Рефераты. Билеты и ответы на них по Английскому языку на 2002 год

Билеты и ответы на них по Английскому языку на 2002 год

Билеты по английскому языку

Our Country

Britain, is .only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is

a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The

winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and

sunny. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon.

Edinburgh, Scotland's capital, is very beautiful. The heart

of the city is the castle, where the kings of Scotland lived for centuries.

Edinburgh has a busy cultural life. Every year, in August,

the International Festival takes place. Musicians, actors and singers come

from all over the world and thousands of visitors fill the city. In the

evening, the opera house, the theatres and concert halls are

full. In cafes and pubs, small groups sing, act and read poetry. The castle

is at its best in Festival tune.Every night there is a magnificent military

«Tattoo». Highland soldiers wearing «kilts» play the bagpipes and march to

the music. Tartans, the patterns of the kilts, have an interesting history.

Since the fifteenth century, each Scottish family (or ‘clan') has worn its

own tartan as a kindof badge. It was a useful way of recognising people,

especially in times of war.


Many tartans date only from the nineteenth century, but some of the old

patterns still exist. «Dress» tartans, worn on special occasions, have

light, bright colours. Hunting tartans are usually green, blue, or brown.

Wales is a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has

plenty of industry, too. There are.many factories and coal mines there. The

people of Wales are very musical. Every year they have a festival of Welsh

music and poetry called an «Eisteddfod».

A hundred years ago the north of England was the industrial heart

of the country. The old factories have gone now and the workers have to

look for Jobs in the new«high-tech» industries. The centre of England (the

«Midlands») is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge

cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of

car industry. The west of England is a rich farming country. It produces

milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples. Northern Island is beautiful too.

In the warm, wet climate n of the land is farming.

Britain is an island and there is no place to be too far fronr sea.

Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and ro with small, sandy

beaches, and romantic harbours.


Castle – замок Deer

- олень

Edinburgh – Эдинбург Bagpipe -


Tattoo – барабанная дробь Tartan –

шотландский плед

Salmon – лосось

cathedral- собор

coal mines – угольные шахты Beache – берег

Harbour – гавань

“high- tech” industries – отрасли высоких технологий

Eisteddfod – айстедвод, состязаниек бардов

Problems of city and coutry life

The saga of discovery and settlement of the New Worid, begun by European's

in the late 15th century, lasted more than 200 years. Snccessive

transatlantic crossings, first into the Caribbean and then to the coast of

Canada and along the coast of South America, describe the general pattern

of exploration by the Spanish, Portuguese, falians, French, and English.

Several factors made the Age of Exploration possible. Medieval

cartographers placed Jerusalem at the center of the earth. But in the 15th

century. Western scholars rediscovered Ptolemy's «Geography», with its maps

of a semispheric earth that accurately located all distant places.

Improvements in

equipment enabled the construction of larger, more manoeuvrable ships.In-

the East Europeans were cut off from land routes to India and China. The

need for new avenues of trade with the Far East led to theseafaring

explorations of the Age of Discovery.

In 1492 the Italian Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic in a Spanish-

backed attempt to find a new trading route to the Far East. While that

objective went unfulfilled, subsequent voyages by explorers did much to

reveal both the complexities of transatlantic navigation and the nature of

the New World. Simultaneously, Portuguese seafarers led by Bartolomeu Dias

had pushed southward to the Cape of Good Hope, mapping the entire western

coast of Africa in the process and proving the existence of a sea route

between Europe and India. In 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian sea captain,

completed the first recorded transatlantic voyage by an English vessel,

while attempting to find a north-west passage to Asia. Cabot died during

the second attempt to find a direct route to Cathay in 1498. Althoughl

Sebastian Cabot continued his father's explorations in the Hudson Bay

region in 1508-1509, England's interest in the New World waned. However,

Cabot's voyages established England's belated claim to America, In 1520

Ferdinand Magellan discovered the strait, now bearing his name, that links

the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The discovery of Cape Horn at the

southernmost tip of South America was made in 1578 by the English navigator

Francis Drake; this provided a more suitable route for trading ships.

Colonisation followed exploration, and, as isolated outposts gave way to

larger protected settlements and military garrisons in the 17th and l8th

centuries, the tide of colonists to the New World and the exploitation of

natural resources from both land and sea increased. The explorers were

inspired by curiosity and the desire tc become wealthy. The Age of

Exploration enriched Europe.


saga - увлекательная история New World

-Новый Свет

successive – последующий exploration


Ptolemy - Птолемей

accurately - точно

Columbus - Колумб' trading

route - торговый путь

subsequent – последующий voyage -

морское путешествие

explorer - исследователь reveal —


simultaneously - одновременно vessel -


wane - уменьшиться belated


claim - притязание

Ferdinand Magellan - Фернандо Магелан

arrison - гарнизон

Caribbean - карибскии, относящийся к Карибскому морю

Age of Discovery = Age of Exploration - эпоха Великих ографических открытий

Barrtolomeu Dias - Бартоломеу Диаш

Education and future


The seventeenth century was the time of the development of various branches

of science. The new mood had been established by Francis Bacon. Bacon was a

lawyer who entered Parliament early and became James I's Lord Chancellor.

Bacon bad a wide range of scholarly interests. He had the reputation of

being the most learned man of his time. Francis Bacon's goal was synthesis.

He wanted to organize 'all knowledge' in a united whole. He defined the

scientific method in a form that is still relevant and stimulates the

growth of science. Every scientific idea, he argued, must be tested by

experiment. With idea and experiment following one the other, the whole

natural world would be understood. In the rest of the century British

scientists put these ideas into practice.

Bacon made a great contribution to historical writing. He was a master

stylist - his scientific works can be read with pleasure, as literature. He

saw himself as an intellectual Columbus, revealing new world of science to

his contemporaries, and bringing back hips freighted with useful knowledge.

In his «New Atlantis» Bacon described an island governed by an Academy of

Sciences, founded 'for the knowledge of causes, and secret motion of

things; and the enlarging the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of

all things possible'. This is the most accessible and exciting of his

writings on science.

In his essay «Of Study» Francis Bacon regards studies as they should be:

for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business. He considers the evils of

excess study: laziness, affectation, and preciosity. Bacon divides books

into three categories; those to be read in part, those to be read casually,

and those to be read with care. Studies should include reading, which gives

depth: speaking, which adds readiness of thought; and writing, which trains

in preciseness. The author ascribes certain virtues to individual fields of

study: wisdom to history, wit to poetry, subtlety to mathematics, and depth

to natural philosophy. This essay has intellectual appeal indeed.

Meanwhile, scientists, were demystifying the universe. Nobody knows for

sure who invented the telescope, but Galileo Galilei had built one of his

own. With it he was able to confirm the heretical speculations of

Copernicus, Kepler and Tyeho Brahe that the sun, not the earth, was the

center of our universe. The specific origins of the microscope are equally

obscure. In the 17th century. Robe Hooke used it to describe accurately the

anatomy of a flea and the design of a feather; Antonie de Leeuwenhoek

discovered a world of wriggling organisms in a drop of water. The invention

of logarithms and calculus led to more accurate clocks and optical


By 1700 Galileo, Rene Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton and other scientists

had clarified the principles by which machines work. Henceforth Western

civilization's technological supremacy was beyond challenge. Mechanical

invention led inevitably to another step in the West's commercial and

political hegemony over the world: the Industrial Revolution.


science - наука branches of

science - области науки

establish – создать define -

давать (точное) определение

make a contribution to - внести вклад в contemporary - современник

freight - грузить, фрахтовать Academy of Sciences -

Академия Наук

«New Atlantis» - Новая Атлантида accessible - доступная

exciting – увлекательный confirm -


demystify – раскрывать heretical -


speculation - размышление microscope - микроскоп

obscure – неясный henceforth - с

этого времени, впредь

technological supremacy - техническое превосходство calculus -


Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

In 1605 the first Europeans came to Manhattan island from Holland. In

1626, Peter Minuit, governor of the Dutch settlements in North America

known as New Amsterdam bought the island from the Native Americans for a

few glass necklaces, valued about twenty-four dollars today. In 1609 Henry

Hudson entered the River of the Mountains. In 1613 the Dutch-built: only

four small houses on Manhattan’s a fur trading station. It was not until

1623, ten years more, that they started a real settlement, town of New

Amsterdam in honour of the capital of their country in Europe. In 1644

when the English acquired the island, the village New Amsterdam was renamed

New York. Today Manhattan is the heart of America's business and culture.

It is the most important banking re in the world. Fewer than two million of

the city's eight million people live on the island.

In 1789 on the steps of Federal Hall George Washington took the oath of

office when he became the first president of the United States of America.

During the years 1785 to 1790 New York was the capital of the United

States. Due to its natural advantages as a our, and the rising tide of

immigration from all parts of the world the role of New York as the leading

city accelerated. Villages grew throughout the entire area.

For the visitor New York means skyscrapers, tremendous traffic, dazzling

neon advertisements. Manhattan is full of parallel rows of buildings, those

running from north to south are called avenues while those running from

east to west are called streets. avenues and streets have only numbers

instead of names. Wall Street from its very beginning became the market

place of money. It was here that a walled stockade was erected to repulse

the Indians its name. As the city expanded the stockade was dismantled as

of no further use, but the market place for the purchase of bonds and

securities remained.

Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic can be

terrible, and it is usually quicker to go by subway. It goes to almost

every comer of Manhattan. New York is an international city, the place to

try something new. It may be an experience you will never forget.


settlement – колония

necklace - ожерелье value - стоимость


-губернатор skyscrapers - небоскребы

market place – рынок

stockade - укрепление, форт

dismantl - разобрать

purchase - покупка

bonds - облигации

securities - ценные бумаги

subway - метро

traffic jams - дорожные пробки

dazzling neon advertisements - сверкающие неоновые рекламы

Sport and healthy life style

Аs Revolutionary America had produced two commanding figures who became

world-wide known, Washington and Franklin, so the youthful republic raised

into fame two brilliantly able men whose reputations spread beyond the seas

- Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. They represented two powerful

though different tendencies in American life, Hamilton the tendency toward

closer union and a stronger national government, Jefferson the tendency

toward a broader, freer democracy.

Hamilton had been born in Nevis, a little island of the Lesser lies, to a

Scottish father and a Huguenot mother. He grew up ambitious, generous,

devoted, proud, quick to take offences and inexhaustible energy. His

achievements all arose from his combination of brilliancy, self-confident

ambition, and industry. His father had no money to scud him to college. But

a terrible hurricane-swept the Antilles, and he wrote a description of it

which attract; so roach attention that his aunts sent him to the American

mail land. He entered King's College in New York, and threw himself into

contact with the radicals of the town who were leading the n volt against

royal authority. When at twenty-two he became

captain of an artillery company, he took his books to camp and studied far

into the night.

Besides brilliancy and ambition, Hamilton had other quality which served

him well. He possessed great personal attractiveness With reddish-brown

hair, bright brown eyes, fine forehead, and firm mouth and chin, he was

very handsome, his face animated an pleasant when he talked, severe and

thoughtful when he was , work. He liked a lively dinner party and shone in

any circle which offered intellectual companions, and witty talk. As leader

of New York patriots, he was brought to Washington's notice an made him the

general's principal aide, it enabled him to lead dramatic assault at the

siege of Yorktown, it rendered him the principal figure in Washington's

administration, and it gave him command of a great party. He had remarkable

talents as an executive and organizer. He wrote and spoke much. Yet he also

showed striking defects. He was quick-tempered. He Quarreled with

Washington near the end of the war and rejected the advances the Washington

made to heal the breach. His arrogance of spin brought him into

unnecessarily conflicts - with Jefferson, with the Washington

administration, and with Aaron Burr, ending in his own death in a duel.


Antilles - Антильские острова possess - владеть

attractiveness - привлекательность animate - оживлять

sever - суровый thoughtful

- задумчивый

executive - исполнительный arrogance -


hot-tempered - вспыльчивый, горячий

attract the attention — привлечь внимание


The uniqueness of the British as a people has long been taken granted by

foreign observers and native commentators alike. Visitors from overseas,;

fromVenetian ambassadors in the late fifteenth century, through

intellectuals like Voltaire, to American journalists of the twentieth

century, have all been convinced of the special quality of British society.

This has been equally asumed by modern native chroniclers of the British

scene. But the nature or essence of the Britishness of the British is far

easier to proclaim than to explain. Some English characteristics upon which

both natives and visitors have tended to agree have to do with national

psychology: egoism, self-confidence, intolerance of outsiders, deep

suspieiousness towards their compatriots, ostentatious wealth,

independence, social mobility, love of comfort and a strong belief in

private property. Moderation, the avoidance of extremes, the choice of a

middle way, are among the essential qualities of Englishness. The two

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