Рефераты. Will Russia be a Rising State a Great Failure?

Will Russia be a Rising State a Great Failure?

Will Russia be a rising state or a great Failure?

The collapse of the Soviet Union lead to creation of the New

Independent Republic. World politics dramatically changed in 1991 when

Communism ended in Eastern Europe and Russia. These republics are trying to

rebuild their economies and find the way toward the democratic regimes. The

largest country in the post-Soviet borders Russia has inherited a legacy of

the Soviet Union. Many features influence the Russian society and economy

which are Russian media, Russia-US relations and the problems Russia faces

in its transition to the democratic society with a market economy.

Russians are trying to reconstruct their economy and social system.

Russia has many challenges and obstacles to overcome during their period of

reconstruction. These obstacles include the destruction of the economic

ties with its former suppliers and customers in the United Republics,

corruption, war in Chechnya as well as “Checheny syndrome”. Russia will

cope with these obstacles and finally rise as a world power with a market

economy and strong democratic institutions. Its potential is based on its

vast lands full of natural resources, great history, and, most importantly,

the intellectual potential of the Russian people.

Russian territory has historically had a tremendous impact on the

Russian economy, political situation, culture, traditions, and mentality of

Russian people. Vast space has helped Russia many times to defend itself

from other more developed nations. For example, Napoleon froze his army to

death during his invasion to Moscow.

Russia is very rich in natural resources. Almost all the elements of

periodic table are in Russia. Russia is rich in gold, silver, gas and oil,

lumber, aluminum, uranium and many other valuable minerals. These resources

can be very attractive prospects for future investments.

Historically, Russia has been regarded as a major world power. Slavic

peoples settled in Eastern Europe during the early Christian era. Many

converted to Christianity in the ninth and tenth centuries. In 988, Prince

Vladimir declared Christianity the state's official religion. Early in the

13th century, Mongols conquered the Slavs and ruled for 240 years. The

Slavs finally defeated the Mongols in 1480 to regain their sovereignty. In

1547, Ivan the Terrible (1533-84) was the first Russian ruler crowned Czar

of Russia. He expanded Russia's territory, as did Peter the Great (1682-

1724) and Catherine the Great (1762-96). The empire reached from Warsaw in

the west to Vladivostok in the east. In 1814, Russian troops that had

defeated France's Napoleon marched on Paris, and Russia took its place as

one of the most powerful states on earth.

When Czar Nicholas II abdicated during World War 1, Vladimir Lenin,

head of the Bolshevik Party, led the 1917 revolt that brought down the

provisional government and put the Communists in power. Lenin disbanded the

legislature and banned all other political parties. A civil war between

Lenin's Red Army and the White Army lasted until 1921, with Lenin


In 1922, the Bolsheviks formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

(USSR) and forcibly incorporated Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ukraine,

Belarus and Central Asian republic into the union. The unification of

Turkestan and separation of the United Republics gave a birth to the modern

states of Uzbekistan, Kazakstan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan. During

Lenin's rule, which ended with his death in 1924, many died as a result of

his radical social restructuring. Under Lenin, a plan to rise the national

economics of the United Republic as well as itself was implemented. If

before Russia had below than 10% literacy level than after World War II due

to reforms started by Lenin almost all population could read and write.

Currently, Russian literacy level equals to 99%.

Lenin was followed by Joseph Stalin, a dictator who forced

industrialization and collective agriculture on the people. Millions died

in labor camps and from starvation. The Nobel Price laureate, Alexandr

Soljenicin, in One Day of Ivan Denisovich characterizes this period as “the

most devastating trial fallen on Russian soul”. While many historians argue

that these sacrifices were necessary to meet the new challenges and make

Russia equal to other developed nations and finally win the Second World

War, Russian’s sacrifices were so large that even now Russia feels the

consequences of that war. Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, and

World War II that was called “Great Patriotic War" in USSR eventually took

more than 26 million Soviet lives. During the WWII the tremendous amount of

industrial plants were relocated to east due to the German occupation of

the Western part of the Soviet Union. Many new industries were developed in

Uzbekistan during WW II such as plane and truck assembling, gas and oil

industries. To supply the increased need for silk and cotton, Ferghana

Canal was constructed.

Nikita Khrushchev, who took over after Stalin's death in 1953,

declared his intentions to build real communism within 20 years. Hard

liners, people opposed to his reforms and policy of peaceful coexistence

with the West, replaced Khrushchev in 1964 with Leonid Brezhnev. Until his

death in 1982, Brezhnev orchestrated the expansion of Soviet influence in

the developing world, ordered the invasion of Afghanistan, and built up the

Soviet nuclear arsenal. This invasion proved to be a terrible mistake. The

consequences of this invasion had a devastating impact on relations with

the west and internal stability. Many millions of people lost their lives

in there. Moreover, the long-term result of this invasion is the continuous

civil war in Afghanistan and as a result instability in the region. When

the next two leaders died in quick succession, a younger man, Mikhail

Gorbachev, rose to power in 1986.

Gorbachev soon introduced the reform concepts of perestroika

(restructuring) and glasnost (openness). Many of his reforms failed and the

economy of the Soviet Union during its last years was deteriorating. The

union quickly unraveled in 1991 after several republics declared

independence. Russia's leader at the time was Boris Yeltsin.

In 1993, after Yeltsin dissolved a combative parliament, his opponents

voted to impeach him and seized the "White House" (parliament building) in

an attempted coup. Following street riots, the showdown turned violent and

militants were forced from the building by tank fire. That victory and the

approval of Yeltsin's new constitution were two highlights of an otherwise

difficult term in office. Communists and ultra-nationalists mounted a

strong challenge to him in the 1996 elections. Despite poor health, Yeltsin

prevailed in the voting to become Russia's first ever freely elected

president. A violent 21-month war with separatists in the Chechnya region

tarnished Yeltsin's image at home and abroad. Finding a solution was

complicated by internal rivalries, rebellious military commanders, and

Yeltsin's failing health. Tens of thousands died before a cease-fire

finally restored peace in August 1996. Russia withdrew its troops in 1997

and Chechens elected their own local leaders. They have de facto control

over internal affairs until 200 1, when the two parties make a final

decision on Chechnya's bid for independence. However, the war was not over.

The invasion of Chechen rebels to the Russian territory, Dagestan made

Vladimir Putin, acting Prime Minister launch a new attack on Chechen

rebels. Putin’s initial war successes brought his a success in the

President’s elections in 2000. After becoming a president Vladimir Putin

started a new wave of restoring the “constitutional order” in Chechnya.

Russian government made several attempts to resolve the difficulties

between Russian and other Republics of CIS. In 1996, Russia and Belarus

agreed to closely linking their societies without actually merging. The

presidents of each nation then signed a union charter in 1997 outlining,

among other things, how Russia and Belarus would cooperate and their ethnic

groups. Also in 1997, Russia made peace with Ukraine, over ownership of the

Soviet Union’s Black Sea naval fleet, helped a peace agreement in

Tadjikistan, participated in international summits, and announced that it

would no longer target nuclear weapons at former Cold War enemies.

Russia played an important role in Commonwealth of Independent States

(CIS). Russia has peacekeeping forces in Tadjiskistan and much helped the

restoration of peace in this republic. Russia helps the Tadjikistanian

government to protect its borders of illegal drug and gun smuggling from

Afghanistan. Russian peace keeping forces made a number of joint training

with the military representatives from the Republics of Central Asia and

NATO. Great Russian history shows that many times Russia had to face the

difficult and challenging times and still was managed to survive as a

nation and was not dissolved by foreign invaders. The problems in Russia

are immese, but Russia will be able to cope with all its problems and will

rise again as a great power on the world stage.

Russia’s population, the crux of Russian reform, of 148 million is

shrinking annually by 0.7 percent. Ethnic Russians form 82 percent of the

entire population. Other groups include Tartars (4 percent), Ukrainians (3

percent), Chuvashes (I percent), Byelorussians (almost I percent),

Udrnurts, Kazaks, Buryats, Tuvinians, Yakutians, Bashkirs, and others. The

capital and largest city is Moscow, with a population of more than 10

million. Other large cities (one to three million residents each) include

St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Nizhniy Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, Saratov, and

Samara. Most Russians still live in rural areas, but young people are

moving to the cities. Russia's Human Development Index' value (0.792) ranks

it 67th out of 175 countries. Serious gaps between rich and poor, skilled

and unskilled, and healthy and ill are widening and threatening Russia's

future development. Women earn only one-fifth of the nation's income.

Migration of ethnic Russians from the republics of the former Soviet Union

to Russia increased the total Russian population but not significantly

enough to offset the gap between mortality and birth rates in Russia.

Russian language belongs to Slavic group of languages and is the

official language in Russia. Other Slavic languages are Ukrainian and

Belorussian. It uses the Cyrillic alpha- bet, which consists of 33 letters,

many of them unlike any letter in the Roman (Latin) alphabet. Non-Russians

also usually speak Russian, especially in urban areas. Rural minorities

more often speak their own languages at home or within For example, Tartars

speak Tartar, Chuvashes speak Chuvash, and Udmurts speak Udmurt. These

individual languages are only taught at schools in areas where the ethnic

group is prominent. Ethnic Russians are not required to learn other local

languages, but students are increasingly studying foreign languages

(especially English, French, German, and Spanish). In Soviet Union Russian

language was main language to connect Republics of the former Soviet Union

to each other and establish the united territorial- economic complex. As a

result Russian is widely spoken outside Russia itself. In Uzbekistan people

speak Russian mainly in the cities while Uzbek language is dominated in

rural areas. However, many so-called ethnic Russians or the Russian-

speaking population residing in areas other than Russia feel abandoned by

the break up of the Soviet Union. They tend to be closer to Russia than to

their local states.

The Russian Orthodox Church is the dominant religion. After the

October Revolution (1917), the Communists separated the church from the

state (which were previously tightly bonded) and discouraged all religious

worship. Soviet regime did not tolerate any independent way of thinking and

many religious leaders were killed, jailed or sent to exile. Many churches

were forced to close under Lenin. Mikhail Gorbachev was the first Soviet

leader to officially tolerated and even supported religion. Yeltsin also

embraced the church, which is rapidly regaining its influence. Churches

other than the Russian Orthodox are scarce in rural areas, but nearly every

major religion and many Christian churches have members in cities. Some

Tartars and Bashkirs are Muslim, and some Tuvinians and Buryats are

Buddhist. Despite the years of Communist rulings and oppression the

religion played and important role in the rural areas. More and more

Russian are getting more involved in religion now. Religion is thought to

fill the spiritual gap in peoples souls and help them reevaluate their

moral values.

Russia's long history of totalitarianism have denied its inhabitants

opportunities to make their own decisions, whether ruled by a Czar or the

Communist Party. Personal initiative, personal responsibility, and the

desire to work independently were suppressed by the state, and one was

expected to conform to official opinion and behavior. In the current

climate, Russians are searching for new social values. The resulting

confusion and chaos have led many people to wonder if the old ways were not

better. Many people are tired of the economic instability, rapidly changing

society, characterized by high prices, increasingly violent and rampant

crime, loss of income and a reduced quality of life. However, many

Russians, especially in the younger generation, are eagerly taking

advantage of the open environment. Indeed, Russians are learning the value

of discussion and compromise, personal creativity, and risk-taking. This

long-term process carries hard lessons such as financial loss, political

polarization, economic instability, and social disruption.

Friendship is extremely important in Russia. Russians are warm and

open with trusted friends. They rely on their network of friends in hard

times and will go to great lengths to help friends whenever possible.

Although intensely proud of "Mother Russia" and its achievements, Russians

are a basically pessimistic people and usually do not express much hope for

a better life in the future (except among the youth). Even generally happy

and optimistic Russians might not show their true feelings in public but

rather express frustration with everyday life. A general feeling in Russia

is that the "soul" of Russia is different from that of other countries,

that development cannot take the same course as it has in Europe, for

example. Russians often believe they must find a different path that takes

into account their unique historical heritage and social structure. In

general, Russians desire to be remembered not for the negative aspects of

the Soviet period and its aftermath, but for Russian contributions to world

literature, art, science, technology, and medicine.

Social customs in Russia are very similar to the United States. When

meeting, Russians shake hands firmly and say Zdravstvuyte (Hello), Dobry

Deny (Good day), Dobroye utro (Good morning), Dobry vecher (Good evening),

or Privet (a casual "Hello"). Good friends say "hello" with the more

informal Zdravstvuy or Zdorovo. Friends, but not strangers, might also ask

Kak dela? (How are you?) and wait for a response. Russians are introduced

by their full name (given, patronymic, surname). Surnames are not used

without titles, such as Gospodin (Mr.) and Gospozha (Mrs.). The military,

police, and some citizens continue to use the Soviet-era title tovarishch

("friend" or "comrade"). At work or in polite com pany, Russians address

each other by given name and patronymic (the possessive of the father's

first name). This is also the most appropriate form of address for a

superior or a respected elder. Close friends use given names alone.

Hand gestures carry much significance in Russian culture. Pointing

with the index finger is improper but commonly practiced. It is impolite to

talk (especially to an older person) with one's hands in the pockets or

arms folded across the chest. To count, a Russian bends (closes) the

fingers rather than opens them.

Russians like to visit and have guests. Sitting around the kitchen

table and talking for hours is a favorite pastime. One usually removes

shoes when entering a home. Hosts generally offer refreshments, but guests

may decline them. Friends and family may visit anytime without notice but

usually arrange visits in advance. They make themselves at home and

generally can expect to be welcomed for any length of time. Visits with new

acquaintances are more formal.

Giving gifts is a strong tradition in Russia, and almost every event

(birthdays, weddings, holidays, etc.) is accompanied by presents. For

casual visits, it is common (but not required) for guests to bring a simple

gift (flowers, food, or vodka) to their hosts. The object given is less

important than the friend ship expressed by the act. Flowers are given in

odd numbers; even numbers are for funerals. If friends open a bottle of

vodka (which means "little water"), they customarily drink until it is


Knowing the general attitudes is extremely important in Russia. Tankred

Golenpolsky in his book Doing Business in Russia emphasized the need the

right local partner in Russia by asking the following questions:

. Where should you invest your money?

. When should you invest your money?

. How much money should you invest?

Answering these questions correctly can assure success elsewhere, but not

in Russia. In Russia, everything begins with selection of the right partner

to work for you (Golenpolsky 27-28). Having the right partner with the wide

network of people is extremely helpful for starting your own business in

Russia. Therefore, it is extremely important to know and understand Russian

attitude and behavior patterns in order to deal with Russians and

successfully build the relations in Russian environment. Later, the authors

give the following recommendations on choosing the right candidate who

“must meet some basic requirements such as fluency in English and an

education background comparable to his or her Western colleagues. He or she

preferably should be married since this indicates a degree of stability and

seriousness, and the spouse must be ready to fit into a new system of

relationships -relationships that did not exist in the former Soviet Union.

(Golenpolsky 29-30)

Although food is plentiful in the cities, many products are expensive.

Hence, the average person eats imported fruits and vegetables infrequently.

People on fixed and limited incomes (mainly the elderly) eat more bread and

potatoes than any- thing else. Urban residents more often have meat and

dairy products. Rural people have gardens. Urban dwellers usually grow

vegetable gardens in the country or on plots near the city. Traditional

Russian foods include borsch (cabbage soup with beets), pirozhki (a stuffed

roll, eaten as "fast food"), golubtsy (stuffed cabbage leaves baked with

tomato sauce and eaten with sour cream), and shi (soup with sour cabbage).

Borsch is still one of the most popular foods in the country. Its

ingredients (potatoes, cabbages, carrots, beets, and onions) almost

complete the list of vegetables used in everyday life. Pork, sausage,

chicken, and cheeses are popular, but they can be expensive. Russians drink

coffee and mineral water; juice and soda are available. Vodka is preferred

to wine.

Russians have little leisure time because of the hours they devote to

getting food, working extra jobs, or taking care of their households. Urban

Russians spend nearly all their spare time at their dachas (country

cottages), if they have them, relaxing and growing fruits and vegetables

for the winter. In the summer, people Re to gather mushrooms. Cities have

relatively few nightclubs and entertainment usually ends before midnight,

even in Moscow.

The country's favorite sport is soccer. Winter sports such as ice

skating, hockey, and cross-country skiing are also particularly popular.

Most families like to watch television in the evening. Russia has a grand

and abiding heritage in cultural arts. The people highly appreciate

theaters and movies, but these are available only in big cities. Rural

people can watch movies at community recreation centers called dvorets

kultury (palace of culture) or the smaller dom kultury (house of culture)

New Year's Day is the most popular holiday in Russia. Almost everyone

decorates fir trees and has parties to celebrate the new year. Grandfather

Frost leaves presents for children to find on New Year's Day. Easter and

Christmas observances, long interrupted by communism, regained their

prominence in 1990. Christmas is on 7 January, according to the Julian

calendar used by the Russian Orthodox Church. Women's Day is 8 March.

Solidarity Day (I May, also known as May Day) is a day for parades. Victory

Day (9 May) commemorates the end of World War II and is deeply important to

most Russians.

The business week is 40 hours, with Saturdays and Sundays off. Offices

generally are open from 9:00 A.M. to 6:00 p.m. They close at lunchtime

(1:00 P.m.). Prices in stores are not negotiable, but prices are flexible

on the streets, where an increasing number of items is sold. Capitalism is

booming in Russia and a new generation of entrepreneurs is beginning to

thrive. Numerous small businesses and joint ventures with foreign firms are

finding success, and employees are buying state-run factories and working

to make them profitable. Under communism, there were no incentives for

bureaucrats to perform well or even be nice to clients, so the usual answer

to any question was "No." This practice is still found in society, but "no"

is no longer final. One must simply bargain and be persistent to get what

one desires.

Russians prefer having social interaction before discussing business.

Trying to do business on the phone without seeing the prospective business

partner is ineffective. One often spends a lot of time in meetings before

even a small deal can succeed. The business climate is characterized by the

high level of uncertainty in Russia. However, any companies successfully

adapted to the Russian environment. In the Rising Russia the following

industries are of particular interest for foreign investors: gas and oil

refinery and export of oil, pharmaceutical, food and food-processing

industry, aluminum extraction and manufacturing. Leasing and franchising

opportunities exist in agricultural sector where the government established

a policy encouraging farmers to obtain the modern equipment. The number of

contracts were signed with car manufacturing plants such as Vojskiy

Avtomobiliniy zavod and Moskovskiy zavod. Russia welcomes the foreign

investors but has a number of difficulties in it such as corruption and

organized crime, difficult environment in business and tax laws,

unsuitability of local currency and unstable political situation due to the

war in Chechnya. However, the new Russian government took active steps

toward the Chechen populations supporting the international terrorists and

the terrorists who were fighting the Russian troops.

The First Chechen war cost a lot to the Russian government. The second war

was more successful than the first one but still Russians are in the active

process of guerrilla war with Chechen bandits. These challenges can stop

potential investors from using the opportunities of 150 million people


Russia is a federation of autonomous republics and regions. Vladimir

Putin succeeded Boris Yeltsin as a president. The president is strong and

has power to dissolve parliament, set foreign policy, and appoint the Prime

Minister. The Federal Assembly has two houses, a 176-seat Federation

Council and the 450-seat State Duma. The Constitutional Court is Russia's

highest. The voting age is 18. An array of political parties is represented

in the Duma. The actual party names are less important than their

alliances. Communists form the largest block, but not a majority, and

nationalists and liberals form other substantial voting blocks. Recently,

new Russian president implemented the measures for strengthening his power

and ability to react and influence the national economy but many there are


Russia's natural resources give it great potential for economic growth

and development. Natural gas, coal, gold, oil, diamonds, copper, silver,

and lead are all abundant. Heavy industry dominates the economy, although

the agricultural sector is potentially strong. Russia's economy is weak and

unstable. Liberal reforms designed to attract foreign investment and

privatize the economy led to higher unemployment, high inflation (above I

00 percent), and lower production. Organized crime and corruption weigh

heavily on the economy's ability to perform. Real gross domestic product

per capita is $4,828. Poverty is increasing as fast as wealth. The currency

is the ruble (R). Nearly all transactions are made in cash.

Education is free and mandatory for everyone between ages six and

seventeen. In 1994, new curriculum guidelines were introduced to encourage

choice and innovation over previous approaches to teaching, but many public

schools are unable or unwilling to implement the reforms due to lack of

money and clear local leadership. However, a few are embracing new ideas

and even teaching basic market economics to young children. Students attend

primary, middle, and high school. They can specialize in their last two

years. Private schools offer a high-quality education to the wealthy and

influential. Education is highly valued, and Russia's literacy rate is 99

percent. More than five hundred universities, medical schools, and

technical academies are found throughout the country. Russians have a

distinct advantage of a high-standard education and they are actively using

their intelligence. Russian large intellectual potential and a system of

educating brains even with its drawbacks has produced a number of talented

people who can work at least at the same level as their Western

counterparts. Unfortunately, this educational potential is not fully

utilized by the current condition of the Russian economy. The facts on

Russian immigration to such developed countries as Canada, Australia, New

Zealand or United States confirms this fact.

(http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/newcomer/welcome/index.html). The educational

potential of the nation is probably the most important factor that can

bring the nation to the family of the high-industrialized nations.

Russia with its rich heritage of music, theatre performance, poetry is

a distinct expression of the Russian media history. Currently, together

with the old ways of communications such as cinema, theatre, newspapers and

TV new avenues of the human interaction are rapidly developing. Internet

brought by the introduction of Western communicative abilities is changing

the Russian youth. Russian students are not isolated from rest of the World

due to the Internet. However, the introduction of this powerful source of

information exchange mainly affected the large cities where there are

enough resources. Countryside does not have a full access to the Internet

and can not enjoy the full advantage of Internet using. The scope of media

coverage in very wide in Russia. Russians commented on the Olympic Games,

War in Chechnya or situation in the Near East.

Russian media is the most advanced among the CIS media in terms of the

connections with the foreign media sources. Russians have to create a new

media channels to deliver messages. They do not have such strict censorship

like Republics of the Central Asia or Caucasus. The Russians reformed TASS

and have a closed connection with CNN News, Reuters. MTV, a Musical channel

established a Russian speaking music channel. Russian media played a great

role in covering the news and war operations in Chechnya and was one of the

major reasons why Russians pressured the government to stop the massacre.

Russians receive news from abroad mainly by TV (ORT- Obchestvennoe

Rosiyskoe Televidine), (RTR-Rossiyskoe TeleRadiove Vechyanie), TV-4, TV-6.

Eduard Sagalaev together with CNN, headed by Ted Turner arranged NTV and

NTV+ for broadcasting on Moscow and St. Petersburg. The second source of

Information are the various newspapers in Russia. Most of them were

originated during or after the era of Perestroyka. However, many remained

from the Soviet Era but changed their profile to be more “readable”. Before

the newspapers only printed what they were allowed to print on political or

economic topics. They could touch sports or weather occasionally. Now

newspapers can criticize the government and give their comments on the

economic situation in Russia. Radio is usually listened in the countryside

or where people do not have televisions.

Unlike people in America, many Russians use the public transportation

and do not have cars except in Moscow and St. Petersburg. However, due to

the high traffic, people prefer use subways to get to their work place. As

a result, radio does not enjoy such popularity like here in the States.

The last, but most flourishing, medium is Internet. It enjoys the

relatively lower costs of information exchange. Many newspapers have their

web sites where they place the information, news and current events.

Russian youth are becoming more and more exposed to the Internet. Internet

getting to the colleges and homes. The example of Russia organized search

engines are www.rambler.ru, www.lib.ru. Larger resources are allocated on

the information databases such as www.news.ru, www.omen.ru, which

specializes on music and entertainment. Russians made an advance step in

terms of the amount of servers but they are closely followed by Ukraine and


Despite the rapid development of the Russian media there are still

some challenges and problems the media faces. Russian government was not

pleased with the way Russian reporters disclose the situation in Chechnya,

Kursk, fire in Ostankino and other major events where they government was

not acting at its best. Amnesty International reports on the arrests and

interrogations of the Russian reporters in Chechnya by the Russian

military. The reporters are being killed and the government does not want

to do anything about it.

Russians are facing another dilemma. The society has mixed feelings

about their identity and their role in CIS and the World. This reflects on

the ability of the Russian media to cover the news. They can not figure out

what is more important for the Russian society and what is not. The

difficult relations with West are a special circumstance of the Russian

society. Russians do not want to be portrayed as “losers” to the West. In

fact, in his speech at the West Point conference a chief editor of “Foreign

Policy” Zakartia said that Russians did not lose the cold war. They want to

change their system and life better. They do not think that the West won

it. He argued that thinking in such way and failing to cooperate with

Russia made the United States lose the Russia. This relationship prevents

the Russian media from showing the real attitude of Western democracies on

the events because the media do not want to be portrayed pro-Western. The

Russians are making steps toward democratization of their society and

political system and it has a reflection on the Russian media. The Western

nations should provide the full support to this movement while

understanding the situation in Russia and the challenges Russian go


After the collapse of the Communist regime left Russia with an

inefficient economy, regional conflicts and problems with the neighboring

countries. Russia wants to become a democratic society with a developed

market oriented economy. It has a large potential especially in human

resources. Russians are educated, talented and bright people who are

willing to work hard if they are paid well. Russia has a vast variety of

natural resources that can attract foreign capital. Russians are welcoming

foreign investments. All these conditions will surely have an effect and

lead Russia to the family of the most-developed nations in the world. It

might take long time but it will surely happen.

Works Cited

Brudny, Yitzhak M. Reinventing Russia: Russian nationalism and the Soviet

State, 1953-1991. Harvard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts,

London, England, 1998

Tankred G. Golenpolsky, Johnstone M. Robert and Kashin A. Vladimir Doing

Business in Russia Basic Facts for the Pioneering Entrepreneur. The Oasis

Press, Grants Pass, Oregon, 1995

Dunlop, John B. The Rise of Russian And The Fall Of The Soviet Empire.

Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1993

Finckenauer, James O. and Waring, Elin J. Russian Mafia in America:

Immigration, Culture, and Crime. Northeast University Press, Boston, 1998

Official Site for Immigration to Canada


Alexandr Soljenicin, “Odin deny Ivana Denisovicha” One Day of Ivan

Denisovich Trans. Rustam Tashpulatov.

Biblioteka Moshkova www.lib.ru

Information Database www.rambler.ru

Russian Gazeta www.gazeta.ru

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org/

Ferghana on Line www.ferghana.ru

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