–ефераты. Years of UN peacekeeping efforts

significantly in a number of regions around the world. As a result, the UN

is increasingly called upon to operate mine clearance programs in areas

that are completely infested with landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).

Consequently, prior to any large deployment of personnel or equipment to a

given area, the UN must prepare for a safe working environment by

initiating preliminary mine clearance activities in localized areas. Once

this has been completed, a broader operation can be accommodated to conduct

mine clearance activities on a more comprehensive scale.

The clearance of areas for use by a supported nation is undertaken

only when specially mandated by the Security Council. It is standard

procedure for the UN to not only performs mine clearance but also to assist

a supported nation in the development of its own sustainable clearance

capacity. The UN program may include such topics as mine awareness, mine

marking, mine survey, mine clearance as well as unexploded ordinance

disposal. Additionally, the program's overall efforts may go beyond mine-

specific issues to cover related areas, such as management and logistics,

training and support.

The UN may vary its approach to each situation as there are currently

no standardized templates or universal procedures established for mine

clearance activities world-wide.

Mine Clearance in the United Nations is presently divided into two

areas of responsibility :

. which plans and advises on mine clearing activities carried out

under United Nations auspices as well as maintains contact with

Governments and organizations that participate in or contribute to

these activities.

. which serves as the focal point for coordinating all humanitarian

mine clearance and related activities.

These two units work together to ensure a seamless approach to United

Nations Mine Clearance Activities.

5.2 The Problem of Iraqi Military Arsenal

One of the last UN operations on eliminating all weapons was connected

with the investigation of Iraqi arsenal, as there were some data proving

that Iraq possesses very dangerous weapons that might be lethal to the


The nation of Iraq is relatively young; the country achieved

independence in 1932. Since then, Iraq has been almost perpetually at war

with its neighbors. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the

1991 Persian Gulf War. Iraq has been under international sanctions since

the invasion and the United Nations refused to lift them until it is

convinced that Iraq has eliminated its weapons of mass destruction. The

United States and Britain threatened air strikes in 1998 over Iraq's

refusal to allow UN weapons inspectors' free access to all sites. The

United States and its allies patrol a no-fly zone over northern Iraq to

protect Kurds from attack and in the south to protect Shiite Muslims.

Almost all countries are concerned with Iraq's unwillingness to allow

UN inspectors investigate its military arsenal. For example Swedish

diplomat Rolf Ekeus - who led the UN investigations from the cease-fire

through the summer of 1997 and headed to Baghdad for talks, said that they

had declared everything. Iraq stated that no documents existed in Iraq

because they had been destroyed. That was exploded totally, because Iraq

itself admitted in writing even that it had been lying. Cheating

systematically from when we started in 1991 up until this very date in

August of 1995.

5.2.1 Iraq/Kuwait conflict

To understand the essence of the conflict it is necessary to descry

the reasons of the conflict. Shortly after the Iran-Iraq War, IraqТs

military dictator, Saddam Hussein, accused Kuwait of taking an unfair share

of oil revenues. In August 1990 he made the claim that Kuwait was a part of

Iraq and ordered his armies to invade and occupy Kuwait.

The Iraqi invasion alarmed President Bush and other world leaders for

three reasons. First, it was an act of aggression by a strong nation

against a weaker nation. (Iraq in 1990 had the fourth largest military

force in the world.) Second, the taking of Kuwait opened the way to an

Iraqi conquest of the worldТs largest oil-producing nation, Saudi Arabia.

Third, the combination of IraqТs military power and aggressive actions

would allow it to dominate the other countries of the Middle East.

To prevent further aggression, President Bush ordered 200,000 troops

to Saudi Arabia, followed later by an additional 300,000. УWe have drawn a

line in the sand,Ф said the president, as he announced a defensive effort

called Operation Desert Shield. US troops were joined by other forces from

a UN-supported coalition of 28 nations including Great Britain, France,

Italy, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and Egypt.

Members of the UN Security Council, including both the United States

and the Soviet Union, voted for a series of resolution concerning IraqТs

aggression. One UN resolution demanded IraqТs unconditional withdrawal from

Kuwait. Other resolutions placed an international embargo on trade with

Iraq and authorized UN members to use force if Iraqi troops did not leave

Kuwait by January 15, 1991. As the January deadline neared, members of

Congress debated whether or not to authorize the president to send US

troops into combat in the Persian Gulf. Both houses voted in favor of the

war resolution. [ ]

The Gulf War had far greater significance to the emerging post-cold

war world than simply reversing Iraqi aggression and restoring Kuwait. In

international terms, we tried to establish a model for the use of force.

First and foremost was the principle that aggression cannot pay. If we

dealt properly with Iraq, that should go a long way toward dissuading

future would-be aggressors. We also believed that the US should not go it

alone, that a multilateral approach was better. [ ]

5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment

On 3 April 1991, the Security Council adopted resolution 687 (1991),

which set detailed conditions for a cease-fire and established the

machinery for ensuring implementation of those conditions. By resolution

687 (1991) the Council established a demilitarized zone along the border

between Iraq and Kuwait, to be monitored by a UN observer unit.

On 9 April 1991, the Security Council adopted resolution 689 (1991)

which approved the Secretary General's plan for the establishment of the

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM). The UNIKOM advance

party arrived in the area on April 1991. UNIKOM was established to monitor

the Khawr 'Abd Allah and the DMZ set up along the border between Iraq and

Kuwait, and to observe any hostile or potentially hostile action mounted

from the territory of one State to the other.

The mandate was expanded in February 1993 by Security Council

resolution 806 (1993), with the addition of an infantry battalion, to: take

physical action to prevent, or redress, small scale violations of the DMZ

and of the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait; and problems arising from the

presence of Iraqi installations and citizens and their assets in the DMZ on

the Kuwaiti side of the border. Since the demarcation of the Iraq-Kuwait

boundary in May 1993 by the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Boundary Demarcation

Commission, and the relocation of Iraqi citizens found to be on the Kuwaiti

side of the border back into Iraq, the situation along the DMZ has been


From the Security Council on down, nearly every UN diplomat, along

with officials from many other countries, will not stop repeating their

mantra: They want full and unfettered access to all sites in Iraq where the

inspection team suspects weapons of mass destruction are hidden. And that

is precisely what Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein has refused to do, for the

seven years that the inspection regime has been in force.

President Clinton has managed to put the United States on both sides

of the diplomatic fence, repeatedly insisting America is making every

effort to avoid violence, but is ready to use U.S. aircraft and cruise

missiles to pound Iraq into submission if necessary.

The United States has assembled an armada in the Persian Gulf

consisting of 30,000 soldiers, sailors, pilots and Marines, 20 warships,

and more than 400 attack and support aircraft. Although it doesnТt compare

to the huge multinational force that went to war with Iraq in 1991, neither

does the coalition.

So far, only Britain and Canada have joined the United States in

sending forces to the area. Most of the nations that supported the attack

in 1991 seem to feel that a military solution is too unsubtle a tool for

such a delicate diplomatic goal, and that the Iraqi people, already

suffering under UN sanctions, do not need to endure another baptism by


The demonstrations - never spontaneous and always state-organized -

quickly became tedious affairs, with the same posters, the same chants, the

same stunts.

What's more, the UN Security Council more than doubled the amount of

oil Iraq can sell over six months in order to buy food, medicine and other

goods for its people suffering from devastating sanctions imposed when Iraq

invaded Kuwait in 1990. At that time to put pressure on Iraqi forces to

withdraw, the United States and the UN voted to place an embargo on the

purchase of Iraqi oil. The resulting drop in oil supplies quickly led to

higher prices at gas stations all across the country.

The vote was unanimous in the 15-member body. The new programЧwhich

raises the permitted oil revenue from $2 billion to $5.256 billionЧdoes not

go into effect until Annan evaluates and approves an Iraqi plan for how the

goods should be distributed.

Iraq has expressed irritation over the plan and delayed the previous

versions of it, citing what it called infringements on its sovereignty. UN

officials insist on the right to strictly monitor the aid given under the

plan to make sure it reaches those who need it.

U.S. opinion polls show support for attacks on Iraq remains strong,

hovering in the 60 percent range, but a disastrous Уtown hallФ meeting in

Ohio on Wednesday suggested it was equally fragile.

State Department spokesman James P. Rubin said families were not being

ordered to leave Israel and Kuwait, but that they were being allowed to do

so over concerns they may consider it prudent.

Iraqis have in the past threatened to attack both Israel and Kuwait in

the event that Iraq is attacked. The United States this weekend is beefing

up forces in Kuwait, and Israel has been urgently distributing gas masks.

УThe probability of Iraq resorting to the use of chemical or

biological weapons is remote, but it cannot be excluded,Ф Rubin said.

U.S. officials acknowledge that any attack on Iraq could hit hard at

civilians there.

As a result of UNICOM work the following data concerning Iraqi

military arsenal were received.

|Missiles |UN verified as |UN believes may exist. |

| |destroyed | |

|Missiles |817 |2 |

|Warheads |30 |45 |

|Launchers and launch |75 |0 |

|pads | | |

|Chemical Weapons |

|Munitions (filled and |38,537 |31,658 |

|empty) | | |

|Precursor chemicals |3,000 tons |4,000 tons |

|Equipment for |516 |459 |

|production | | |

|Biological Weapons |

|Although the Al Hakam factory, capable of producing anthrax and botulinum|

|toxin, was raised, these and other agents have not been accounted for. |

5.2.3. Blitzkrieg1

The events that took place December 16, 1998 shocked the mankind. US

and British forces launched a Уstrong, sustainedФ series of airstrikes

against Iraq early Thursday, targeting military and security installations

throughout the country. Pentagon[1] sources said about 200 cruise missiles

were fired from ships and manned fighter bombers in the first wave of what

will be an Уopen-endedТ attack, designed to degrade IraqТs ability to

produce nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Clinton accused Hussein

of failing to live up to his commitment to allow unrestricted access to UN

weapons inspectors. This is how chief CNN International Correspondent

Christiane Amanpour reported from a rooftop in downtown Baghdad: УAn orange

plume of smoke wafted over the city after one of the loudest bursts.Ф

Allied missiles struck more than 50 separate targetsФ during the first wave

of bombing that began overnight on Wednesday.

The military strikes Ц which came at night Ц followed a roughly 14-

month period during which Baghdad officials periodically said they would no

longer cooperate with the weapons inspectors. During that time, Baghdad

also repeatedly demanded that crippling international sanctions, imposed

after IraqТs invasion of Kuwait prior to the Gulf War, be lifted. The most

recent escalation in the ongoing weapons standoff came in early November.

At that time, Western powers threatened military strikes against Iraq. The

threat was removed on November 14, when Baghdad agreed to cooperate fully

with the weapons inspectors. But, US and British officials warned Baghdad

that future airstrikes could come without warning should Iraqi leadership

again refuse to cooperate with UNSCOM. To back up their threat, Western

powers left in place the military might they had positioned in the Persian

Gulf, within striking distance of Iraq. It was that military weaponry that

was used on Thursday to conduct the strikes against Iraq. A stray missile

from the allied attack on Iraq crashed into a southwestern Iranian border

city Khorramshahr causing no casualties but prompting a strong diplomatic

protest from Tehran.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Henry Shelton said the

sites hit during the first bombing wave included weapons of mass

destruction and barracks belonging to the Iraqi Republican Guard. US and

British officials have said they will continue bombing Baghdad until they

have achieved their goal which is not to destabilize the regime but to

decrease his capacity to threaten his neighbours.

World communityТs response was not unanimous. Many Russian politicians

expressed their negative attitude to the bombing. Boris Yeltzin met with

Evgeni Primakov, Russian Prime-minister, Nikolai Bordyuzha, Security

Council secretary and Anatoly Kvashnin, General Staff commander where he

claimed that Russia would demand conducting the UN Security Council summit

to consider the situation in Iraq. Egor Stroyev, Federation Council

chairman said that the US and British bombardment of Iraq is a strike not

on Iraq but on public opinion and above all on UNO. Russian Foreign

Minister Igor Ivanov expressed his point of view saying that military

action ceasing would allow to renew the political process of Iraqi

settlement. Moreover, he said that the report was made at the time when

Iraqi leaders approved of their readiness to collaborate with UNSCOM.

Russian Ambassador Yuli Vorontsov will return to Moscow for


The only country that fully backed American and British bombing of

Iraq was Japan. Keidzo Obutti, the Prime Minister of this country has

already received acknowledgement from the US president. According to his

opinion Iraq didnТt fully cooperate with UN officials. Japan that is

connected with the USA by economic and military union as well as strategic

partnership always supports everything US does.

Tony Blair, the British prime minister is expected to be backed by the

majority of deputies to the House of Commons. He said the attack, named

Operation Desert Fox, was necessary because Hussein never intended to abide

by his pledge to give unconditional access to UN inspectors trying to

determine if Iraq has dismantled its biological, chemical and nuclear

weapons programs. From morning some protesters-natives from Arab countries

Ц Syria, Pakistan and Iraq Ц held demonstrations in Trafalgar Square and

near prime ministerТs residence situated in Downing street, 10. British

people also fully agree with their government decision. Russian position is

discussed by mass media. Moscow is said to have too little assets to

seriously affect the situation. Today УTimesФ wrote: УWashington made it

clear that the arguments of the country whose economic situation fully

depends on financial assistance of Western countries wonТt stop him.

Paris is reserved in its comments connected with the Iraqi bombing.

France always adhered to diplomatic crisis regulation.

NATO Ministers of Defense have gathered in Brussels to discuss their

position regarding the situation in the Persian Gulf. Nobody have expressed

their wish to participate in military actions.

The UN Security Council held a special debate Wednesday evening on the

military action. Diplomats said the meeting of the 15-nation council would

enable members to voice their views on the crisis, but no council action

was expected in the form of a resolution or other decision. UN Secretary

General Kofi Annan expressed regret the standoff had not been resolved

diplomatically. Richard Butler, UNSCOM chairman, ordered UNSCOM staff out

of Baghdad. The entire staff was evacuated before dawn on Wednesday.

Iraqi officials said at least 25 people had died and 75 were wounded

in the Iraqi capital alone during two days of airstrikes.


The UNO, established to replace the existing League of Nations, faces

very difficult situation in connection with Iraqi bombardment. The

beginning of effective Iraqi resistance came with a rapidity which

surprised us all, and we were perhaps psychologically unprepared for the

sudden transition from peacemaking to fighting. Some say that Clinton

wanted to delay the floor debate and vote on whether he should be

impeached over his actions stemming from an affair with former White House

intern Monica Lewinski. Some questioned America's moral right to bomb Iraq,

while others demanded that this time the US do the job properly and get rid

of Saddam Hussein.

But by doing so the USA and Britain have violated the UN Charter

according to which: "All Members shall refrain in their international

relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity

or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent

with the Purposes of the United Nations." [ ]

Many political leaders doubt the necessity to preserve the UNO as

there were drastic actions made by it. I think that the main reason for it

is that the USA is the main financial source of the UNO and the latter in

its turn is not willing to lose it.

In some way, my work can be continued as the events that happen in the

world change the situation greatly. The future will show whether the UNO

will be preserved or whether itТll lose its unique character.


1. Basic Facts about the UN. Sales No E.95.1.31;

2. Bush G., Scowcroft B. Why We didnТt Remove Saddam. Times, June 21, 1998;

3. Contreras Joseph, Watson Russel. Saddam Old Tricks. News Week, June 15,


4. Documents of the United Nations Department of Public Information;

5. Dr. Jan Azud Csc. The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the UN.

Bratislava: Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1970;

6. Inside UNSCOM: The Inspector. Transcript of interview with Charles

Duelfer, Deputy Chairman of the UN Special Commission to Iraq.;

7. Iraq Bars UN Inspection Teams From Searching For Weapons. Copyright

1998. The Associated Press.;

8. Malt Bill G. Parade of the Dead Babies. Times. August 7, 1998;

9. Nelan Bruce W. Selling the War Badly. Times, March 2, 1998;

10. Osmanczyk Edmund Jan. The Encyclopedia of the United Nations and

International Relations. 2nd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis, 1990;

11. Peiser A., Serber M. U.S. History and Government. New York: Asmo School

Publications, Inc., 1992;

12. Ritter Leaves Baghdad After Weapons Inspections. CNN News Release.

March 10, 1998;

13. Saddam Hussein Freezes co-operation with UN inspectors. CNN News

Release. August 5, 1998;

14. Scott Ritter Testifies In Senate. CNN News Release. September 4, 1998;

15. The UN Charter;

16. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises, Inc.

17. U.S. Reacts Sternly to IraqТs Rebuff of Inspectors. CNN News Release,

December 9, 1998;

18. U.S., Britain Bombard Iraq. CNN News Release, December 16, 1998;

19. United Nations Iraq-Kuwait observation mission;

20. Wedeman Ben УIraqis protest, but against what?Ф;

21. Western Forces Pound Baghdad in Second, УStrongerФ Assault. CNN News

Release, December 17, 1998;

Appendix A




to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in

our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and

to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and

worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of

nations large and small, and

to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the

obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law

can be maintained, and

to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger



to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one another as

good neighbours, and

to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security,


to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of

methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest,


to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic

and social advancement of all peoples,


Accordingly, our respective Governments, through representatives

assembled in the city of San Francisco, who have exhibited their full

powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present Charter

of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international organization

to be known as the United Nations.

Appendix B

The specialized agencies

The International Labour Organization (ILO) formulates policies and

programs to improve working conditions and employment opportunities, and

defines international labour standards as guidelines for Governments;

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) works to raise levels

of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity

and food security, and to better the conditions of rural populations;

The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) promotes

education for all cultural development, protection of the world's natural

and cultural heritage, press freedom and communication;

The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates programs aimed at solving

health problems and the attainment by all people of the highest possible

level of health: it works in areas such as immunization, health education

and the provision of essential drugs;

The World Bank group provides loans and technical assistance to developing

countries to reduce poverty and advance sustainable economic growth;

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) facilitates international monetary

cooperation and financial stability, and provides a permanent forum for

consultation, advice and assistance on financial issues;

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) sets international

standards necessary for the safety, security, efficiency and regularity of

air transport, and serves as the medium for cooperation in all areas of

civil aviation;

The Universal Postal Union (UPU) establishes international regulations for

the organization and improvement of postal services, provides technical

assistance and promotes cooperation in postal matters;

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) fosters international

cooperation for the improvement and use of telecommunications of all kinds,

coordinates usage of radio and TV frequencies, promotes safety measures and

conducts research;

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) promotes scientific research on

the atmosphere and on climate change, and facilitates the global exchange

of meteorological data and information;

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) works to improve

international shipping procedures, encourages the highest standards in

marine safety, and seeks to prevent marine pollution from ships;

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) promotes international

protection of intellectual property and fosters cooperation on copyrights,

trademarks, industrial designs and patents;

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) mobilizes

financial resources for better food production and nutrition among the poor

in developing countries;

The UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) promotes the industrial

advancement of developing countries through technical assistance, advisory

services and training;

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an autonomous

intergovernmental organization under the aegis of the UN, works for the

safe and peaceful uses of atomic energy;

The UN and the World Trade Organization (WTO), the major entity overseeing

international trade, cooperate in assisting developing countries' exports

through the Geneva-based International Trade Centre.

Appendix C

"I want an understanding that will help my mission and make it


Kofi Annan

United Nations Secretary General

Kofi Atta Annan, current Secretary General of the United Nations, is a

native of Ghana -- at the time of his birth, still a British colony called

the Gold Coast. He was born April 8, 1938, in Kumasi, the descendant of a

prominent family of paramount chieftains of the Fante people.. Annan began

his education at a Ghanaian university, then completed a degree in

economics at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minn. He pursued graduate

studies in Geneva at the Institut Universitaire de Hautes Etudes

Internationales. Again in the United States, Annan earned an M.S. in

management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

By 1971, Annan had joined the United Nations.

His experience includes positions as Assistant Secretary General for

Program Planning, Budget and Finance, head of human resources and security

coordinator, director of the budget, chief of personnel for the High

Commission for Refugees and administrative officer for the Economic

Commission for Africa.

He was named Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations on

March 1, 1993. In the peacekeeping post he did, however, take on a number

of delicate and complex jobs. He was sent to Iraq to negotiate the release

of hostages and the safe transport of a half-million Asian workers who had

become stranded in that area. As representative of the UN Secretary General

in Bosnia., he negotiated his way among the four powers who had intervened

in Bosnia -- the United States, Britain, France and Russia.

On the evening of December 13, 1996, Annan was named Secretary General

of the United Nations -- the first black African to hold the job.

In the future, Annan will grapple with the problem of gaining support

for the United Nations from the organisation's sceptics, especially the

U.S. Congress.

Appendix D

|Membership and | | |

|Presidency of the | | |

|Security Council in | | |

|1998 | | |

|Month |Presidency |Membership Term Ends |

|January |France |Permanent Member |

|February |Gabon |31 December 1999 |

|March |Gambia |31 December 1999 |

|April |Japan |31 December 1998 |

|May |Kenya |31 December 1998 |

|June |Portugal |31 December 1998 |

|July |Russian Federation |Permanent Member |

|August |Slovenia |31 December 1999 |

|September |Sweden |31 December 1998 |

|October |United Kingdom |Permanent Member |

|November |United States |Permanent Member |

|December |Bahrain |31 December 1999 |

| |Brazil |31 December 1999 |

| |China |Permanent Member |

| |Costa Rica |31 December 1998 |

Appendix E

The United Nations was established in the aftermath of a devastating

war to help stabilize international relations and give peace a more secure


The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded five times to the United

Nations and its organizations.

Appendix F

Country Profile


| |General |

| |Size: |437,072 sq. km |

| |Location: |Middle East |

| |Population: |21.4 million |

| |Government: |Republic |

| |Leader: |President Saddam |

| | |Hussein |

| |People |

| |[pic]Languages |Arabic, Kurdish |

| | |(official in Kurdish|

| | |regions), Assyrian, |

| | |Armenian |

| |Major Religions |Muslim 97% (Shi'a |

| | |60%-65%, Sunni |

| | |32%-37%), Christian |

| | |or other 3% |

| |Ethnic groups |Arab 75%-80%, |

| | |Kurdish 15%-20%, |

| | |Turkoman, Assyrian |

| | |or other 5% |

| |Growth rate |3.69% |

| |Birth rate |43.07 births/1,000 |

| |Death rate |6.57 deaths/1,000 |

| |Fertility rate |6.41 children/woman |

| |Male life expectancy|65 |

| |Female life |68 |

| |expectancy | |

| |Infant mortality |60 deaths/1,000 live|

| |rate |births |

| | | |

| |Economy |

| |[pic]Labor force |4.4 million |

| |Unemployment rate |N/A |

| |Inflation Rate |N/A |

| |Gross domestic |$41.1 billion (1995 |

| |product (total value|est.) |

| |of goods and | |

| |services produced | |

| |annually) | |

| |Budget |N/A |

| |Debt |$50.0 billion (1989)|

| |Exports |N/A |

| |Imports |N/A |

| |Defense spending |N/A |

| |Highways |45,554 km (1989) |

Appendix G

Saddam Hussein

President of Iraq


[1] Blitzkrieg (Ger.) Ц lightning war, traced back to WW II

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