_____________pupil:

he wrestled, ran cross-country and worked (3)_____________at his studies.

1. A imaginary B imaginative C fantastic D mythical

2. A classic B model C superior D spoilt

3. A quickly B easily C hard D fast

Prodromou, First Certificate Star,


Open cloze will mostly be presented in the form of a text with several

spaces, which the students will have to complete with an appropriate word.

It will imply the studentsТ knowledge of grammar and vocabulary and will

involve the studentsТ ability to predict and guess from the context

(examples available in Appendix p.94). The task will be rather complicated,

for it will not be a C-test type where the words to be inserted preserve

the initial letter or letters to make the guessing process easier. In our

case the students will have to know how the words and phrases are connected

together, how the sentences are linked, and they will have to know the

grammar forms and structures, so, for example, if they see have/has, they

should immediately know that Present perfect is used. For example:

When you join the International Bird Society, your membership

(1)_____________ make a positive difference to birds everywhere Ц even if

the only ones you see are the blue titsЕ..

Prodromou, First Certificate Star,


Key word transformations will make the students alter the sentences

structures, however preserving the entire meaning of them. They will have

to complete a sentence with a given word; here the vocabulary and grammar

will be of major interest again (examples available in Appendix p.86). The

usual change will occur with phrasal verbs, active and passive voice, verbs

and prepositions that go together, etc.:

1. I didnТt like the story and I didnТt like the actors. neither

I ______________________the actors.

Prodromou, First Certificate Star,


Error correction will implement the studentsТ knowledge of grammar

structures. The students will receive a passage in which they will have to

find incorrect item and highlight it (examples available in Appendix p.55).

Such types of activities will usually include an extra or unnecessary word.

These words could be relative pronouns, prepositions, articles,

conjunctions, etc. For example:

________ If you want to find out about someoneТs personality, one way of

to do it is to

________take a sample of their handwriting and analyse it; this is called


________graphology. To do graphology properly, it is important to use

fairly typicalЕ..

Prodromou, First Certificate Star, 1998

Word formation will based on completing a text by making an appropriate

word form from a word stem given, i.e. discover Ц discovery (examples

available in Appendix p.104). This part will focus mainly on vocabulary,

especially on word formation rules. Here the knowledge of suffixes and

prefixes will be essential for the students. For example:

Who is mad? Cows or farmers?

Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis is a (1)___________ brain DEAD

Disorder found amongst cows. As this medical term is almost

(2) _________for the majority of ordinary people to say, the illness


is (3)________known as Mad Cow Disease. POPULAR

Prodromou, First Certificate Star, 1998

Concerning TOEFL test, we might say that it is similar to CFC use of

English; however, it displays just several types of tasks. As we have

already mentioned they are error correction and multiple choice cloze.

Multiple choice cloze typically consists of a range of statements in which

there will be a certain grammar structure missing. It is usually based on

grammar, than on vocabulary (examples available in Appendix p. 385 Ц 386).

The students will have to know how the subject and predicate go together,

how the words and sentence parts are linked with each other. For example:

1. --------infinitely large number of undiscovered galaxies.

A) An

B) There are an

C) From an

D) Since there are

Gear, Cambridge preparation for the TOEFL test, 1996

Error correction will differ from that in CFC, for in TOEFL test we will

have a statement with the underlined words that are supposed to be wrong.

The students will have to choose the correct variant (examples available in

Appendix p. 387 Ц 390). It will usually be based on the studentsТ knowledge

of grammar items and word formation as well. For example:

Drying food by means of solar energy is ancient process applied wherever

food and climate conditions


make it possible.

Gear, Cambridge preparation for the TOEFL test, 1996

In conclusion we can state that Use of English is both discreet and

integrative type of testing, for in some tasks of CFC the knowledge of word

formation is demanded, but in some grammar will be included either.

The Use of English of CFC and TOEFL will be a direct testing, for it will

test the studentsТ grammar and vocabulary knowledge.


Speaking is another part of the test that is present in CFC and is not

included into TOEFL test. It could be explained by the fact that if the

student passes TOEFL test successfully, s/he will be interviewed directly

at the place s/he needed the test for.

Therefore, will briefly look at CFC speaking part and discuss it. It aims

at the studentsТ ability to use spoken language effectively in different

types of interaction. The students could be asked to give personal

information, talk about pictures and photographs, be involved in pair work

task or even in discussion.

In personal information part the students could be asked to supply the

personal details about themselves: i.e. their job, family position,

studies, etc.( examples available in Appendix 10 Ц 11).

In describing pictures or photographs they will have to share their

opinion about them speaking with an examiner. There will be a time limit

set for the talk.

In pair work task and discussion the students will be supplied either by

pictures or photos or by charts and diagrams. They will be joined in pairs

and will have to carry out the task together. It could be either the

solving the problem, planning something, putting something in order or

discussing a certain topic. Discussion will certainly require the studentsТ

personal opinion and analysis of a topic (examples available in Appendix


In CFC the students will have to cooperate with another interlocutor:

either the examiner or another participant.

The author of the paper assume that this part is both integrative and

indirect testing. It is integrative, for it will involve the studentsТ

knowledge of the whole aspects of the language: grammar, sentence

structure, vocabulary, listening skills and may be even reading skills if

the task will be written. To communicate successfully the students will

require listening and comprehending the other speakerТs message to respond.

Grammar should be accurate to produce a good and correct dialogue or a

monologue, for accuracy is an important factor there. The rich word stock

will be inevitable element as well.

Indirect testing means that the whole material will be included while

testing speaking skills.

To conclude we can declare that CFC and TOEFL tests are both integrative

and discreet point tests. They are also direct, however, speaking part in

CFC could be defined as indirect one involving all four skills to be used.


The present research attempted to investigate the essence of two

types of tests, such as TOEFL and CFC tests. The research has achieved the

initially set goals and objectives. It dealt with the basic data about

testing, where the author had displayed the ideas what was the essence of

tests, why the students should be tested, what consequences could tests

produce and whom they would mostly influence. Afterwards, the reasons for

testing were discussed, where the author of the paper had gradually showed

why tests were significant in the process of learning and the role of

testing in the teaching process. After the basic data had been discussed,

the author came directly to types of testing. At that point the author of

the research made an attempt to review various sources on the topic she was

able to find. She had presented the definitions of the types of tests

offered in Longman dictionary of LTAL and then had compared them with the

definitions given by various authors. Later, the author of the research

displayed the ways of their applications and reasons for that. She had also

presented several examples of tests types in the Appendix. The author of

the paper had also discussed ways of testing, such as discrete point test

and integrative test, objective and subjective tests, direct and indirect

tests, etc. The attention was drawn to the significance of their usage and

the purpose for it. Furthermore, the discussion had changed the focus on

another important issue, such as tests formats and approaches for testing

four language skills. Here the author had broadly and explicitly discussed

and analysed the tests formats, such as MCQs, false/true items, cloze

tests, gap-filling tests, etc. She had focused on their application and

skills for which they are used. Moreover, she had displayed various

examples to exemplify each test format, offering several of them in

Appendix of the paper. Likewise, a table with the language skills and test

formats applicable for them was attached to the work as well. Further, a

practical part in the form of the testsТ analysis was presented.

The author of the paper had also dealt with the main issues that are

very vital and essential in analysis of the tests. She had focused on the

reliability and validity of the tests and tried to trace them in TOEFL and

CFC tests. She had thoroughly discussed the tasks and activities composing

the tests designed to test the studentsТ language skills. Moreover, she had

attempted to compare the two tests and find out any similarities and

differences between them. She had methodically studied each part of the

tests, starting from reading skills finishing with speaking. She had

presented a detailed investigation into the matter together with the

examples that could be observed in Appendix, as well.

Eventually, she had gained her aim having checked the theory into

practice and had proved that it really functioned in the real world.

Moreover, she had revealed that though being sometimes different in their

purpose, design and structure, the TOEFL test and CFC test are constructed

according to the universally accepted pattern.

Thus, the hypothesis of the present research has been confirmed.


1. The role of tests is very useful and important, especially in language

learning, for they indicates how much the learners have learnt during a

course, as well as display the strength and weaknesses of the teaching

process and help the teacher improve it.

2. The tests can facilitate the studentsТ acquisition process and function

as a tool to increase their motivation; however, too much of testing

could be disastrous changing entirely the studentsТ attitude towards

learning the language, especially if the results are usually


3. Assessment and evaluation are important aspects for the teacher and the

students and should be correlated in order to make evaluation and

assessment Уgo hand in handФ.

4. The test should be valid and reliable. They should test what was taught,

taking the learnerТs individual pace into account. Moreover, the

instructions of the test should be unambiguous.

5. Validity deals with what is tested and degree to which a test measures

what is supposed to measure.

6. Reliability shows that the testТs results will be similar and will not

change if one and the same test will be given on various days.

7. There are four traditional categories or types of tests: proficiency

tests measuring how much of a language a person knows or has learnt;

achievement tests measuring a language someone has learned during a

specific course, study or program; diagnostic tests displaying the

knowledge of the students or lack of it, and placement tests placing the

students at an appropriate level in a programme or a course.

8. There are two important aspect direct and indirect testing. Direct

testing means the involvement of a skill that is supposed to be tested,

whereas indirect testing tests the usage of the language in real-life

situation and is assumed to be more effective.

9. Discrete point test is a language test that is meant to test a

particular language item, whereas the integrative test intends to check

several language skills and language components together or


10. There are various tests formats, such as multiple-choice tasks, gap-

filling tests, cloze tests, true/false statements, etc. used to check

four language skills.

11. To enter any foreign university the students are supposed to take the

TOEFL or CFC tests. Besides, they can be taken to reveal the studentТs

level of the English language.

12. Serving for almost similar purpose, however being sometimes different

in their design and structure, the TOEFL and CFC tests are usually

constructed according to the accepted universal pattern.


1. Bynom, A. 2001. Testing terms. English Teaching professional. Forum.

July. Issue Twenty

2. Gear, 1996. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test. Cambridge

University Press.

3. Grellet. 1981. Developing Reading skills. Cambridge University Press

4. Heaton, J. 1990. Classroom Testing. Longman

5. Hedge. T. 2000. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford

University Press

6. Hughes, A. 1989. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge University


7. Hicks, D. Littlejohn, A. 1998. Cambridge English for Schools (CES).

TeacherТs Book. Level Two. Cambridge University Press.

8. Hicks, D. Littlejohn, A. 1997. Cambridge English for Schools (CES).

StudentТs Book. Level Two. Cambridge University Press.

9. Kruse, A. 1987. Vocabulary in Context in Vocabulary Learning in Long. M.

(ed.), Methodology in TESOL. New York. Newbury House Publishers.

10. Krami?a, I. 2002. Lingua-Didactic Theories Underlying Multi-purpose

Language Acquisition. LU

11. Prodromou, L. 1998. First Certificate Star, McMillean

12. Richards, J. 1992. Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Longman

Dictionary. Longman

13. Thompson, M. 2001. Putting students to the test. Issue Twenty. Forum.


14. Wallace, K. 1992. Reading. Oxford University Press

15. Weir, C.1990. Communicative Language Testing. Prentice Hall

16. Underhill, N. 1987. Testing Spoken Language. Cambridge University Press

17. Forum for Teachers


17. www.ets.org.

18. www.ets.org./TOEFL/

19. www.ielts.org.

20. www.cambridge-efl.org.

21. www.britishcouncil.org.


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