Рефераты. Методичка по Английскому языку для экономистов

Методичка по Английскому языку для экономистов

Advertising Ideas

Advertising is impersonal, usually paid communication intended to

inform, educate, persuade, and remind.

Advertising is a sophisticated form of communication that must work

with other marketing tools and business elements to be successful.

Advertising must be interruptive — that is, it must make you stop thumbing

through the newspaper or thinking about your day long enough to read or

hear the ad. Advertising must also be credible, unique, and memorable in

order to work.

And finally, assuming the actual advertising is built upon a solid

positioning strategy, enough money must be spent to provide a media

schedule for ad frequency, the most important element for ad memorability.

History of Advertising

1. Introduction

Marketing is more than just distributing goods from the manufacturer

to the final customer. It comprises all the stages between creation of the

product and the after-market which follows the eventual sale. One of these

stages is advertising. The stages are like links in a chain, and the chain

will break if one of the links is weak. Advertising is therefore as

important as every other stage or link, and each depends on the other for


The product or service itself, its naming, packaging, pricing and

distribution, are all reflected in advertising, which has been called the

lifeblood of an organization. Without advertising, the products or services

cannot flow to the distributors or sellers and on to the consumers or


2. Early forms

Advertising belongs to the modern industrial world, and to those

countries which are developing and becoming industrialised. In the past

when a shopkeeper or stall-holder had only to show and shout his goods to

passers-by, advertising as we know it today hardly existed. Early forms of

advertising were signs such as the inn sign, the red-and-white striped

barber's pole, the apothecary's jar of coloured liquid and the

wheelwright's wheel, some of which have survived until today.

3. Effect of urban growth

The need for advertising developed with the expansion of population

and the growth of towns with their shops and large stores; mass production

in factories; roads and railways to convey goods; and popular newspapers in

which to advertise. The large quantities of goods being produced were made

known by means of advertising to unknown customers who lived far from the

place of manufacture.

Advertising grew with the development of media, such as the coffee-

house newspapers of the seventeenth century, and the arrival of advertising

agencies nearly 200 years ago, mainly to handle government advertising.

4. Advertising and the modem world

If one looks at old pictures of horse buses in, say, late nineteenth-

century London one will see that they carry advertisements for products

famous today, a proof of the effectiveness of advertising. Thus the modern

world depends on advertising. Without it, producers and distributors would

be unable to sell, buyers would not know about and continue to remember

products or services, and the modern industrial world would collapse. If

factory output is to be maintained profitably, advertising must be powerful

and continuous. Mass production requires mass consumption which in turn

requires advertising to the mass market through the mass media.

16. Advertising involvement

Although advertising is listed as a single element it is associated

with almost every other element, borrowing from them or interpreting them.

(a) The volume, emphasis and timing of advertising will depend on the

product life cycle situation. For instance, at the introductory or

recycling stages, the weight of advertising will be heavier than at the

maturity or decline stages.

(b) Marketing research will provide evidence of motives, preferences

and attitudes which will influence not only the copy platform or

advertising theme but the choice of media through which to express it.

(c) Naming and branding may be initiated by the advertising department

or agency, and clearly plays an important role in advertisement design.

(d) The product image will be projected by advertising.

(e) The market segment will decide the tone or style of advertising,

and the choice of media.

(f) Pricing can play an important part in the appeal of the copy. Is

the product value for money, a bargain or a luxury? Pricing can be a very

competitive sales argument. People are very price conscious.

(g) The product mix has many applications. In advertising, one product

may be associated with another, or each brand may require a separate


(h) Packaging can be a vital aspect of advertising, as when pack

recognition is sought. It is itself a form of advertising, especially at

the point-of-sale, as in a supermarket when the package often has to

identify the product and literally sell it off the shelf.

(i) Distribution involves trade advertising such as by direct mail, in

the trade press and at exhibitions.

(j) The sales force has to be familiarised with advertising campaigns

which will support their efforts in the field.

(k) Market education is a public relations activity aimed at creating

a favourable market situation in which advertising will work.

(1) Corporate and financial public relations often uses institutional

advertising in the business press.

(m) Test marketing requires a miniature advertising campaign

simulating the future national campaign.

(n) Advertising research includes copy-testing, circulation and

readership surveys and statistics, recall tests, tracking studies and cost-

per-reply and cost-per-conversion-to-sales figures.

(o) Sales promotion can augment or even replace traditional


(p) The after-market calls for advertising to make customers aware of

post-sales services.

(q) The maintenance of customer interest and loyalty may be achieved

by advertising which promotes additional uses and accessories, or simply



Advertising is used to create consumer interest in a product and also to

increase the sales of that product. It may be described under three


1 descriptive advertising;

2 persuasive advertising;

3 both descriptive and persuasive advertising together.

Descriptive advertising

This type of advertising gives the most: important facts about the product.

It is the cheapest form of advertising and is used a lot by the small

trader selling through the local paper. It will usually say:

1 what the product is;

2 how much it will cost;

3 where it may be obtained.

Example: 1972 Ford Escort Ј500. Telephone London 1234.

Persuasive advertising

This type of advertising tries to persuade people that the product which is

being advertised has a special quality or usefulness which makes it much

better than other similar products. It is used a lot in television

advertising where consumers arc persuaded to think that if they buy that

product they will become very popular or very happy. This is a

psychological approach, and it is hoped by the advertiser that people will

be persuaded to buy the product. The method uses 'association of ideas'.

Brand names such as Guinness and Oxo are used in persuasive advertising.

Example: 1983 Ford Capri Ј2000 - good condition - low mileage, a bargain,

first to see will buy this attractive car.

Advertising media


There are both national newspapers and local newspapers. Advertising in the

national press is usually much more expensive than advertising in the local

press. Both types of advertising are sold by the column centimetre, the

half page and the page. A page in a national newspaper may cost many

thousands of pounds for one day. This is because national newspapers have

very large circulations (they are read by a lot of people).


Television advertising in Great Britain is controlled by the Television Act

1954. It is the most expensive kind of advertising and costs many thousands

of pounds (on a national network) for just a few seconds of television

time. Charges are made by the second. If the advertisement is shown at a

time when relatively few people are watching, then it will be cheaper. If

it is shown - at a time when many people are watching (peak viewing time)

then the charges are much higher. Television advertising is mostly used by

large organizations and the nationalized industries.


This kind of advertising is much cheaper than television advertising. It is

very popular in the United States. The most popular radio station in Europe

is Radio Luxembourg, which carries a lot of commercial advertising. In

Great Britain radio advertising is usually carried by local independent

radio stations.


Hoarding advertisements are usually put up in eye-catching positions at the

side of the road. The cost of the advertisement will depend on where the

hoarding is and how large it is. If it is in a very good position and near

the centre of the city where it will be seen by many potential customers,

then it will probably be quite expensive. The sites are usually rented out

to clients on a monthly basis by an advertising agency.


These are quite often used by local traders to advertise their goods and

services. They are expensive in labour costs and are not very effective.


The inside and outside of buses, trains, vans and other kinds of public

transport are used in transport advertising. The most expensive position is

where the advertisement is most likely to be seen by the public such as the

back of a bus or the inside of a bus, especially at the front where the

potential customer will be seated looking at it. The most inexpensive

position is upstairs on the bus or at the back inside the bus. It is

difficult to tell whether transport advertising is effective.


The cinema screen is used for advertising by local and national traders.

Like transport advertising, it is difficult to judge how effective cinema

advertising is.

Neon displays

These are mostly used by large firms. The signs are usually displayed in

city centres.

Technical journals

These are mostly used as an advertising medium by large manufacturing and

distributing companies. They are read by persons and companies who are

interested in this particular kind of product, and the journals will also

contain other information that is useful to the readers. Technical journals

are usually printed once a month. Examples are The Hairdresser, The Radio

and Television Magazine and the Farmers Live Stock Journal. Advertising in

technical journals is a very good method of advertising.

Trade fairs and shows

The Motor Show, the Boat Show, the Radio Show and the Ideal Homes

Exhibition are a few examples of trade fairs and shows. Dairy products may

be advertised at agricultural shows. Aircraft may be advertised and

displayed at the Farnborough Air Show. The disadvantage is that the shows

and exhibitions are expensive to organize.

It is very difficult for advertisers to tell whether a particular

advertisement or method of advertising has been effective, but there is no

doubt that without advertising the customer would never hear of some

products. Perhaps the most effective advertising of all is the

recommendation of the product by a satisfied customer to a potential

customer – advertising by word of mouth.

The language of advertising

Here are some methods used in persuasive advertising. Read them

quickly. Decide which appeal to you and which don’t. Now think of an

example for each type from your country.

persuasive advertising

1. Repetition The simplest kind of advertising. A slogan is

repeated so often that we begin to associate a brand name

with a particular product or service.

2. Endorsement A popular personality is used in the


3. Emotional appeal Advertising often appeals to basics such

as mother-love, sex, manliness, feminity.

4. Scientific authority Sometimes the advert shows a person

in a white coat (i.e. a scientist) telling us about the

product. More often it mentions “miracle ingredients” or

“scientific testing” to persuade us.

5. “Keeping up with the jones’s” An appeal to pure snob

value. You want to appeal to be richer or more successful

than your neighbours.

6. Comparison The advert lists the qualities of a product in

direct comparison with rival products.

7. An appeal to fear or anxiety This type is similar to 3,

but works on our fears.

8. Association of ideas This is usually visual. Until it

became illegal in Britain, cigarette advertising showed

attractive, healthy people smoking in beautiful rural


9. Information If a product is new, it may be enough to show

it and explain what it does.

10. Special offers/free gifts This is a very simple and

direct appeal – it’s half a price!

11. Anti-advertising This is a modern version which appeals

to the British sense of humour. It makes fun of the

techniques of advertising.

Do you agree that the only background for the problems with brand names

would be:

- wrong pronunciation;

- wrong association;

- wrong translation.

Types of advertising


1. Scope of advertising

Advertising serves many purposes and many advertisers, from the individual

who places a small classified advertisement in his local newspaper to the

big spender who uses networked TV to sell popular brands to the nation's


2. Types

It is possible to identify seven main categories of advertising, namely

consumer, industrial, trade, retail, financial, direct response and


Consumer advertising

3. Different kinds

There are two kinds of goods bought by the general public, consumer goods

and consumer durables, which together with consumer services are advertised

through media addressed to the appropriate social grades.

4. Consumer goods

These are the numerous goods to be found in the shops, those which enjoy

repeat sales like foods, drinks, confectionery and toiletries being called

Fast Moving Consumer Goods, (FMCGs).

5. Consumer durables

Usually more expensive and less frequently bought, consumer durables are of

a more permanent nature than consumer goods and include clothes, furniture,

domestic appliances, entertainment goods like radio, television and video,

and mechanical equipment from lawn-mowers to motor-cars.

6. Consumer services

They include services for security and well-being like banking, insurance,

investment, repairs and maintenance, and those more to do with pleasure

such as hotels, restaurants, travel and holidays.

7. Social grades

The social grades system makes it possible to identify certain groups of

people—prospective buyers—and then to pinpoint the media which will reach

them most effectively.

8. Media of consumer advertising

The media of consumer advertising will tend to be those with wide appeal,

and even when more specialist journals such as women's magazines are used

they will still have large circulations. In fact, the term 'consumer press'

is applied to the publications which are displayed for sale in newsagents

shops, on news-stands and on newspaper vendors' pitches'

Most of the trade, technical and professional journals have other forms of

distribution such as special orders placed with newsagents, postal

subscription or free postal controlled circulation. Controlled circulation

are not to be confused with membership or subscription magazines. They are

mailed (free of charge) to selected readers plus those who have requested


In Britain there are also hundreds of 'free' local newspapers which are

delivered door-to-door every week. With saturation coverage of urban areas

they provide good advertising media for many local businesses.

The primary media of consumer advertising are the press, radio, television,

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