Рефераты. Лекции по английскому (полный курс)

In 1987, in May, two days ago, from … till, all day long, the whole day

Упражнения на закрепление:

1.. Поставьте глагол в прошедшее время.

a. Yesterday he (go) to work by car.

b. I (watch) television yesterday evening.

c. He (write) a letter to Jane last week.

d. The accident (happen) last Sunday afternoon.

e. When I was a child, I (want) to be a judge.

f. We (leave) home at 8.30 this morning.

g. They (do) their shopping last Monday.

h. Ann (take) photographs last Sunday.

2. Завершите предложения, поставив глагол в отрицательную форму.

Пример: I saw John but I didn’t see Mary.

a. They worked on Monday but they … on Tuesday.

b. We went to the shop but we … to the bank.

c. She had e pen but she … a paper.

d. Jack did Spanish at University but he … English.

e. I sent a letter to tom but I … to Mike.

f. She went to the post office but she … to the hospital.

g. I spoke English when I was a child but I … French.

h. I ate meat yesterday but I … fish.

i. He read a newspaper yesterday evening but he … a magazine.

3. Образуйте общий вопрос.

Пример:. I watched TV last night. And you? Did you watch TV last night?

a. I enjoyed the party. And you? ….

b. I had a good holiday. And you? ….

c. I got up early this morning. And you? ….

d. I slept well last night. And you? ….

e. I worked hard yesterday. And you? ….

f. I went to bed at eleven o’clock yesterday. And you? ….

g. I saw Tom at the party. And you? ….

h. I sent three telegrams yesterday. And you? ….

i. I passed the exam yesterday. And you? ….

4. Скажите, что вы делали (не делали) вчера.

Пример: (watch TV) I watched TV yesterday. I didn’t watch TV yesterday.

a. (get up before 7.30)

b. (have a shower)

c. (buy magazine)

d. (speak English)

e. (do an examination)

f. (eat meat)

g. (meet my friend)

5.Образуйте специальный вопрос.

Пример: He went abroad . Where did he go?

a. I met somebody. Who … ?

b. Henry arrived. What time …?

c. She saw somebody. Who …?

d. They wanted something. What … ?

e. The party finished. What time …?

f. He went home early. Why …?

g. We had dinner. What …?

h. It cost a lot of money. How much …?

6. Разыграйте следующие и составьте аналогичныe диалоги.

6. Where were you yesterday morning?

7. I discussed a lot of problems with my manager. And you?

8. I saw many interesting things yesterday.

9. Did you buy any postcards?

10. Paul had an appointment at 11 o’clock with Mr. Brown.

11. No, he didn’t have an appointment at 11 o’clock with Mr. Brown. He

had an appointment with Mr. White.


7. Расскажите о вчерашнем дне, предварительно ответив на вопросы:

a. What did you have for breakfast yesterday?

b. Did you enjoy your breakfast?

c. What did you do after breakfast?

d…Did you go to work?

8. Образуйте вопрос и ответьте на него.

Пример: When did you last have a holiday? - Last July.

a. see a video

b. go shopping

c. give someone a present

d. take a photograph

e. send a letter

f. see a friend

g. have a dinner at a restaurant

h. lose something

i. go abroad

j. stay away from classes

k. tell a lie

l. discuss a difficult problem with you friend

m. buy a coat

n. get up late in the morning

o. be late to work

p. make a phone call

q. pay a bill

r. cash a cheque

9.. Скажите три вещи, которые вы могли делать в пять лет.

Пример: I could ride a bike when I was five.

10. Скажите три вещи, которые вы не могли делать в пять лет.

Пример: I couldn’t use a computer when I was five.

Present Perfect

(Настоящее завершенное время)

We use the present perfect tense for an action in the past with

a result now (выражает действие, завершенное к данному моменту, результат

которого налицо).

We use the present perfect with ever, never, already, just yet, recently,

for since, etc.

Форма образования have/has + past participle of the verb

Positive (положительная форма)

I/we/you/they have done/finished

He/she/it has done/finished

Negative (отрицательная форма)

I/we/you/they have not (haven’t) done/finished

He/she/it has not (hasn’t) done/finished

Question (вопрос)

Have I/we/you/they done/finished?

Has he/she/it done/finished?


I have just done my work.

I haven’t done my work yet.

He has travelled all over the world.

They have already come home.

Irregulars (неправильные глаголы)

Base form Past Simple Past participle

Be was/were been

Become became become

Begin began begun

Build built built

Can could been able

Come came come

Cost cost cost

Do did done

Get got got

Go went gone

Have had had

Know knew known

Learn learnt learnt

Make made made

Read read read

Say said said

Take took taken

Write wrote written


Have got = Have (в значении “иметь”, “обладать”).

Форма “have got” чаще употребляется в разговорной речи. Форма “have got “ в

прошедшем времени не употребляется.

I’ve got a bad cold.


I had a bad cold last week.

have got have

Positive Positive

I have got some money I have some money

You have got some money You have some money

We have got some money We have some money

They have got some money They have some money

He has got some money He has some money

She has got some money She has some money

It has got some money It has some money

Negative Negative

I haven’t got any money I don’t have any money

You haven’t got any money You don’t have any money

We haven’t got any money We don’t have any money

They haven’t got any money They don’t have any money

He hasn’t got any money He doesn’t have any money

She hasn’t got any money She doesn’t have any money

It hasn’t got any money It doesn’t have any money

Questions Questions

Have I got any money? Do I have any money?

Have you got any money? Do you have any money?

Have we got any money? Do we have any money?

Have they got any money? Do they have any money?

Has he got any money? Does he have any money?

Has she got any money? Does she have any money?

Has it got any money? Does it have any money?

How much money have you got? How much money do you have?

How many credit cards have I got? How many credit cards do I have?

Short answers Short answers

Yes, I have./ No, I haven’t. Yes, I do./ No I don’t.

Yes, she has./ No, she hasn’t. Yes, she does./ No, she doesn’t.

Тема 8

Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense

(Прошедшее продолженное время)

Настоящее Продолженное Время употребляется для обозначения действия,

которое продолжалось какое-то время в прошлом в момент другого действия,

выраженного, как правило, в прошедшем простом времени.

Образуется прошедшее продолженное время при помощи вспомогательного глагола

“ to be” в прошедшем времени и “ing” формы смыслового глагола.


Настоящее продолженное Прошедшее продолженное

He is sleeping now. He was sleeping when I


Он спит сейчас. Он спал, когда я пришел.

I am reading now. I was reading when he


Я читаю сейчас. Я читал, когда он


They are having dinner now. They were having dinner at 7

last night. Они обедают сейчас.

Они обедали в 7 часов вечера вчера.

Вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются при помощи вспомогательного

глагола “was” (“were”).


He was watching TV when she came.

Was he watching TV when she came?

He was not watching TV when she came.

What was he doing when she came?

What was he watching when she came?

Упражнения на закрепление.

1. Задайте вопросы по образцу:

Steve usually cleans his suit on Saturdays.

(when Jeff phoned)

Was Steve cleaning his suit when Jeff phoned?

1. Ann usually cooks dinner at 7 o’clock. (when Peter phoned)

2. Jill usually goes to the library every evening. ( when we saw her)

3. Liz plays the violin every day.( when mother came home)

4. Mr Brown reads his newspaper after supper. (when the telephone rang)

5. She usually does her homework in the afternoon. ( when Ann opened the


6. Jane sometimes drinks coffee with Mike. ( when her husband saw them)

2. Переведите диалог и обратите внимание на использование настоящего

продолженного времени.

Thomas is a student. He's staying with the Taylors, an English family.

Thomas: Hello, Mrs Taylor. Can you help me? I'm doing my homework and I

can't understand this word.

Mrs Taytor: Which one? Oh... that’s difficult. I can't help you now.... I'm

watching something...

Thomas: Oh? What are you watching?

Mrs Taylor: I'm watching a cowboy film.

Thomas: Can Mr Taylor help me?

Mrs Taylor: No, he can't now, Thomas. He's reading.

Thomas: What's he reading?

Mrs Taytor: He's reading a magazine.

Thomas: What about Kate?

Mrs Taylor: Oh, she can't help you now... she's phoning someone.

Thomas: Oh? Who's she phoning?

Mrs Taylor: She's phoning her boyfriend... you're asking a lot of questions

tonight, Thomas!

Thomas: Am I?... Well,

I am practicing my English!

Напишите, что делали все члены семьи Тейлор в то время, когда Томас просил

ему помочь.( Переделайте настоящее продолженное время в прошедшее


Например: When Thomas asked Mrs Taylor to help him, she was watching a

cowboy film.

3. Используя образец, напишите 7 вопросов и ответьте на них .

What are Jill and John doing?- They are playing tennis.

1. Mr Smith/his car

2. Mary/a letter

3. Mr and Mrs Jones/television

4. Bob/a letter

5. Arthur and Mike/ a box

6. Mrs Brown/the dishes

7. Tony/beer











8 o’clock


midnight etc.

I start work at 8 o’clock.

The shops close at 5.30 p.m.



25 April

New year’s Day

Goodbye! See you on Friday.

I don’t work on Sundays.

The concert is on 22 November.

- In

April / June

1985 / 1750

(the) summer / spring

I’m going on holiday in October.

Jill left school in 1995.

The garden is lovely in spring |


at the weekend

at night

at Christmas /Easter

at the end of ...

at the moment

in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening


on Monday morning

on Friday evening, etc.

Are you going away at the weekend?

I can’t sleep at night.

In Britain children get presents at Christmas.

I’m going on holiday at the end of October.

Are you busy at the moment?

I always feel good in the morning.

Do you often go out in the evening?

I’m meeting Jill on Monday morning.

Are you doing anything on Friday? |

in five minutes / in a few days / in six weeks / in two years etc.

- Hurry! The train leaves in five minutes.

- Goodbye. I’ll see you in a few days.

at on in We do not use at/ on / in before:

this ... (this morning / this week...)

every ...( every day / every week...)

last ... (last August / last week ...)

next ... ( next Monday / next week ...)

- They’re going on holiday next Monday.

- Last summer we went to Scotland.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ( Прошедшее законченное время)

The Past Perfect Tense( Прошедшее законченное время) употребляется для

выражения прошедшего действия, которое произошло до другого действия в

прошлом или которое закончилось в прошлом к определенному моменту.


I had already had dinner when they arrived.

Я уже пообедал, когда они прибыли.

He had finished his work by 2 o’clock yesterday.

Он уже закончил работу к 2 часам вчера.

Образуется Прошедшее законченное время при помощи прошедшей формы

вспомогательного глагола “to have “ и причастия 2 ( третьей формы)

cмыслового глагола.

Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола “had”:

Had she taken that bag before you asked her?

Had they done the shopping by 3 p.m. yesterday?

Why had she told him everything before his wife saw them?

Отрицательная форма Прошедшего законченного времени образуется при помощи

отрицательной частицы “not”, которая ставится после вспомогательного

глагола “ had”:

The post had not arrived when she went downstairs.


1. Перепишите предложения в прошедшем законченном времени, сделав все

необходимые изменения:

1. I am not hungry. I have already had dinner.

2. He is not tired. He has already had a sleep.

3. She is not busy. She has already done her homework.

4. She doesn’t take the umbrella. The rain has already stopped.

5. They are not in a hurry. The train has already left.

6. We do not have to take a taxi. The car has already come.

2. Переведите на английский язык.

1. Когда я попросил Аню напечатать письмо, она сказала , что она его уже


2. Она сказала мне свое имя после того, как он ушел.

3. Когда они прибыли, спектакль уже начался.

4. Он уже изучал экономику до того, как уехал из Англии.

5. Он поблагодарил меня за то, что я для него сделал.

6. Когда они пришли на станцию, поезд уже отошел.

7. Она не узнала его, потому что никогда не видела его раньше

Тема 9


Для выражения будущего действия в современном английском языке


Future Simple

Give me your bag. I’ll carry it for you (решение принято в момент


Present Continuous

I’m having an appointment tonight (запланированная встреча)

Going to (собираться что-либо сделать)

We are going to move to London.

Future Indefinite Tense

Образование Future indefinite Tense

1. Утвердительная форма Future Indefinite Tense образуется при помощи

вспомогательных глаголов shall и will и формы инфинитива смыслового глагола

(без частицы to). Shall употребляется с 1-м лицом единственного и

множественного числа, a will с остальными лицами:

I (we) shall work

he (she, it) , .„ .

, , ' } will work you (they)

2. В вопросительной форме Future Indefinite вспомогательный глагол ставится

перед подлежащим:

Shall I (we) work? Will he (you, they) work?

3. Отрицательная форма Future Indefinite образуется при помощи

отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола:

I (we) shall not work. He (you, they) will not work.

4. В вопросительно-отрицательной форме Future indefinite частица not стоит

непосредственно после подлежащего:

Shall I (we) not work? Will he (you, they) not work?

|Утвердительная |Вопросительная |Отрицательная |Вопросительно-отрицат|

|форма |форма |форма |ельная-форма |

|I shall (will) |Shall (Will) I |I shall ( will)|Shall (Will) I not |

|work |work? |not work |work? |

|he (she, it) |Will he (she, |he (she, it) |Will he (she, it) not|

|will work |it) work? |will not work |work? |

5. В разговорной речи обычно употребляются следующие сокращения:

I'll [ail] work I shan't [ja:nt] work Shan't I work?

he'll [hil] work I" II not work

she'll [j'i:l] work he won't [wount] work Won't he (she, it) work?

we'll [wi:l] work he'll not work

You'll [ju:l] work she won't work Shan't we work?

They'll [6eil] work she'll not work

it won't work it will not work Won't you work?

we shan't work we' II not work Won't they work?

you won't work you'll not work

they won't work they'll network

Употребление Future Indefinite Tense

Future Indefinite Tense употребляется:

1. Для выражения действия, которое совершится в будущем. Может обозначать

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