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outdoor and to a limited extent cinema, supported by sales literature,

exhibitions and sales promotion. We should not forget sponsorship,

especially the sponsorship of many popular sports which in turn can be

supported by arena advertising at the sports venue.

Industrial advertising

9. Purpose

The purpose of industrial advertising is twofold:

(a) to promote sales of equipment and services used by industry—machinery,

tools, vehicles, specialist consultancy, finance and insurance come within

this category;

(b) to promote sales of raw materials, components and other items used in

industrial production—under this heading come metals, timber, plastics,

food ingredients, chemicals and parts for assembly into finished equipment

from watches to aircraft.

Hardly any of these products and services will be bought by consumers,

except as replacements as when a motor-car needs a new battery or tyres.

Unless the formula or specification is stated, consumers will be unaware of

most industrial products.

10. Media of industrial advertising

The suppliers of services, equipment, raw materials and components will

usually advertise in media seldom seen by the general or consumer public.

The media used will consist of trade and technical journals, technical

literature and catalogues, trade exhibitions, direct mail, and technical

demonstrations and seminars. Technical journals will have smaller

circulations than the consumer press, and exhibitions will tend to have

fewer exhibitors and smaller attendances than public exhibitions open to

the general public; in fact, admission is usually by ticket or business

card. The amount of money spent on advertising will be far less, and there

may be more reliance on market education using public relations techniques

such as video documentaries, external house journals and technical feature


11. Special characteristics

Industrial advertising differs in yet another way. Whereas consumer

advertising may be emotive, industrial advertising has to be more detailed

and informative, although not unimaginative. Trade journals provide

valuable international market-places for thousands of products and

services, maintaining sales of long-established ones and introducing new


Public relations activities, while not to be regarded as free advertising,

may be more effective and economical, especially when the need is to

educate the market and create knowledge and understanding.

Trade advertising

12. Definitions

Trade advertising is addressed to distributors, chiefly wholesalers,

agents, importers/exporters, and numerous kinds of retailers, large and

small. Goods are advertised for resale.

13. Purpose

The purpose of trade press advertising is to inform merchants and traders

about goods available for resale, whether it reminds them about well-

established brands, introduces new lines or, as is often the case,

announces special efforts to help retailers sell goods, e.g. price

reductions, better trade terms, new packages, consumer advertising

campaigns or sales promotion schemes. Such advertising invites enquiries

and orders and also supports the advertiser's field salesmen when they call

on stockists.

14. Media of trade advertising

The trade press may or may not be used for this kind of advertising. There

could be a mix of two or three media addressed to the trade. Direct mail is

often used, especially when it is necessary to provide a lot of information

such as consumer advertising campaign schedules giving dates and times when

and where advertising will be taking place in the press or on radio and/or


Another useful medium is the trade exhibition, sponsored by a trade

magazine or trade association, which will be attended by distributors. Some

of the larger exhibitions may also be open, or open on certain days, to the

general public as well, e.g. motor-car and furniture exhibitions.

Occasionally, commercial television time may be bought to tell retailers

about new lines, or retailers may be mailed to tell them that consumer

advertising campaigns are about to appear on TV.

15. Special characteristics

Since the object of trade advertising is to encourage shopkeepers (whether

large chains or one-man businesses) to stock up the product (especially to

achieve adequate distribution in advance of a consumer advertising

campaign), emphasis will be placed on the advantages of so doing. The

advantages will be higher sales and more profits, and the appeal will be to

the retailer's desire to make money. In so doing, trade advertising will

also have to compete with the 'selling-in' activities of rival


Trade advertising will be seen as part of the total advertising campaign

for the product and so will be produced by the same advertising agency that

handles the consumer advertising. However, whereas consumer advertising

aims to persuade the consumer about the benefits to be gained from buying

the product, trade advertising aims to persuade the retailer about the

benefits which will result from selling the product. Trade advertising

supports distribution. It prepares the way. There is no point in

advertising products and encouraging consumers to buy them if the goods are

not in the shops. The demand created by consumer advertising must be

satisfied by the availability of the goods in the shops. That is what is

meant by 'adequate distribution'. If the advertised goods cannot be bought,

customers will buy either nothing or, worse still, a rival product!

Retail advertising

16. Introduction

Here we have a form of advertising which lies between trade and consumer

advertising. The most obvious examples are those for department stores and

supermarkets, but it can include the advertising conducted by any supplier

including a petrol station, restaurant or insurance broker.

A major form of retailing nowadays is direct response marketing or

retailing without shops. This is the modern form of mail-order trading

which has moved from the traditional club catalogues to sophisticated off-

the-page and direct mail campaigns for products and services, of which

financial houses and department stores have become leading participants.

17. Purpose

The purpose of retail advertising is threefold, as outlined below.

(a) To sell the establishment, attract customers to the premises and, in

the case of a shop, increase what is known as 'store traffic', that is the

number of people passing through the shop. If they can be encouraged to

step inside they may possibly buy something which they would not otherwise

be tempted to buy.

(b) To sell goods which are exclusive to the shop. Some distributors are

appointed dealers for certain makes, e.g. the Ford dealer. Others, such as

supermarkets, sell 'own label' goods, having goods packed by the

manufacturer in the name of the retailer. All the goods in the shop may

bear the same brand, or certain lines such as tea, coffee, biscuits or

baked beans may bear the retailer's own label.

(c) To sell the stock of the shop, perhaps promoting items which are

seasonal, or presenting a representative selection, or making special

offers. The latter could be regular policy, or could be organised as

shopping events such as winter or summer sales.

18. Media of retail advertising

The principal of media for retail advertising are:

(a) local weekly newspapers, including numerous free newspapers which gain

saturation coverage of residential areas by being delivered from door to


(b) regional daily newspapers, of which most are 'evenings';

(c) public transport external posters and internal cards, and arena

advertising at sports grounds;

(d) direct mail to regular or account customers, and door-to-door leaflet


(e) regional commercial television;

(f) independent local radio;

(g) window bills and point-of-sale displays within the shop;

(h) window and in-store displays;

(i) catalogues.

The shop itself is a considerable advertising medium, and it may well be a

familiar landmark. Marks &: Spencer rarely advertise, but their shops are

so big they advertise themselves. With retail chains, the corporate

identity scheme will quickly identify the location of a branch.

19. Special characteristics

Retail advertising is characterised by four main aspects: creating an image

of the shop, establishing its location, variety of goods offered, and

competitive price offers. Nearly always, the object of the advertising is

to persuade people to visit the shop, although telephone ordering and the

use of credit accounts and credit cards is a growing feature.

Financial advertising

20. Introduction

It is probably difficult to put a limit on what can be contained under this

heading, but broadly speaking financial advertising includes that for

banks, savings, insurance and investments. In addition to advertising

addressed to customers or clients it can also include company reports,

prospectuses for new share issues, records of investments in securities and

other financial announcements.

Some, like building society and National Savings advertisements, may be

addressed to the general public while others will appear in the financial

and business press only.

21. Purpose

The object of financial advertising may be to borrow or lend money, conduct

all kinds of insurance, sell shares, unit trusts, bonds and pension funds

or report financial results.

22. Classes of financial advertising

The main categories in this field are as follows.

(a) Banks advertise their services which today are not confined to

traditional bank accounts but include deposits, loans, insurance, house

purchase, wills and executorship and advice on investment portfolios. Some

banks specialise in certain areas of banking, and others concentrate on

certain kinds of business.

(b) Friendly societies and private medical care organisations like BUPA

offer schemes to provide insurance in time of illness.

(c) Building societies both borrow money from savers and lend money to

house-buyers. Most of their advertising is directed at not only raising

funds but keeping funds so that they have sufficient money to meet loan

applications. Competitive interest rates are important sales points, and

today in Britain there is rivalry between building societies, banks and

insurance companies for the same kind of business.

(d) Insurance companies exist to insure against almost any risk from big

commitments like ships and aircraft worth millions to covering [he risk

that rain may stop play. Some insurance not only covers risks but provides

benefits to savers or pensions in old age. In the cases of fire and theft,

insurance companies are also selling peace of mind should damage or loss be


(e) Investments are offered, not only in share issues but in unit trusts

and other investments in which smaller investors can share in the proceeds

of a managed portfolio of shares.

(f) Savings and banking facilities are offered through post offices which

sell National Savings certificates and various bonds and operate the Giro

and Post Office banks.

(g) Brokers offer insurance, pension and investment schemes and advise

their clients on how to manage such financial commitments. The Automobile

Association acts as a broker for motor insurance.

(h) Credit and charge card companies, such as Access, and Barclaycard,

American Express and Diners' Club, promote plastic money facilities, often

on an international scale.

(i) Local authorities borrow money from the public, usually on short-term

loans which are advertised.

(j) Companies announce their intentions and final dividends, giving

summaries of annual reports, and often offering copies of annual reports

and accounts.

23. Media of financial advertising

Choice of media will depend on the target audience. Building societies

appeal to small savers and therefore use the mass media of the popular

press and television. The big national banks with branches everywhere also

use the national press and television. Investment advertising will appear

in the middle-class and business press. Prospectuses for share issues,

which usually occupy two or more pages, appear in newspapers like The Times

and Financial Times. Banks may take stands at exhibitions. They also

produce sales literature about their services, as do insurance companies

especially in the way of proposal forms.

24. Special characteristics

Financial advertising in the press, and especially the business press,

tends to occupy large spaces and contain detailed information necessary to

explain schemes and achieve confidence. The emphasis is generally on

benefits which are usually represented by figures such as interest rates

and returns on investments. Profit, benefits, security, confidence,

credibility and reputation are the keynotes of the copy appeals.

Recruitment advertising

25. Introduction

This form of advertising aims to recruit staff (including personnel for the

police, armed forces and other services) and may consist of run-on

classified advertisements or displayed classified, although other media

such as radio and television are sometimes used.

26. Different kinds

Recruitment advertising is mainly of two kinds, that inserted by employers

whether identified or using box numbers, and that placed by employment or

recruitment agencies which have been commissioned to fill vacancies.

27. Media of recruitment advertising

Except for the occasional recruitment advertisement on radio and

television, the media are mainly made up of the following categories of


(a) National newspapers. Different newspapers appeal to different target

groups, e.g. the managerial advertisements in the Daily Telegraph and

Sunday Times and the teacher advertisements in the weekly education feature

in the Guardian and the Independent.

(b) Trade, technical and professional journals. These are the more obvious

market-places for recruitment advertising addressed to those with special

skills, qualifications and experience.

(c) Regional press. Local dailies and weeklies are used to advertise jobs

offered by local employers.

(d) Free publications. A number of freely distributed publications gain

their revenue chiefly from recruitment advertising, e.g. those which are

distributed in the street to office workers such as secretaries.

Recruitment advertising is also featured in the free newspapers delivered

weekly to homes.

28. Special characteristics

The art of recruitment advertising is to attract the largest number of

worthwhile applications at the lowest possible cost. The advantage of using

a recruitment or selection agency is that applications can be obtained

discreetly and they can be screened to provide employers with a short list

of the best candidates. Two skills have to be applied. The advertisements

must be so worded that they both sell the job and attract the best

applicants, while correct choice of media will bring the vacancy to the

notice of the largest number of good applicants as economically as


The Higher Purpose of Marketing

What is the higher purpose of marketing? What should an enlightened

marketer try to accomplish?

This question is raised because managers sometimes lose sight of their

ultimate goals and settle for short-term gains of dubious benefit to

themselves and others. When they lose a sense of higher purpose, their work

becomes unsatisfying and their attitude cynical.

The most common view is that the marketer's goal is to maximize the

market's consumption of whatever the company is producing. In this view,

the marketer is a technician who engineers sales gains. Marketing success

means selling more and more gum, cars, and ice cream bars as if the

consumer were a huge consumption machine that must constantly be stuffed

with goods and services. Even if consumers don't want this much

consumption, it is good for the economy and creates jobs. Yet Adam Smith

observed that hunger is limited by the size of the human stomach. More

generally, people will eventually run out of time to consume all that they

could buy. They may rebel against overeating and overdressing, and start

thinking "enough is enough" or even "less is more." Frederick Pohl wrote a

science-fiction short story, "The Midas Touch," in which factories are

completely automated and the goods roll out continuously and people consume

as much as they can in order not to be buried under the goods. In the

story, ordinary people are given high consumption quotas, while the elite

are excused from having to consume so much. Furthermore, the elite are

given the few jobs that are still left to do, so that they don't have to

face the bleakness of no work.

A sounder goal for the marketer is to aim to maximize consumer

satisfaction. The marketer's task is to track changing consumer wants and

influence the company to adjust its mix of goods and services to those that

are needed. The marketer makes sure that the company continues to produce

value for the target customer markets.

Even consumer satisfaction, however, is not a complete goal for the

marketer. The act of creating "goods" to satisfy human desires also creates

some "bads" in the process. Every car that is produced satisfies a

transportation need and at the same time contributes to the level of

pollution in society. The economist Kenneth Arrow noted that high gross

national product also means high gross national pollution. The sensitive

marketer has to take responsibility for the totality of outputs created by

the business. First, the marketer is a member of the public and therefore

victimizing himself to some extent. Second, the society has spawned

consumerists, environmentalists, and other public-action groups, who make

life difficult for those firms that are indifferent to the "bads" they

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