Рефераты. Обучение диалоговой речи на начальном этапе изучения иностранного языка

беседу, участвовать в диалоге. Но они являются необходимым подспорьем в

расширении лексической стороны обучения.

Условная беседа является аналогом свободной беседы – реального

устноязычного общения.

Характерными особенностями свободной беседы являются:

1) запрос информации

2) информирование кого-либо о чем-либо.




Answer these questions. Give additional commentary to your answers

wherever necessary.


Do you know the town you live in very well? What number bus do you take

when you go to the Zoo (Public Library, Central Stadium, etc.)? What kind

of public transport do you like best? What is the usual interval between

trains of the underground? From what time in the morning till what time at

night do trams and buses run? Are the traffic rules in Britain different

from those in other European countries? What are the traffic lights used

for? What is the main street in your town? What are the most common

expressions we use when asking our way? How long does it take you to get to

the Stadium (Palace of Sports, Planetarium, Zoo, etc.)? Are there any

conductors on buses and trams in Moscow (Kiev, etc.)? What are the Soviet

cities with a population of over a million?

Time, Working Day

What time is it now? When do you get up? What do you do when you get up?

When do you have your breakfast? How long does it take you to get to

school? When do classes at school begin? How long does one lesson last?

What do you do during the big (long) interval? When are classes over? What

do you usually do after classes? When do you have your dinner? What do you

do in the evening? When do you go to bed? What do you do on Sundays?


How many meals a day do you have? What do you call them? What time do

you usually have lunch? Who cooks the meals in your family? What meal

(dish) can you cook? What is your favourite dish? Why do you like it? Do

you eat at school? What British customs in taking meals do you know? Do you

keep to any kind of a diet? What kind of diet? Which course of the dinner

do you like best, the first or the second?


Which is the most convenient way of travelling? What is the first thing

we do before starting on a trip? How often do you travel by railway (air,

sea)? Do you like to travel? Where do we go to book tickets for a train

(plane)? Can we boek them by telephone? Can we enjoy hot meals while on a

train (ship, plane)? Do we book tickets for little children going with us?

Why do you think a suitcase is not convenient when we go hiking? What do we

take instead? Does your school arrange hiking tours in summer? What cities,

towns and other places have you visited? What is the fare of a railway

passage from Moscow to St. Petersburg (Sochi, etc.)?


1.Object to the statements given below. Correct them.


The bus is the most modern kind of city transport. Trams are usually

empty during the rush-hours. The main street of a town is usually found in

its outskirts. There is an underground railway in every British town. The

Thames divides London into two parts. The first words we use to ask about

the way are, "Thank you. What's the time now?" Getting about the town in

which you are for the first time is a simple thing.


Tickets for planes are booked only at airports. Moscow has only one big

airport. No meals are usually served on longdistance flights. Airports are

usually near the centres of towns. Passengers are not allowed to smoke on

the train when it leaves the station.


Sandwich is a hot meal which we eat at dinner for the first course. We

have lunch in the evening before going to bed. Englishmen usually do not

have porridge in the morning. Doctors usually recommend people to have

heavy supper. If you want to reduce your weight (to become slim) you must

eat a lot of bread. Tarts and cakes and fruit are usually served at the

beginning of a meal.Pupils like chewing-gums, lolly-pops, chocolate

2. Express your surprise by asking a question.

Library, Reading Books

There are about two thousand books in my personal library.

1 have read the whole collection of works by Saitvkov-Shched-rin. I have

seen a book which is as small as a rubber. I can read Japanese books. I can

read a book of 500 pages within four hours. My father usually subscribes to

15 newspapers and magazines. I have never read" a single detective story.


I have two sisters and four brothers. My brother has become a cosmonaut.

My cousin Vasya who is fourteen has entered the university this year. When

my elder brother Pete was four years old, he played the piano very well. My

great grandfather is ninety-two years old.

3. Agree with these statements. Say something additional.

Weather, Climate

It is very cold today. The weather today is better than it was last

night. The climate of Britain is mild. Winters are very frosty in our parts

(region, locality). The Black Sea is usually free of ice in winter. Winters

are very long in Norilsk. When it is raining we must wear raincoats. I like

spring best of all. The climate of Siberia is more continental than that of

the Ukraine.

Pastimes and Hobbies

Children are fond of computer games. Collecting books is a very useful

hobby. There is a new hobby-group starting at our school — photography.

There are six hobby-groups at our school headed by highly qualified

instructors. Kate Gromova has a rather big collection of old coins. Riding

a bicycle is my hobby. I usually spend evenings watching television. Our

class went on a hiking trip last summer. Klim made a radio-set himself last



Let's talk a little. On hearing a statement each of you should say

something. Follow the scheme of typical responses (exclamation, question,

statement, request, suggestion, etc.).

Model: I am inviting you to my birthday party.

Exclamation: — Fine! Wonderful! Splendid! A good idea! How nice!

Question: — When will it be? Will it be at your place?

— How old will you be?

Statement: — I'm afraid, Pete (Jane, etc.}, I shan't be able to come

as I'll be away on that day (Friday, Sunday, etc.}.

Suggestion: — Let's celebrate (mark) your birthday on ..., then

everybody will be able to come.

Request: — Will you please tell me where you live? Please give me

your telephone number. Please tell what number bus will take me to your


School Life

1. The pupils of our class have decided to set up the museum at our


2. Soon we shall have our own school video studio.

3. Next week our class will give a concert.

4. Alee S., a pupil of our school, will star in. a film about partisans,

which is to be shot soon.

5. It takes me an hour to do my homework.

6. Kolya M. is absent from school again.


1. We have moved to a new flat.

2. We have bought a new TV set (a car, automatic washing-machine).

3. My brother usually gets up at 5 a. m.

4. My uncle, a businessmen, usually works at the firms in Moscow late in


5. I shall have to keep house now as Mother has gone to holiday home (on

a tourist trip).

6. My younger brother says he wants to become an archite (a pilot, a

waiter, a cattle-breeder, a cosmonaut).

7. The people v/ho live in our house are interesting people.

Pastimes, Hobbies, Recreation

1. The Drama Theatre is preparing a new play.

2. A new film will be shown tomorrow.

3. A film in 15 parts will be shown on TV.

4. Father says he has subscribed to the collected works Walter Scott.

5. Among other publications I generally subscribe to Yuno.

6. My friend has a very good collection.

7. I collect badges (envelopes, match-boxes, etc.).

8. We plan to spend our summer holidays travelling down t river.

9. We shall go to the country.


1. I go in for sports.

2. I'm going to visit the Luzhniki Palace of Sport.

3. The volley-ball team will take part in the competition.

4. Leonid K., the centre forward of the football team, has su denly

fallen ill.

5. Kate D. has shown a very good result.

Weather, Seasons

1. The weather forecast says the weather will change next we(

2. I like winter (summer, etc.) best of all.

3. Many writers and poets like autumn.



Interview a public man or a prominent specialist following the

information programme given in the card.

Карточка №1

Ваш интервьюируемый: известный кинорежиссер.

Получите информацию о том, какие фильмы он снял, над чем работает

сейчас, в каких кинофестивалях участвовал, какие планы на будущее, на какой

студии работает, с какими актерами.

Guide words: film director, to shoot a film, actor (actress), film

studio, International Film Festival, plans for the future

Карточка №2

Ваш интервьюируемый: художник

Получите информацию о жанре, в котором он работает, о выставках, в

которых участвовал, о тематике его произведений, о творческих планах.

Guide words: painter, artist, still life, portrait-painting, landscape,

battle painting, exhibition

Карточка №3

Ваш интервьюируемый: космонавт

Получите информацию о полете, в котором он участвовал, характере

подготовки к нему, об основных целях исследования космического

пространства, об успехах советской космонавтики, о планах на будущее.

Guide words: cosmonaut, space flight, to put a spaceship into orbit, to

dock, space laboratory.

Карточка №6

Ваш интервьюируемый: народный депутат местного совета

Получите информацию о реализации генерального плана строительства города

(поселка), о жилищном и культурном строительстве, о бытовом обслуживании, о

городском транспорте, торговле

Guide words: people’s deputy of the local Soviet, housing programmer,

personal service establishments, public transport

Карточка №8

Ваш интервьюируемый: спортсмен-рекордсмен

Получите информацию о виде спорта в котором он достиг отличных

результатов, о методике тренировок, о соревнованиях в которых участвовал, о

личных планах, о личной жизни

Guide words: sportsmen, coach, to train, championship, to set up a

record, to beat ( to break) a record

Карточка №9

Ваш интервьюируемый: учитель английского языка, возвратившийся из

турпоездки по Великобритании

Получите информацию о маршруте поездки, увиденных

достопримечательностях, встречах с простыми англичанами, общих впечатлениях

о стране, об интересных случаях, происшедших во время поездки.

Guide words: a tour of Britain, itinerary, places of interest, meeting

with common people, general impression of the country, curios incident

1. Make up statements using these elementary situations.


1. You ring up to your friend. An unknown voice answers,

"Hello!" You Say-

2, Someone on the phone says you have dialled the wrong

number. You say —

3. Your telephone rings. You pick up the receiver. Someone addresses you

and goes on speaking and you still don't know who that person is. You say —

4. The secretary of the person to whom you want to speak over the

telephone says he (she) is out. You say —


1. The first thing you did when the plane landed was to phone to your

parents. You said —

2. Your friend has a ticket for this evening fast train to St.

Petersburg. He says —

3. A woman with two little children has just entered the hall of the

airport. Her plane landed 20 minutes ago. She is looking for someone. You

think —

4. The plane has just taken off. You look through the window. The houses

and people and cars on the road seem very small. You say —

Pastimes, Hobbies

Model: Gleb has been collecting match-boxes for 3 years. Now he says

he'll go in for skiing. I think —

I think he is sick and tired of collecting. Skiing, probably, seems more

healthy to him.

1. Dima was fond of riding on bicycles. He changed three of them. Now he

has broken his last bicycle and says he is not going to have a new one. I

think —

2. Kate was crazy about dancing. She would dance almost every day. Now I

never see her at a dance. I think —

3. My cousin's hobby was writing postcards. She wrote hundreds of them.

Now I hardly receive one from her in a year. I think —


1. You have got an invitation to a party tomorrow. But you must be at

another place at the same time. You say —

2. The teacher asks you to read a word written on the blackboard. But

the letters seem too small. You say—

3. Someone asks: "How about a game of chess?" You don't know the rules.

You say 4. A foreigner is trying to say something. You don't know his

language. You say —

5. You are not sure about the topic you had to learn for today. The

teacher might ask you. The bell rings and it's the end of the lesson. You

say —

II. Make up dialogues using the description of these situations.

School Life

1. Your friend thinks the coming examinations to be rather easy. You

disagree with him (her) giving your reasons.

Guide words: I think this subject is your weak point.

to fail in an exam

to sit for the exams (готовиться к экзаменам)

to have little time

2. Your friend tells you English is very difficult for him. He can't

memorize new words. You are rather good at languages. You want to help him.

Guide words: to be good (poor) at learning some subject Words are all in

the muddle. (Все слова перемешались.) The devil is not so black as he is


3. You are leaving school this year. You want to enter the same

institute where your friend's brother studies. He tells you all about the


In the Street, Asking One's Way

1. A stranger comes up to you and asks you to show the way to the Zoo.

Give him (her) the necessary directions.

Guide words: Will you show me the way to ...? Go along this street as

far as ... This bus will take you right there.

2. You want to get to the Picture Gallery. Ask a passer-by to show you

the way.

Guide words: Excuse me ... Am I right for the Picture Gallery?

3. A passer-by has dropped his glove. You pick it up and hand it to him


Guide words: I say! (Послушайте!) (формула для привлечения внимания)


4. Your friend has bought a newspaper at the newsstand and starts

reading it rightaway. While crossing the street he doesn't see the

approaching car. Warn him of the danger.

Guide words: Look out! There's a car coming! (Берегись! Машина!) People

shouldn't read while on the road.


1. You look through your new friend's photo album and try to guess who

is who. Your friend answers all your questions.

Guide words: There is no likeness at all 'between ... ... are alike as

two peas (...похожи как две капли воды) One wouldn't say it's ...

2. Having your winter (summer) holidays, you ask your mother to give you

some work to do about the house (in the garden). You receive the


Guide words: to help with the household work to do some shopping to weed

the flower bed (полоть цветочную клумбу)

3. You meet a former classmate who studies at another school now. You

ask each other a lot of questions some of them concerning his and your


Guide words: What luck running into you! How are your parents? Does your

father still work at ...? My elder brother has got married.

Weather and Climate

1. You want to go out and you ask your sister, who has just come in,

about the weather.

Guide words: It's very cold (windy, slippery, hot) nasty weather

(ужасная погода)

2. Your friend comes in wet to the skin. He has come to

return your book. Ask him (her) to stay and offer some clothes to


Guide words: The rain came on all of a sudden. (Дождь начался

внезапно.) wet as a drowned cat (промокший до нитки)

3. Your friend is fond of autumn while you like spring. Try to convince

him (her) that spring is the best season.

Guide words: The season I like best is ... There is nothing like ...

(Нет ничего лучше, чем ...) the time when new life awakes (время, когда

пробуждается новая жизнь)

4. It is thawing. Walking in the park you notice a boy hurrying across

the frozen river. It is dangerous to walk on the ice in such weather, so

you shout to him to stop. Suddenly the ice breaks and the boy gets into the

water. You rescue the poor chap and bring him to your home. You talk with

him about the episode.

Guide words: It is thawing. (Оттепель. Тает.) to melt (таять) How did

you manage to ...? (Как это тебя угораздило ...?)

Recreation, Pastimes

1. Your amateur theatrical group is going to give a concert in a some

town. You discuss the programme and the technical details of the trip to

the country.

Guide words: compere (конферансье, ведущий программу) recitation

(художественное чтение) folk dancing choir

2. On your way from the cinema you meet your friend who wants to know

your opinion of the film.

Guide words: What's the film about? What do you think of it? I like

every bit of it. (Мне понравился весь фильм.)

3. You are late for the performance and the usher does not let you in.

Try to give him (her) your explanations.

Guide words: It isn't my fault. a long queue at the cloak-room

III. Study these problem situations. Dramatize them or discuss their

possible solutions.

1. Ivan Petrovich does not like the way his young son Alee studies. Alee

does not miss classes any longer but he still gets poor marks in many

subjects. Ivan Petrovich always tells his son that a good education is a

very important thing. "You bib must get a good education! Study hard!" he

often says.

Questions: What doesn't Ivan Petrovich like?

What does he often tell his son?

What's his problem?

Task: Dramatize the talk between the father and his son

2. Kate wanted to go to some place in the country She caught the 11

o'clock train, On the train, someone told her it does not stop at the

station she needed. She did not know what to do.

Questions: Where did Kate want to go?

What did someone tell her about the train?

What was her problem?

Task: Discuss the possible solutions, of her difficulty.

3. My friend Gennady is an old collector. His hobby is masks (маски). Не

had about fifty of thdm on the walls of his room. Last week I returned

from a trip to the Caucasus and I brought one new mask for him. When I

called on him yesterday, I was surprised. Gennady had no masks.

Questions: What did Gennady collect?

Where did I return from last week?

Why was I surprised?

Task: Dramatize your talk with Gennady.

4. An American traveller in an Asian country went into a restaurant. He

failed to explain to the waiter what he wanted, so he pointed to the

first thing on the menu. The waiter seemed surprised. He came back

with a big snake. Now the traveller was surprised. He did not know

what to do but in came a local man who could speak English.

Questions: Where did the traveller go into?

What did he want?

What did he really order?

What was his problem?

Why was the waiter surprised?

Task: Dramatize the traveller's talk with the man who spoke English.

5. John Gale is a young lonely worker. He has not a flat of his own, so

he has to rent a room. But the landlady is strict and the rent is

high. She does not like John to receive his friends. "They are very

noisy!" she says. He would find another room but the factory is too

far from the place where he lives now and he has to pay a fare (за

проезд) on a bus.

Questions: What is John Gale?

Does he like his landlady?

Why doesn't he?

What are his problems?

Task: Dramatize his talk with the landlady.

Dramatize his talk with his friends.

6. Pete has an important exam tomorrow and he has hardly studied for it.

Now there will be an interesting programme on TV He is thinking of

switching his TV set on.

Questions: What has Pete to do tomorrow?

What is his problem?

Task: Discuss his situation.

7. Young Harry did not want to do his homework yesterday. His mother

told him he had to before he went out to play. After he had done it, she

said, "All right. You can go out now."

Questions: What didn't Harry want to do yesterday? What did his

mother tell him? What was Harry's mother problem?

Task: Dramatize her talk with Harry.

Dramatize Harry's talk with his playmates afterwards.

8. Mrs Hill's husband is away on business now. Their little boy has

fallen seriously ill. The doctor says an immediate operation is necessary.

"I wish my husband were here now," she says.

Questions: Where is Mrs Hill's husband now?

What has happened to their little boy?

What's her problem?

Task: Dramatize Mrs Hill's talk with the doctor.

Dramatize her talk with her husband afterwards.

Работа над домашней работой на начальном этапе обучения.

На первом этапе обучения иностранному языку закладываются основы

владения соответствующим иностранным языком.

К концу первого года обучающийся должен уметь:

1) Составить сообщение средней сложности.

Peter was absent yesterday

There are 20 desks in this classroom

Lena is ill

2) Дать информацию с преобладанием оценочного компонента

The weather is fine today

She speaks well

I liked this film

3) Сообщить о своих планах и намерениях

I’m going to see Mr X tomorrow

I’ll go to the library and take this book/

We shall take part in the concert

4) Пригласить собеседника к совместному действию

Let’s go to the Luna – park

Let’s play the game of chess

5) Запросить информацию

What’s your name?

How old are you?

Where do you live?

What does you F do?

6) Выразить просьбу, приказ

Please, open the door!

Please give me my

Stand up! Sit down.

Bring me a piece of chalk!

7) Возразить собеседнику, выразить протест

No! Of course, not! No, I don’t

8) Приветствовать собеседника, поблагодарить его, извиниться и т.д.

Good morning! Hello!

Thank you. Excuse me. Sorry.


Беляев Б В «Очерки по психологии обучения иностранным языкам»

Просвещение, М 1985

Сборник статей под редакцией А А Алхазишвили Вопросы психологии

обучения второму языку в младшей школьном возрасте «Миднисреба», 1982

Алхазишвили АА Основы овладения устной иностранной речью, Просвещение,


Гез НИ., Ляховицкая М.В., Миролюбов А.А., Фоломкина С.К., Шатилов С.В.,

Методтка обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. М., 1982

Лапидус Б.А. Интенсификация процесса обучения иностранной речи (Пути и

приемы). М., 1980

Ляховицкая М.В., Методика преподавания иностранных языков. М., 1981

Очерки методики обучения устной речи на иностранных языках/ Под ред.

В.А. Бухбиндера. Киев, 1990

«Методика начального обучения иностранным языкам». Под ред. ИВ Карпова и

ИВ Рахманова М., 1987

Маслыко ЕА Учебное общение на уроке английского языка Минск \1990

О реформе общеобразовательной и профессиональной школы Сборник

документов М 1984

Общая методика обучения иностранным языкам в средней школе. Под ред.

А.А. Миролюбова, И.В. Рахманова, В.С. Цетлин, М. 1987

Пальмер Р Методы обучения английской устной речи Л. 1983

Пассов Е.И. Коммуникативные упражнения. М., 1987

Программы восьмилетней и средней школы. Иностранные языки – М, 1985

Рогова ТВ, Верещалина ИН Методика обучения английскому языку на

начальном этапе в средней школе М 1988

Рахманов И.В. Обучение устной речи на иностранном языке. М., 1980

Рогова Г.В. методика обучения английскому языку. На английском языке.

Л., 1985

Скалкин В.Л. Основы обучения устной иностранной речи. М., 1981

Старков А.П. Обучение Английскому языку в средней школе. М., 1978

Сердюков ПИ ЭВМ при обучении иностранным языкам// Иностранные языки в

школе – 1985 №5

Скалкин ВЛ Обучение диалогической речи Киев 1989

Стронин МФ Обучающие игры на уроке английского языка М 1981

Palmer. H. The Scientific Study and Teaching of Lenguages. London 1992

Скалкин ВЛ Коммуникативные упражнения на английском языке, М.,

Просвещение, 1983

Уайзер Г.М. Климентенко А.Д. Развитие устной речи на английскои языке.

М 1992

Шубин Э.П. Языкрвая коммуникация и обучение иностранным языкам М.,

Просвещение, 1982


[1] Сердюков П. И. ЭВМ при обучении иностранным языкам // Иностранный язык

в школе – 1985 - №5

[2] Алгазиашвилли А.А. «Основы овладения устной иностранной речью» М.

Просвещение, 1988г

[3] Беляев Б.В. «Очерки по психологии обучения иностранным языкам» М.

Просвещение, 1985

[4] Palmer H The Scientific Study and Teaching of languages London 1992 –


[5] Общая методика обучения иностранным языкам в СШ Под ред. А.А.

Миролюбова, ИВ Рахманова, ВС Цетлин, М., 1987 с.115


Принцип коммуникативной направленности

1.Отбор ситуации

2.Многократность и новизна

4.Благоприятные условия для общения

3.Участие каждого в общении

Коммуникативность задачи

Страницы: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

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