Рефераты. Колледжи и университеты США

Колледжи и университеты США

A short time after the first colonists came to the territory, which we

now call Massachusetts, the General Court of Massachusetts made the first

contribution for Harvard College. It was in 1636. This school later became

the famous Harvard University. It is the oldest university in the United

States. It was named in honor of John Harvard, who died in 1638. This man

left his library and half of his property to the university. People knew

that the future of the new country depended on education. And after the

establishment of Harvard they began to establish other schools. In 1776 the

Americans declared their independence. By this time nine other institutions

were opened. Their present names and the dates of their opening are:

College of Willian and Mary (1693).

Yale University (1701).

Princeton University (1746).

Washington and Lee University (1749).

Columbia University (1754).

University of Pensilvania (1755).

Brown University (1764).

Rutgers College (1766).

Dartmouth College (1770).

Some of the money for the educational institutions came from the

government, but most of it came from people who felt that by giving their

money they were investing in the new country. People believed that the new

country needed colleges. They voted for their state governments to organize

colleges, which would be supported by taxes. These are called state

universities and they arc playing leading roles in the world of education

in America. By 1894 all states had such universities. The University of

Michigan, which first opened as a school in Detroit in 1817, became a state

university in 1837 when Michigan became a state.

In the early 1800s most people thought that only men should affend

college. But other people fell certain that women too must be educated.

Some of them thought that the best would be to have co-educated colleges.

Others thought that there must be separate colleges for men and women;

Oberlin College, which was founded it 1833 was the first co-educational

school. Mount Holyoke was founded in 1837. It was the first school for

women. Other schools for women are: Vassar (1821), Wells (1868), Wellesley

(1871). In 1870 Michigan, Illinois, Missouri, California began to admit

women to state universities. Now all public universities admit women. Even

many private men's colleges are beginning to admit women. So the ideas

about American education are changing.

Princeton University

Princeton University is a vibrant community of scholarship and learning

that stands in the nation's service and in the service of all nations.

Chartered in 1746, and known as the College of New Jersey until 1896, it

was British North America's fourth college. Fully coeducational since 1969,

Princeton in the 2002-2003 academic year enrolled 6,632 students -- 4,635

undergraduates and 1,997 graduate students -- with a ratio of full-time

students to faculty members of 5.6 to 1. The University, with more than

12,000 employees, is Mercer County's largest private employer and plays a

major role in the educational, cultural and economic life of the region.

The College of William and Mary.

The College of William and Mary, one of the nation's premier state-

assisted liberal arts universities, believes that excellence in teaching is

the key to unlocking intellectual and personal possibilities for students.

Dedicated to this philosophy and committed to limited enrollment, the

College provides high-quality undergraduate, graduate and professional

education that prepares students to make significant contributions to the

Commonwealth of Virginia and the nation. In recognition, the media have

included William and Mary among the nation's prestigious "Public Ivys," and

ranked it first among state institutions in terms of commitment to



Chartered on February 8, 1693, by King William III and Queen Mary II as the

second college in the American colonies. Severed formal ties with Britain

in 1776. Became state-supported in 1906 and coeducational in 1918. Achieved

modern university status in 1967. Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's premier

academic honor society, and the honor code system of conduct were founded

at William and Mary.


Located in historic Williamsburg, Va., approximately 150 miles south of

Washington, D.C., midway between Richmond and Norfolk, Va.


Approximately 1,200 acres including picturesque Lake Matoaka and the

College Woods. Adjacent to Colonial Williamsburg, the Ancient Campus

section is restored to 18th-century appearance.

Instructional Faculty

569 in arts and sciences, marine science, education, business

administration and law; 93 percent of the faculty teaching undergraduate

courses have attained terminal degrees.


7,500 of whom approximately 5,500 are undergraduates.

Student-Faculty Ratio

Approximately 12 to 1.

Student Statistics

Students from 50 states and 75 foreign countries; 79 percent of current

freshmen graduated in top tenth of their class with the middle 50 percent

having total SAT scores ranging from 1240-1400; 28 percent of all students

received need-based financial aid totaling $14 million in 2000-2001.

Tuition and Fees For the 2002-2003 session, total annual cost of tuition,

fees, room and board for in-state undergraduate students is$10,626; for out-

of-state undergraduate students, $24,826. In-state students in the School

of Law pay $11,100 and out-of-state students pay $21,290. In-state students

in the Master's of Business Administration program pay $9,978 and out-of-

state students pay $21,258. In-state graduate students in the Schools of

Marine Science, Education, and Arts and Sciences pay $6,138 and out-of-

state students pay $17,972.

Student Activities Over 250 student-interest groups plus 16 national social

fraternities and 12 sororities; William and Mary Theatre, Concert and

Sunday Series; Choir; Band; Speakers Forum; live entertainment in 10,000-

seat W&M Hall. There are a total of 23 men's and women's intercollegiate

athletic teams.

Degrees A.B., B.S., B.B.A., M.A., M.S., M.B.A., M.A.C., M.Ed., M.A.Ed.,

Ph.D., J.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., LL.M., M.P.P.

Programs of Study American Studies+#, Anthropology+#, Applied Science+#,

Art/Art History, Biochemistry (minor only), Biological Psychology*,

Biology+, Black Studies*, Business Administration+^, Chemistry+, Classical

Studies (Latin, Greek, Hebrew), Computer Science+#, Dance (minor

only),Economics, Education (certification)+#, English, Environmental

Science/Studies*, Film Studies (minor only), Geology, Government,

History+#, International Studies (International Relations and separate

concentrations in African, East Asian, European, Latin American, Middle

Eastern and Russian Studies), Kinesiology, Law^, Linguistics*, Literary and

Cultural Studies*, Marine Science+#, Mathematics+, Medieval and Renaissance

Studies*, Military Science, Modern Languages (Arabic, Chinese, French,

German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish), Music,

Philosophy, Physics+#, Psychology+#, Public Policy+, Religion, Sociology,

Theatre and Speech, Women's Studies*

*Interdisciplinary Studies Degree

+Master's Degree Program

#Doctoral Degree Program

^Professional Degree Program

Schools Arts and Sciences, Business Administration, Education, Law, Marine


Special Opportunities Freshman seminars focusing on specialized topics

with a limited class-size of 17 students. Undergraduate research

opportunities. Community service projects and organizations. Psy.D. degree

in Clinical Psychology in conjuction with Eastern Virginia Medical

Authority. Center for International Studies with Study Abroad programs in

Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, England, France, Germany, Italy,

Japan and Scotland. Summer session with graduate offerings on campus.

Special institutes and seminars. Departmental Honors programs. 17 computer

labs outfitted with the latest Pentium PCs. A high-speed fiber-optic

network connects all campus buildings, including residence hall rooms.

Foreign language houses. Military Science Program. Advisory programs in pre-

engineering, pre-law and pre-medicine.

Library The Earl Gregg Swem Library contains more than one million volumes

and computer access to many standard computerized data bases. Special

Collections include documents from many historical figures, including the

lifetime papers of U.S. Chief Justice Warren Burger.

Computers Seventeen computer labs around campus outfitted with the latest

Pentium PC computers. Campus buildings--including all residence hall rooms

- are tied to a high-speed fiber-optic network, featuring the World Wide

Web and cable television.

Major Buildings Sir Christopher Wren Building (1695), oldest academic

building in the U.S.; President's House (1732); the Brafferton (1723); Phi

Beta Kappa Memorial Hall; William and Mary Hall seating up to 10,000 for

convocations, sports events, cultural programs. Among the College's newest

buildings are the University Center, McGlothlin-Street Hall, the Reves

Center, Plumeri Park and the McCormack-Nagelsen Tennis Center. Residential

halls and houses for 4,450 students.


$366 million

Annual Budget

Total--$172 million for 2002-2003




A 17-member Board of Visitors appointed by the Governor of Virginia.


Chancellor: Dr. Henry A. Kissinger

(The former Secretary of State and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in

1973 is 22nd Chancellor of the College)

President: Timothy J. Sullivan '66 (25th President of the College)

Provost: Gillian T. Cell

Vice President for University Development: Dennis Cross

Vice President for Student Affairs: W. Samuel Sadler '64

Vice President for Public Affairs: Stewart H. Gamage '72

Vice President of Finance: Samuel E. Jones '75

Vice President for Administration: Anna Martin

Director of Athletics: Edward C. Driscoll, Jr.

Yale University.

Yale University was founded in 1701 as the Collegiate School in the home of

Abraham Pierson, its first rector, in Killingworth, Connecticut. In 1716

the school moved to New Haven and, with generous gift by Elihu Yale of nine

bales of goods, 417 books, and a portrait of King George the first, renamed

Yale College in 1718.

Yale embarked on a steady expansion, establishing the Medical Institution

(1810), Divinity School (1822), Law School (1843), Graduate School of Arts

and Sciences (1847), the School of Fine Arts (1869) and School of Music

(1894). In 1887 Yale College became Yale University. It continued to add to

its academic offerings with the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

(1900), School of Nursing (1923), School of Drama (1955), School of

Architecture (1972), and School of Management (1974).

Rutgers College.

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, with over 60,000 students on

campuses in Camden, Newark, and New Brunswick, is one of the major state

university systems in the nation. The university is made up of twenty-six

degree-granting divisions; twelve undergraduate colleges, eleven graduate

schools, and three schools offering both undergraduate and graduate

degrees. Five are located in Camden, seven in Newark, and fourteen in New


Rutgers has a unique history as a colonial college, a land-grant

institution, and a state university. Chartered in 1766 as Queen's College,

the eighth institution of higher learning to be founded in the colonies

before the revolution, the school opened its doors in New Brunswick in 1771

with one instructor, one sophomore, and a handful of freshmen. During this

early period the college developed as a classical liberal arts institution.

In 1825, the name of the college was changed to Rutgers to honor a former

trustee and revolutionary war veteran, Colonel Henry Rutgers.

Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864,

resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School with

departments of agriculture, engineering, and chemistry. Further expansion

in the sciences came with the founding of the New Jersey Agricultural

Experiment Station in 1880, the College of Engineering in 1914, and the

College of Agriculture (now Cook College) in 1921. The precursors to

several other Rutgers divisions were also founded during this period: the

College of Pharmacy in 1892, the New Jersey College for Women (now Douglass

College) in 1918, and the School of Education (now a graduate school) in


Brown University

Founded in 1764, Brown University was the third college in New

England and the seventh in America - and the only one that welcomed

students of all religious persuasions. A commitment to diversity and

intellectual freedom remains a hallmark of the University today.

Established as Rhode Island College in the town of Warren, Rhode

Island, the University moved to its present location on Providence's

College Hill in 1770. In 1804, the University was renamed to honor a $5,000

donation from Providence merchant Nicholas Brown.

Over the years the University grew steadily, adding graduate

courses in the 1880s, a women's college in 1889 (renamed Pembroke College

in 1928), a graduate school in 1927, and a medical education program in

1973 (now the Brown Medical School). The men's and women's undergraduate

colleges merged in 1971.

While facilities and programs expanded, Brown chose to keep its

enrollment relatively small, with an undergraduate student-faculty ratio of

about 9 to 1. The main campus covers nearly 140 acres, all of it within a

10-minute walk of its hub, the College Green. The University is situated on

a historic residential hill overlooking downtown Providence, a city of some

170,000 people.

The University library system contains more than 5 million items,

including bound volumes, periodicals, maps, sheet music, and manuscripts.

The number of items grows by more than 100,000 each year.

The John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, known as "the Rock," is

Brown's primary humanities and social-sciences resource center.

The Sciences Library houses the University's collection of science

and medical books and periodicals. Located on the 14th floor is the

University's media services operation.

The John Hay Library houses special collections, including most of

the University's rare books, manuscripts, and archives.

The John Carter Brown Library is an independently administered and

funded center for advanced research in history and the humanities. It

houses an internationally renowned collection of primary sources pertaining

to the Americas before 1825.

Other specialty libraries include the Orwig Music Library (the

general music collection), the Art Slide Library (slides of art and art-

related subjects, including architecture and archaeology), and the

Demography Library (a major resource for population research).

Teaching, research and public service are conducted through a

number of centers and institutes affiliated with the University. They

include the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, the Center for Alcohol

and Addiction Studies, the Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research,

the Population Studies and Training Center, and the Watson Institute for

International Studies.

Carrying on an intercollegiate athletic tradition more than 100 years

old, the Brown Bears compete against the seven other Ivy League schools and

against other colleges and universities at the NCAA Division I level. Brown

has one of the nation's broadest arrays of varsity teams -- 37 in all; 20

for women and 17 for men.

Brown has its share of historic firsts, including the nation's

first intercollegiate men's ice hockey game (defeating Harvard 6-0 on

January 19, 1898) and the nation's first women's varsity ice hockey team

(organized in 1964).

As a member of the Ivy League, Brown awards financial aid on the

basis of need; it does not grant athletic scholarships.

University of Pensilvania.


Full-time: 18,050

Part-time: 4,276

Total: 22,326

Full-time Undergraduate: 9,863

Full-time Graduate/professional: 8,187

(Fall 2001; most current figures)

Undergraduate Admissions:

Penn received record-high 19,153 applications for admission to the Class of

2005. Of those applicants, 4,132, or 21.6 percent, were offered admission,

making the class of 2005 the most selective in Penn's history and the

institution among the most selective universities in America. Ninety-two

percent of the students admitted for Fall 2001 came from the top 10 percent

of their high school graduating class and scored a combined 1,412 on the

SAT. 2,391 students matriculated into this year's freshman class.


Record-high 2,588 international students applied for admission to Penn's

undergraduate schools for Fall 2001, and 401 (15.5%) received admissions

offers. Ten percent of the first Ten percent of the first year classes are

international students. Of the international students accepted to the Class

of 2005, 11.1% were from Africa and the Middle East, 44.6% from Asia, 1%

from Australia and the Pacific, 14.3% from Canada and Mexico, 10.6% from

Central/South America and the Caribbean, and 18.6% from Europe. Penn had

3,485 international students enrolled in Fall 2001.

Study Abroad:

Penn offers 65 study-abroad programs in 36 countries. Penn ranks first

among the Ivy League schools in the number of students studying abroad,

according to the most recent data (Institute for International Education,

1999-2000). In 1999-2000, 1,196 Penn undergraduate students participated in

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