Рефераты. Конверсионное словообразование прилагательных цветообозначения. Методика преподавния в нач.классах

treated in this chapter. The stressing tendencies differ according to

whether the basis is a unit word or a composite, also according to whether

derivation is made from a noun or a verb.

Nominal derivation from composite verbs involves shift of stress.

Examples are the types runaway / blackout, overthrow, interchange, misfit,

reprint which are derived from actual or possible verbal composites with

the stress pattern --. The process has not yet come to an end which will

explain that the OED, Webster and others very often give stress indications

which no longer tally with the speech habits of the majority. Many cbs of

the blackout type and all the substantives of the types misfit and reprint

are stressed like the verbs resp. Verbal phrases in OED.

Of prefixal types only verbs with inter-, mis- and re- have developed

stress-distinguished substantives. No similar pairs exist for neg. un- (no

verbal type exists, anyway), reversative un-, be-, de- (be- and de- are

only deverbal).

Verbs derived from composite substantives do not change their stress

pattern. Cp. such verbs as backwash, background, afterdate, by-pass,

counterweight, outlaw, outline, underbrush which are forestressed like

their underlying nominal bases. This also explains the fluctuation in the

stressing of counter- verbs, as counter-sign, counter-sink, stressed like

the substantives though the verbal stress pattern is middle stress/heavy


With unit words the current tendency is to retain the stress of the

underlying basis in deverbal nouns as well as in denominal verbs. We may

call this homologic stressing. Bradin/5/ had stated the fact for denominal

verbs without, however, discussing the problem as to the obvious

exceptions, while Jespersen/7/ speaks of ‘such an important thing in ford-

formation as the stress-shifting in record substantive and verb’.

To a certain extent, it is a stress distinction between nouns and

verbs which are otherwise homophonous. This distinctive stress pattern

occurs chiefly with disyllabic words, record substantive / record verb.

examples are contract, accent, affix, infix, prefix, suffix, augment,

impress, concert, contrast, convert, escort, essay, export, object,

subject, project, present, progress, protest, survey, torment, transfer.

The number of non-shifting examples is much greater, however. It will

be first given instances of forestressed words with homologic stress:

comment, compact, exile, figure, plaster, preface, prelude, prison,

quarrel, climax, focus, herald, process, program, triumph, waitress, rivet,

segment, sojourn, turmoil, contact, ‘bring or come into contact’, congress

‘meet in a congress’, incense ‘burn incense’, probate. To these may be

added such verbs as are felt to be derived from a substantive and therefore

forestressed like the underlying bases, at least in AE: accent, conflict,

concrete (as in concrete a wall, also in OED), contract (as in contract a

document), digest (as digest a book), export, import (prob. originating in

contrastive stressing), recess (as recess a wall), survey (in certain

senses), torment (frequent), transfer (the regular stressing as a railway


The group of non-shifting endstressed words is considerably larger.

Unit words beginning with de-, dis-, re- are especially numerous. Examples

are: accord, advance, assent, attack, decay, delay, defeat, dispatch,

despute, escape, exclaim, (as a deverbal substantive ‘presenting position

of a rifle’), precise, relax, remove, repay, reform, support (Biese/4/).

On the other hand, it is found instances of distinctive stressing in

AE: address, conserves, discard, discharge are often heard with forestress

when substantives, also relay and research; reject substantive with

forestress is the only pronunciation possible. Of these, relay and research

may be explained as reinterpretations after the t. reprint substantive

/reprint verb; reject is perh. influenced by subject, object, project,

traject. In any case, this tendency towards distinctive stress in deverbal

substantives is weak as compared with that towards homologic stress.

To sum up: the tendency with denominal verbs is to give them the

stress of the underlying nominal basis, which has in many cases led to

homologic stress with all or part of the verbal meanings versus older

distinctive stress. Deverbal substantives, on the whole, show the same

inclination to homologic stress. But there is also a weak tendency towards

distinctive stress, though chiefly in AE. As for the tendency toward stress

distinction between nominal and verbal homophones pointed out by

Jespersen/7/, it was perhaps vaguely on the analogy of composites that it

came into existence. The original stress with these loans from French or

Latin was on the last syllable (F absent, L abstract(um)), so verbs

retained this stress all the more easily as many native verbs were so

stressed: become, believe, forbid, forget, mislead etc., whereas almost all

disyllabic native substantives, unit words as well as composites were

forestressed (the few contrary examples such as unhealth, unrest, untruth,

belief hardly count against the overwhelming majority). This may have led

to a tendency towards forestress with non-native disyllabic substantives

too. But what has taken on the character of a strong derivative device with

composites has proved much weaker with unit words on account of their

entirely different structure. Further development seems to point in the

direction of homologic stressing.

Combination of the type hanger-on may be mentioned here. As they are

functionally characterized by the suffix -er, the absence of stress shift

is only natural. The stress pattern of the underlying verbal phrase is


The abilities in production new words from colourmarcking adjectives.

The world around of us is the world of colour and paints, for which a

variety of combinations and shades is characteristic. The colour is one of

properties of objects of the material world and is perceived as the

realized visual sensation. The adjectives are used as a special part of

speech serving for a colour designation . The word-formation serves for a

designation of colour shades of adjectives, and also for the parts of

speech formed from them. Between that, the word-formation aspect of lexic

has remained indifferently, word-formation relations inside this layer,

with its originality, deserves the attention by way of their description

and study in the language.

The word-formation is a system, which unites grammatical and lexical,

that speaks about its enterlevel character and allows to apply the complex

approach to the investigated phenomena. Essence of grammar of a word-

formation suffix, which signals about the belonging a derivative word to

this or that part of speech and defines its paradigm, confirms this idea.

Also, on the basic purpose, which consists in creation of a new word and

updating of the vocabulary , the indissoluble unity of a word-formation and

lexicon is shown. Besides the word-formation, having own sphere of

research, studies word-formation resources and processes conducting to

creation of word-formation models, and also condition of functioning and

filling the lasts.

As the adjectives of a colourmarking concern to the most ancient layer

of lexicon, at their analysis there was necessary to pay attention to the

facts of diachronic, and also to consider an originality of the given group

of words, which is allocated with the various symbolic. This circumstance

finds the reflection in formation of portable meanings which are included

in lexical-semantic structure of initial adjectives, and influences the

lexical filling of word-formation models their derivatives.

The study of lexical-semantic structures of colourmarking adjectives

has shown unusual connection of colour and noncolour meanings, variety of

their shades, the influence of the nonlanguage validity on semantics of a

word. It was established, that the contextual environment of colourmarking

adjectives has the large importance for the adequate description of their

lexical-semantic structures.

The word-formation model is closely connected to word-formation

paradigm. Each adjective has own paradigm having unequal extent and various

morpheme filling of models, included in it. On the basis of research of

each separate paradigm, it is possible to deduce the generalized word-

formation paradigm of the given group of words, which is characterized by

presence constant, basic, facultative and even “unique” participants, that

is shown in the limits of the language.

The word-formation can be made:

1) inside one part of speech: A+suf=A1

2) by a transposition: - A+suf=N,

- A+suf=V,

- A+suf=D,

- V+suf=N,

where A - initial adjective, suf - word-forming suffix, A1, N, V, D -

derivatives: adjective, noun, verb, adverb.

1. A+suf=A1.

The basic suffixes -ish, -y are the constant and obligatory members of

general word-formation paradigm, i.e. enter into the paradigm of each


2.1 A+suf=N.

-ness is the conducting suffix here. The abstract nouns belong to this

model in the English language: blueness.

Other derivatives, in which formation the various suffixes take part,

are facultative, i.e. can be found in paradigm of one or two adjectives.

The presence of the facultative members depends on portable and minor

meanings which are included in lexical-semantic structure of initial

lexises. So in a derivative noun “blueism” one of meanings of the adjective

“blue” - "интеллектуальный", "ученый", "премудрый" etc. is realized, and

the suffix -ism introduces in the semantics of the derivative the

generalized meaning.

The portable meaning of an adjective “green” - "неопытный", "незрелый"

is shown in the appropriate derivatives – “greener, greenie” - carriers of

this quality. It is necessary to note, that paradigmatic lines can have

unequal extent because of the facultative members. “Green - greenness,

greenery, greenth, greenage, greener, greenie, greenlet, greening,


Speaking about the semantic of the derivatives it is necessary to note

that their polysemantic is in the direct dependence on character of lexical-

semantic structure of an initial basis. Depending on a context the suffix

noun “blueness “ one of the meanings of motivating adjectives realizes: «

синева, лазурь, синий цвет » (blue – “синий, голубой” -the actualizing of

the basic colour meaning), "синяк" ( the actualizing of minor meaning),

«ученость, премудрость, интеллектуальность» (blueism), "«непристойность"

(blue-joke - « неприличная, непристойная шутка » - the actualizing of

portable meaning).

The realization of the model A+suf=N is connected to redistribution

of semas and one-radical parts of speech in semantic structure. General-

categorical sema of that part of speech, in which the initial lexis was

transposed - here it is a sema of a subject inherent by a noun, become the

basic one. After it, semas, subordinated to it: abstract, concrete and

animate, follow, depending on character of a derivative noun. Only then

the general-categorical sema of an initial adjective - sema of an attribute

settles down.

2.2 A+suf=V.

The suffix verbs formed from colourmarking adjectives, carry

facultative character (redden, blacken, whiten) and differ by the ramified

lexical-semantic structure. Its size is defined not only because of

entrance simultaneously of semas of transitivity and intransitivity in it,

but also due to more various lexical semantics. The given model also is

characterized by redistribution of semas, which occurs at a verbal

transposition. The conducting place is occupied by a general-categorical

sema of verbs – the sema of process, and also semas, subordinated to it, of

transitivity and intransitivity. Only after them the sema of an attribute

inherent in initial adjectives, follows.

2.3 A+suf=D.

This model is submitted in the English language by a suffix -ly, and

the derivative adverbs are the constant members of the paradigm (bluely,

brownly, greenly, yellowly).

2.4 V+suf=N.

In the English language this model is submitted by suffix nouns formed

from verbs. To blue bluer « тот, кто воронит сталь ». The English deverbal

nouns with a suffix -ing are characterized by constant participation in

paradigm (blueing, browning, greening, redding, yellowing).

Besides the affix models, examining the word-formation opportunities

of colourmarking adjectives the important role is played by models of an

affixless wordmaking. They assume an obligatory transposition of parts of

speech. If the distinctive feature of an affix word-making is the presence

of a marker as a final word-forming suffix, then such marker is not present

at the affixless (implicit) word-making. Because of its complexity the

problem of an affixless word-making is examined from various points of

view, and the ways for its solution are planned:

1. The word-formation means of this way of a word-making come to


2. The processes occurring at an affixless word-making, are

examined in connection with typological features of the language and its

morphological build;

3. The criteria for a synchronous establishment of a direction of

a derivation are developed;

4. Various methods of the analysis are applied, supplementing each


Two basic models of an affixless word-making were allocated: A(N, A(


The model A(N reflects the phenomenon of a substantivation.

The English language, where the category of a gender is absent,

aspires to include various meanings in one lexeme structure and to expand

volume of its lexical-semantic structure by that, at realization of this

model. An indispensable condition of functioning derivative, formed on the

given model, is the change of categorial semantics of a part of speech and

redistribution of semas in their semantic structure. Besides an obligatory

general-categorial sema of a noun -the sema of a subject, for the English

derivative lexeme the entry in its structure simultaneously of semas

abstract and concrete, animate and inanimateness etc. is peculiar, that is

the specific feature of the English language. In the English language, with

its analytical tendency, there is an aspiration to a full semantic filling

of a word.

The character of semantic shifts occurring at realization of this

model, can be explained with help of lexical-semantic structure, where

the meaning contains, which is modified in appropriate derivatives. The

nouns formed on this model, are included into the structure of various

phraseologies: out of blue - is "неожиданно". It shows the connection of

word-formation and phraseological systems of the language.

There is an interest in the cases when in a basis of phraseologies the

various colour associations lay: to fire into the brown - « стрелять мимо

цели, неметко ».

The comparison of models of an affix and affixless word-making shows,

that the distinctive attribute of the lasts is in their poly-semantic not

as in the appropriate suffix models , the most important feature is the

opportunity of being included in various phraseologies.

A(V. The typological feature of these verbs is that they include the

semas of transitivity and intransitivity in their lexical-semantic

structure and it expand the categorial semantic because of it.

The portable meanings of the colourmarking adjectives find their

reflections in the English verbs : to green « обманывать, мистифицировать

»( green « доверчивый, простодушный ».

The word addition has the wide circulation among the suffix and prefix

word-formation during the all extent of development of the language.

The number of questions are allocated from all of problems concerning

formation of complex words,: 1) the compatibility of the appropriate

colourmarking adjectives with other categories of words; 2) what element

of meaning, basic or portable, is realized there; 3) distribution of models

of complex words in the parts of speech; 4) feature of their structure and


To typological criteria also belong: a) number of components forming a

new word; b) a way of the connection components:

· full complete;

· is incomplete combined;

· connection with the help of service words;

c) A type of the semantic connection between the components of a

complex word, which carries an attribute character in the examined models.

Complex nouns including the colourmarking adjective as one of the

components, makes out the lexical groups of words. The names of plants,

animal, minerals etc. concern to them. The complex words which in result

of metonym carry from a part on whole serve the name of an animal or plant

widely submitted among them : redbreast "малиновка". It, so-called,

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