Рефераты. Конверсионное словообразование прилагательных цветообозначения. Методика преподавния в нач.классах

"bahoovrihs". The group of words is also allocated, where the colourmarking

adjectives, combining with the name of clothes, form " bahoovrihs ", used

for calling the man: blue jacket "матрос". At the same time there is a

number of differences in еру realization of models of complex nouns and

their functioning. In the English language there are difficulties in the

differentiation of complex word from word combination. It is depend on

the nonexpressed morphological structure of the English word. Frequently

English language prefers word combinations: to look blue «выглядеть унылым

». Because of that the English language has a plenty of phraseological word

combinations including colourmarking adjectives : blue devils "хандра",

brown study « мрачное раздумье ». The increased

lexical-semantic structure with a metamorphosing of meanings is the

characteristic feature of the English complex word : blue-cap «круглая

плоская синяя шапочка (ее раньше носили в Шотландии)», «шотландцы», «лосось

первого года жизни», «синица», «василек», «сорт пива».

The basic type of a complex word is two-componented, the basic way of

connection of the components is full complete. The connection with the help

of a connecting element is not very typically for the English language.

The models of complex adjectives including colourmarking adjectives as

one of components, are present in the English language. As the basic part

of speech expressing colour shades, are the adjectives, the basic attention

is given to the appropriate complex adjectives. The English language,

besides complex words, aspires to use the word combinations, and also

derivative and radical lexemes: purple.

The formation of compound verbs on conversion is typical of the

English language: to bluestocking « быть синим чулком », to brownbag

(slang) « приносить в ресторан свою еду ». Last word is rather new, that

speaks about the role of the given tendency in a word-formation of the

English language, it is also possible the further word-making - brown –


III. Practical part.

It is impossible to underestimate a role of studying of a word-

formation in an primary school. As the teaching of foreign language should

pass in complex, i.e. the studying English should include the basic

directions: grammar, phonetics and lexicon, the importance of studying of

word-formation aspect of lexicon becomes doubtless. The studying of

conversion, which because of the extreme productivity is one of conducting

ways of creation the new words in the English language, can become one of

the ways of updating of the child’s vocabulary . Here it should be noted

the importance of lexicon, in general, in studying of foreign language in

primary school. The lexicon should be acquired in system, therefore the

work above the child’s vocabulary should begin from the first day of

studying English and proceed during the all period of training, day-to-


One of the basic principles of selection of lexicon in primary school

is the common use, i.e. the opportunity of the using in the colloquial

speech, hence, in the younger classes is not selected special lexicon as

the words for studying. The very small quantity of time is allocated for

acquaintance and training of that lexicon, which is not of a situation,

necessary for creation of a dialogue.

The plenty of time is allocated for studying of a word, acquaintance

with its meaning, its role in the sentence, in the system of language,

however items of information about its formation and opportunity of

formation new words from it are given, only if the speech goes about a word

formed suffix, seldom prefix, way of a word-formation. The words formed on

conversion, are simply showed, as two different parts of speech, that does

not give an opportunity to children itself to make words, basing on the

knowledge of this way of a word-formation. For comprehension of importance

of this aspect of language it is necessary to address to a psychological

linguistic nature of lexicon. You see in psychology the word is the complex

activator, for example, at perception and understanding of oral and written

speech, this complex speech action (at expression of thoughts). At

understanding of a word the acoustical and visual analyzers will be

involved, and this integrated approach promotes the best mastering. The

dialogue in foreign language is rather difficult activity for the child. It

occurs that, first, for the younger schoolboy it is much easier to

communicate on the native language much and it is not clearly, why he

should express in English, secondly, for this purpose it is necessary to

make rather difficult mental operation - to choose the words, suitable on

sense, from the vocabulary to construct the sentence grammatically

correctly, observing thus the words order , i.e. to do so that to be

understood. Becomes obvious, that the updating of the child’s vocabulary

is one of the basic problem for the teacher, you see the word is a basic

minimal unit of any language.

The studying of conversion, as one of ways of a word-formation, will

help to do the child‘s vocabulary more rich, to make his speech more

expressive, and also to fill up passive and active vocabulary, by means of

formation the new words himself. Now, reading, for example, a book, it

will not be necessary to him to look for a word formed on conversion, in

the dictionary, but to define its meaning, using the knowledge of this

phenomenon of language. Especially, the nouns and verbs formed from

adjectives of a colourmarking by this way, are included into structure of

various phraseologies, where carry more often portable meaning.

Some courses, foreign and Russian were analysed, where English is

taught, as foreign language. It is interesting to note, that the word-

formation is not studied neither in primary, nor in secondary school,

however, it is possible to find some items concerning this aspect of

lexicon. Courses: Russian (English by Vereshchagina, Pretykina and Learning

English by Skulta) and foreign (Magic Time and Hot Line by Tom Hutchinson)

have various methodical base, usually it is: some text books, teacher's

book, reading book , active book, audio cassettes. There is not any word

about conversion in this courses, however, words formed in this way are

given simply as different parts of speech, and the connection between them

is not explained.

With the purpose of revealing a level of children’s knowledge about

a conversion word-formation the ascertaining experiment was done, where

children were offered to do the following task (see appendix 1). Every

pupil have received individual card, in which a number of pairs sentences

on English with translation and the missed words was given. The list of

words was located below, from which it was necessary to choose a word,

suitable on sense, and to insert it into the appropriate sentence. In 10

minutes the works were gathered. (Results of experiment see appendix 7,

table 1)

For formation the skill of the conscious using words formed by a way

of conversion ,in oral and written speech and also for acquaintance with

its role in the English language the forming experiment including number of

the tasks, promoting to achievement of this purpose was done. The final

aim was not in remembering the term conversion and its definitions by the

pupils, but in understanding of sense of the phenomenon, as one of the

most productive ways of formation of new words in the English language. At

the first stage, on an example of two sentences, using the leading

questions, children come to a conclusion, that the same word can represent

various parts of speech (see appendix 2). At the following stage was

primary fastening of this material, i.e. the schoolboys were offered to

explain the statement of this or that word in the sentence on an example of

a material of ascertaining experiment (see appendix 3). The following task

consist in the following: a number of adjectives of a colourmarking was

offered to children who needed to translate them; it is quite natural,

that the schoolboys have apprehended them as adjectives. Further before the

younger schoolboys the dilemma was put: whether these words can have the

pair, which would be the other part of speech without changing the form of

the word. All children successfully have coped with this task, using the

dictionaries, conclusion that these pairs of words illustrate the

phenomenon of conversion, was made by schoolboys by themselves (see

appendix 4). Further group of children was divided into the brigades, the

individual word was offered to every one, with which they needed to do the

following operations: to find out, one or several parts of speech can be

represented by this word to prove it, it was necessary to make the

sentences with these words and to explain an belonging the word to this

or that part of speech. By the purpose of this task was to fix the pupils’s

knowledge of this theme, and also to train in the using of these words in

the sentence, in particular, and in speech in general (see appendix 4). At

the following stage of generalization of the knowledge and fastening,

automation of skill of the using the words formed on conversion the task

consist in, that 1) to define a part of speech of the allocated words in

the sentence, 2) to make the sentences similar by the given ones, 3) to

define a part of speech of the words submitted outside of a context. The

third part of the task is obviously impracticable, because it was given

only the graphic form of a word, that in general ruled out any opportunity

to differentiate it as part of speech. It is natural, that children have

done only the two first parts of the task, last part has caused them the

quite justified difficulties, and by the method of group work succeeded to

come to the conclusion that the words given only in a graphic form, can

designate different parts of speech, for the confirmation it the schoolboys

had to use the dictionaries (see appendix 5). If to speak about the whole

forming experiment, it is possible to note, that the children liked the

tasks, they tried to do everything in time. Though this experiment did

not put as the purpose the remembering the term conversion and its

definitions by the children , however, almost all children used it in the

demonstration and independent explanation.

The purpose of a check experiment was revealing the level of

children’s knowledge . For this purpose the test was offered to the

schoolboys, where answering on questions "yes", "no", they came to a

certain pictogram, which designated the certain mark. The questions are

made by a principle from simple to difficult, therefore children at first

have apprehended this task, as a game (see appendix 6). The results of

check have shown a rather high level of the knowledge (see appendix 7,

table 2).

Considering the results of the done work, it is possible to come to

conclusion that the studying of this theme regularly, can give quite

acceptable results. Though there is no sufficient methodical base, which

could help with formation of the skill of using the words formed on

conversion in oral and written speech, mastering children of knowledge on

this theme however is possible. As the adequate moment of a beginning

studying of this phenomenon it is possible to consider the third year of

training of foreign language in a primary school. The studying of this

aspect of the English language promotes the enrichment of the child’s

dictionary , and as it was spoken plays not the last role in studying of

the language, forms the skill of independent work, develops such mental

processes, as memory, logic thinking, ability to analyze and to compare.

The next years of training the deepening and expansion of this theme with a

support on the items of information received in an elementary school is


IV. Conclusion.

The examination of the works of some authors (Adams, Jespersen,

Marchand/1, 7, 10/), shows such problem, as the exact status of conversion

within word-formation is unclear. For some scholars conversion is a brunch

of derivation, for others it is a separate type of word-formation, on level

with derivation and compounding. Whether this distinction has any real

effect on the structure of a theory of word-formation. Most writers use

both terms appear to use them as synonyms. However many authors agreed that

the conversion is one of the most productive ways of a word-formation and

is a lexical category, though many of them show it as a grammatical

category too. Then the word changes the form class of a form without any

corresponding changes of form, it accepts all grammatical attributes of

this class. The significant productivity of conversion word-formation is

shown also in ability of formation the new words practically from any part

of speech, including prepositions. In the paper the models of conversion

word-formation are submitted, such as: verb(substantive, verb(adjective,

verb(locative particles, verb(interjections, substantive(verb. Examining

the opportunities of formation the new words from adjectives of a

colourmarking, it is possible to note, that they participate in suffix,

conversion word-formation, and also form new words by word adding. And at

any of these ways can be realized both direct, and portable meaning, and

the words formed on conversion (more often nouns) can be included into

structure of phraseologies.

The purpose of the put experiments of a practical part of this paper

was achieved. Children have acquired the offered initial knowledge of a

theme of a conversion word-formation, have learned to use such words in

oral and written speech. Besides it, they have remembered the term


Taking into account the quite good results, received during the

experiment, it is possible to plan the further ways of development of

studying this way of word-formation at school and, in particular, in

primary classes. The further studying of this phenomenon can be done by

offering serially one of the models V(A, N(V etc. It is possible to predict

the successful result of this studying,, and at the end, children would be

able to find the examples of conversion word-formation and use them in

oral and written speech

V. Bibliography.

1. Adams, V. An introduction to Modern English word-

formation. Longman. 1973.

2. Bauer, L. English word-formation. Cambridge. 1983.

2. Bett, H. Wandering among words. Allemand. 1936.

3. Biese, Y. Origin and development of conversion in English.

Helsinki. 1941.

4. Brown, I. Just another word. Cape. 1943.

5. Bladin, V. Studies and denominative verbs in English. Uppsala.


6. Jespersen, O. A modern English grammar on historical principles.

Copenhagen. 1942.

7. Kruisinga, E. A handbook of present day English. Groningen. 1932.

8. Lyons, J. Introduction to theoretical linguistic. London. 1972.

9. Marchand, H. The categories and types of present day word-

formation. Harrassowitz. 1960.

10. Mencken, H. The American language. New York. 1936.

11. Vallins, G. The making and meaning of words. Black, London. 1941.

12. Воронцова, Г. Очерки по грамматике английского языка. М. 1960.

13. Жирмунская, М. Л. Словообразовательные потенции прилагательных

цветообозначения в современных германских языках. М., 1982.

14. Иванова, И. П. Христоматия по истории английского языка. Л.


15. Каращук, П. Словообразование английского языка. М. 1977.

17. Мешков, О. Словообразование в современном английском

языке. М. 1976.

18. Сильницкий, Г (отв. ред.). Проблемы английского

словообразования. Смоленск. 1976.

19. Смирницкий, А. История английского языка. М. 1953.

20. Смирницкий, А. Лексикология современного английского языка. М.



-Berg, P. A dictionary of new words in English. London. 1953.

-Jones, D. An English pronouncing dictionary. London. 1957.

-The Oxford pocket Russian dictionary. Oxford. 1994.

Appendix 1. Ascertaining experiment.

Цель: выявить уровень знаний учащихся об употреблении слов,

образованных по конверсии.

Задание: вставить слова подходящие по смыслу вместо … в предложения.

1. She … very well. Она готовит очень хорошо.

She is a good … . Она хороший повар.

2. There is a small … room in this flat. В этой квартире есть

маленькая квадратная комната.

There are a lot of parks and … in our city. В нашем городе много

парков и площадей.

3. The bush of … grows under the window. Куст сирени растет под окном.

I have very beautiful … dress. У меня есть очень красивое …


4. There are red and … flowers in the vase. В вазе стояли красные и

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

2012 © Все права защищены
При использовании материалов активная ссылка на источник обязательна.