–ефераты. USA holidays






surprise and joy into the life of the lonely or aged. They make

May baskets filled with flowers and candy and hang them on

doorknobs throughout their neighborhoods, sometimes ringing the

bell, hiding, and watching smiles replace frowns and unexpected

joy light up the wrinkled faces of their neighbors.

MOTHERТS DAY

УMФ is for the

million things she gave me.

УOФ means only that

sheТs growing old.

УTФ is for the tears

she shed to save me.

УHФ is for her heart

of purest gold.

УEФ is for her eyes,

with lovelights shining.

УRФ means right

sheТll always

Put them all together;

they spell УmotherФ,

A word that means the

world to me.

In the United States Americans honor their mothers and

grandmothers, on the second Sunday in May. This day is set aside

to show love and respect for mother. On MotherТs Day children

give thanks for the support, love, care, and guidance. Giving

cards and gifts is also tradition. Children often make MotherТs

Day gifts in school. Pin cushions, sachets, tie clasps, decorated

boxes and picture frames, recipe holders, and plaster Ц cast hand

prints are all popular favorites. Another common gift for mothers

is the Уmother ring,Ф a ring set with the birthstones of each

of the members of the family.

MotherТs Day was first proclaimed a national holiday by

President Woodrow Wilson in 1915. The idea of honoring mothers on

a special day started with Ann Jarvis, from Grafton, West

Virginia, who chose the second Sunday in May and began the

custom of wearing a red carnation if oneТs mother was still

living and a white carnation if oneТs mother was deceased. If

the latter is the case, many people visit their motherТs grave

side and dedicate the day to their motherТs memory.

MEMORIAL DAY

The last Monday in May is Memorial Day. This is a national

holiday to remember the dead. The first Memorial Day was many

years ago after the Civil War (1861 Ц1865). After the war, people

wanted to remember the dead. So around 1866, people began to

decorate the graves of Civil War soldiers. People called this day

Decoration Day or Poppy Day (Poppies are small red flowers).

On the Memorial Day, Americans honour the servicemen who gave

their lives in past wars. Schools, clubs and churches decorate

the cemeteries. They put up the flags on the graves of the

army, navy and airmen. They hold memorial services in churches,

halls, parks and cemeteries.

In addition to solemn services Memorial Day is often marked

by other, more joyful ceremonies: colorful parades, sports

competitions.

FLAG DAY

Then hurrah for the

flag, our countryТs flag,

Its stripes and white

stars, too.

There is no flag in

any land

Like our own Red,

White and Blue.

On June 14th, 1777, the United States adopted its first flag.

Today Americans honor the US flag each year on June 14th. Flag

Day is a national commemorative day. It is not a holiday from

work. Many people fly the flag outside their homes and

businesses on this day.

The American flag has different names. One name is УThe Red,

White, and Blue.Ф This name is for the colors of the flag.

Another name is УThe Stars and Stripes.Ф This name is for the

50 stars and 13 stripes.

The flag did not always have 50 stars and 13 stripes. In

1777, the original flag had 13stars and 13stripes for the 13

colonies. The 13 colonies became the first 13 states. Then more

states joined the United States. In 1794, the flag had 15 stars

and 15 stripes. Then more states joined. This created a problem

for the flag makers. The flag was getting too big! So in 1818,

Congress decided to have only 13 stripes on the flag. They

decided to add one star for each new state. So now there are

50 stars and 13stripes on the flag.

INDEPENDENCE DAY

America,

America,

Land of

hope and liberty,

Freedom rings from every mountain,

From sea

to sea.

July 4th is Independence Day. Another name for Independence

Day is the Fourth of July. On this day in 1776 the final of

the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson, was

adopted.

Independence Day is a national holiday. Government offices,

banks, and schools close. Most people donТt go to work. Families

and friends get together outside for picnics and cookouts.

Traditionally the Fourth of July is celebrate with firing of

guns and fireworks, parades open Ц air meetings and speeches

praising УAmericanism, democracy, free enterprise.Ф

Independence Day isnТt only day for cookouts, noise, and

fireworks. It is also a day to think about freedom. The

Declaration of Independence says everyone has the right to life,

liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Declaration of

Independence more than 200 years old, but its ideas are important

today.

FATHERТS DAY

Everything

to both of us is so new.

As you

learn about the world

I learn

about you,

ThereТs no

need to fear.

Daddy will

be here,

And IТll

love and care for you

Through the

years.

People in the United States honor their fathers with special

day: FatherТs Day. This holiday is celebrated on the third Sunday

in June.

FatherТs Day dates back to 1909, when one daughter, a certain

Mrs. Dodd from Spokane, Washington, wanted to honor her own

father who had raised four sons and a daughter after her

motherТs death. Although the first FatherТs Day was observed in

Spokane in 1910 and it has been likewise observed in many other

states for many decades, FatherТs Day did not become a national

holiday until Senator Margaret Chase Smith helped to establish it

as such in 1972.

Giving cards and gifts is the tradition of this holiday.

Children make them in schools. Many people make their own

presents. Greeting cards, stores, florists, candy makers, bakeries,

telephone companies and other stores do a lot of business during

this day.

LABOR DAY

Labor Day is a legal holiday. It is celebrated each year on

the first Monday in September. It was planned as a day to honor

workers in America and to give them a long weekend holiday from

work.

Labor Day was started in 1882 by a union called the Knights

of Labor. The first celebration was a long parade followed by a

picnic in New York City. In 1894 Congress made it a legal

holiday.

Labor Day is traditionally celebrated with parades, speeches,

and recognition of the labor unions. Labor Day sales are a

popular event held on this holiday. Barbecues and picnics are

popular on Labor Day. They mark the end of the summer season.

Schools usually open after this holiday.

COLUMBUS DAY

The American continent was discoved in 1492 by the Spanish

seaman Christopher Columbus. Columbus is said to be the first

Euaropen man, stepping on the American land, and that day, when

it was happend, the 12th of October, became the holiday, which

is called Columbus Day. This holiday is celebrated in 34 States

of the USA and Puerto Rico. There are parades and parties in

San Francisco and New York. One of the squares of New York is

called Columbus Circle with the monument of Columbus in the

middle of it.

HALLOWEEN

ItТs Halloween! ItТs

Halloween!

The moon is full

and bright

And we shall see

what we canТt be seen

On any other night.

Halloween is the day or evening before All Saints Day. The

name is a shortened version of УAll Hallows EveФ the night

before All Saints Day which is celebrated on November 1st by the

Catolic Church. Halloween customs date back to a time when

people believed in devils, witches and ghost. They thought that

these evil spirits could do all kinds of damage to property.

Some people tried to ward off witches by paintings signs on

their barns. Others tried to scare them away by nailing a piece

of iron, such as horseshoe, over the door.

Now most of people do not believe in evil spirits. On this

day they just have a nice holiday. Children dress up as ghosts

and witches and go out into the street to beg. They from house

to house and say: УTrick or treat!Ф, meaning УGive me a treat

or IТll play a trick on youФ. People give them candy, cookies

and apples. This custom comes from the Celts in ancient Britain

who feared the coming of winter and dressed in frightening

costumes so the demons of winter would think they were one of

them and do them no harm. Hence, the origin of costumes for

todayТs celebration: It represents a devil coming to your home

whom you can placate with a treat.

A favorite custom is making a jack Ц o Ц lantern. Children

scrape out a pumpkin and cut the outlines of eyes, nose and

mouth in its side. They light a candle inside the pumpkin to

scare their friends. This custom refers to a man named Jack who

still wanders around the earth lighting his way with a pumpkin

lantern.

ELECTION DAY

The first Tuesday after the first Monday in November is

Election Day. It is a legal holiday. Since 1845, by Act of

Congress, this date has been set aside for elections.

On this day American citizen elect their public officials,

president, congressmen, governors, mayors and judges. All states

require that voters be citizens of the United States.

УElection DayФ sales in stories are very popular on this day.

The night of the election, people watch the election results on

TV. They listen to the speeches made by the winners.

VETERANS DAY

November 11th is a national holiday. Veterans Day is a day

to remember and honor all those Americans who served in the

armed forces and particularly those who fought during the Spanish

Ц Americans War, World Wars I and II, the Korean War, and the

Vietnam War. People also remember those soldiers missing in

action. This day reminds people of the courage and patriotism of

all men and women who serve their country.

President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed November 11th as Armistice

Day so Americans would not forget the tragedies of war. In 1954

Congress changed the name to Veterans Day to honor all United

States veterans. It is also a day dedicated to world peace.

On this day, the radio and television broadcast services held

at the National Cemetery in Arlington. High officials come from

Washington to attend these services. They place a wreath of

flowers at the tomb of the Unknown Soldier. All stand in silence

for a few minutes at eleven oТclock to honor the memory of the

serviceman killed in the two World Wars.

THANKSGIVING DAY

When Pilgrims sailed to this new

land,

They met a friendly Indian band.

The Indians taught them to plant,

hunt, and fish,

Then they all had a feast with

many a tasty dish.

Thanksgiving Day is marked on the fourth Thursday of November

in memory of the first Thanksgiving Day held by the early

Pilgrim settles in Massachusetts in 1621, in gratitude for the

successful harvest. They experienced difficulty in those early

times and survived only with the help of American Indians who

taught them how to grow and harvest indigenous foods such as

squash and corn. The first Thanksgiving day lasted three days and

was celebrated with their Indian friends.

Thanksgiving was proclaimed a national day of observance by

Congress in 1941 .

Thanksgiving Day is a four Ц day holiday for most Americans.

This is a family holiday. Families come together from near and

far. In some places special religious services are held in the

morning. Then comes the traditional feast. Turkey with stuffing is

the main dish. It is served with sweet potatoes, squash,

cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie. Apple cider is the drink of

the day.

Football is the most popular game on this day. Usually there

are several football games to watch on TV. There is Thanksgiving

Day Parade in New York City.

Stores, classrooms, and homes are decorated with turkeys,

pilgrims, Indians, wreaths of dried flowers, and vegetables. Horns

of plenty are also very popular.

CHRISTMAS

ItТs time

for hanging stockings,

ItТs time

for riding sleighs,

ItТs time

for jolly greeting,

Snow and

holly overeating,

ItТs

Christmas! Merry Christmas!

ItТs the

best of holidays.

Christmas is a Christian holiday commemorating the birth of

Jesus Christ. Americans celebrate Christmas on December the 25th .

It is usually a one Ц day official holiday, but it is proceeded

and followed by festive parties. By this day people decorate fir

- trees with toys and candies. Children wait for Santa Claus who

comes to every house and brings them presents. Before going to

bed, children leave their shoes to find in them what they want

most of all the next morning.

Decorating the house with holly, ivy and mistletoe is a

custom, which comes from England. Ivy means immortality. Holly is a

bush with shiny red berries and glossy leaves with a

characteristic shape and sharp pointy edges. Because it remains

green throughout the year it was believed to hold a promise that

the sun would return. Holly'Т berries symbolize ChristТs blood.

Mistletoe is an interesting green parasitic plant which grows in

globe Ц like formations high up in the branches of oak trees.

Springs of it are tied together with ribbons and hung up in

doorways. By custom anyone standing under the mistletoe gets to

be kissed.

Christmas is a family holiday. Schools and colleges close

between Christmas and New YearТs Day. People stay at home and

spend the time with their families. Everybody tries to come home

for Christmas. People send cards or Christmas greetings to family

and friends away from home. All the members of the family

exchange gifts. It is a merry holiday.

Some holidays in America have their own symbols. Here they are:

1. Presidents Day 6.

Independence Day

2. Columbus Day 7. New

YearТs Day

3. St. PatrickТs Day 8. Martin

Luther KingТs day

4. Easter 9.

Christmas

5. ValentineТs Day 10. Halloween

And there are festival post cards for every holiday, which

American people give the friends and relatives when they

congratulate each other. Here are some postcards for some parties:

Such are the US holidays. A holiday has simply become, for most

Americans, a day off from work. No matter what the holidayТs

origin is, they all seem to be the same thing, though some (for example,

Thanksgiving, Christmas, Halloween) retain some individuality.

The list of literature:

1. УHolidays Go Round and RoundФ; Authors: Kathleen Carroll, Marina

Novikova. St Petersburg, 1996, Triada Publishing.

2. Ујнглийский дл€ поступающих в ¬”«ыФ; Authors: ÷веткова ». ¬.,

 лепальченко ». ј., ћыльцева Ќ. ј. ћосква, √Ћќ——ј, 1995.

3. У95 устных тем по английскому €зыкуФ; Author: «анина ≈. ј.

ћосква, јйрис –ольф, 1997.

4. УSpotlight on the USAФ; Author: Natalia Timanovskaya. “ула,

јвтограф, 1996.

5. УLiving in the United StatesФ. Intercultural exchange series.

Copy right 1994.

6. УHappy English 2Ф; Authors: “ать€на  лементьева, ƒжилл Ўэннон.

ќбнинск, “итул, 1996.

7. УEnglishФ. ≈женедельное приложение к газете У ѕервое сент€бр€Ф,

N 7, 9, 11, 17, 18, 20, 29, 32, 36, 42, 1994.

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