Рефераты. Билеты и ответы на них по Английскому языку на 2002 год

features of English life which from the 15th century onwards struck almost

every observer were the country's wealth and its strong sense of


The features that have shaped the British distinctiveness were determined

by the country's geographical isolation from the European continent, with

the consistent centrality of sea power and a broad social fluidity in which

the early collapse of feudalism helped generate a new industry and

commercial enterprise. The long centuries during which the land was free

from invaders meant that there could be a flowing culture continuity from

the time of Chaucer onwards impossible on the war-torn Continent. A

political and legal evolution is expressed in the English Parliament which

has survived in recognisable form till today, without those interruptions

and periods of absolute monarchy that have marked the history of its

neighbours, and the rule of law. There have been other significant features

in the development of England which mark it as a country to some degree

separate from Europe. One of the most important is the language. English is

a language of unparalleled richness, subtlety and variety, which unlocks'

the treasures of a literature second to none in the werid. It is the

easiest language to leam.

As for British history, it is not one of harmonious continuity,

broadening from epoch to epoch. It is a dramatic, colourful, often violent

story of an ancient, society and culture torn apart by the political,

economic, and intellectual turmoil of human experience. Britain in many

ways has been the cockpit of mankind.


Ambassador – посол assume – допускать

Proclaim – провозглашать psychology – психология

Self – confidence – самоуверенность intolerance – нетерпимость

Ostentatious – показной Uniqueness – уникальность

social fluidity – соц. Подвижность Avoidance –

уклонение extreme – крайность

Isolation – изоляция invader –

захватчик Continuity – непрерывность

proceed – продолжать Turmoil –


private property – частная собственность

Environmental protection

The 20th century began slowly, to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the

stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science, industry and moral

philosophy, mankind's steps had at last been guided up the right path. The

century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and

electricity. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, only 41 years old in

1900, proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual

but inevitable, determined by natural law.

And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small

steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. Inventions like the

railroad or the telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on

with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. No one could have

guessed then that, in the century just beginning, new ideas would burst

upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately

march of progress into a long distance, free-for-all sprint. Thrust into

this race, the children of the 20th century would witness more change in

their daily existence and environment than anyone else who had ever walked

the planet.

This high-velocity attack of new ideas and technologies seemed to ratify

older dreams of a perfectible life on earth, of an existence in which the

shocks of nature had been tamed. But the unleashing of unparalleled

progress was also accompanied by something quite different: a massive

regression toward savagery. If technology endowed humans with Promethean

aspirations and powers, it also gave them the means to exterminate one

another. Assassinations in Sarajevo in 1914 lit a spark that set off an

unprecedented explosion of destruction and death. The Great War did more

than devastate a generation of Europeans. It set the tone - the political,

moral and intellectual temper - for much that followed.

Before long the Great War received a new name - World War I. The roaring

1920s and the Depression years of the 1930s proved to be merely a prelude

to World War II. Largely hidden during that war was an awful truth that

called into question progress and the notion of human nature itself.

But civilization was not crushed by the two great wars, and the ruins

provided the stimulus to build a way of life again. To a degree previously

unheard of and perhaps unimaginable, the citizens of the 20th century felt

free to reinvent themselves. In that task They were assisted by two

profound developments–psychoanalysis and the Bomb.


stately - величественный, величавый

thrust - толчок

high-velocity - большая скорость

savagery - варварство

aspiration - стремление

exterminate - уничтожать

assassination - убийство политического или общественного деятеля spark

- искра

explosion - взрыв

destruction - разрушение, уничтожение

devastate - опустошить

roaring - бурный

Depression - кризис 1929-32 гг.

Outstanding people

Edward VI took the English throne in 1461. When he unexpectedly died in

1483, his brother Richard was one of the most powerful men in the kingdom.

Edward IV left two little sons, Edward, Prince of Wales, age twelve, and

Richard, Duke of York, age nine. Their uncle Richard made a conspiracy to

seize the Princes. He brought them to London and locked away in the Tower,

and started to move toward usurpation. He alleged that the marriage of his

dead brother, Edward IV, was invalid because Edward had previously promised

to marry another woman. As a result, the little princes were declared

bastards, and young Edward V had no right to the throne of England. To

assure his own security, Richard is believed to have ordered to murder the

little princes in the Tower. He became King Richard III.

Richard had the most obvious reasons for wanting the young princes dead. He

lived through a civil war that taught him that powerful men were always

ready to rally around a standard revolt. If such a flag could be raised for

a prince of the royal blood to restore him to a rightful throne, noblemen

with great lands, great debts, and empty wallets might readily take arms,

looking for the main chance in the change of kings. Richard never felt

secure on his throne; his swift, lawless, and lethal moves against those

who threatened him showed that he was capable of murder if by murder he

could rid himself of the mortal danger. And as long as the little princes

remained alive the danger was always present. In the summer of 1483, the

little princes disappeared forever; that much is certain.

Richard III was killed in the battle on 22 August 1485. Henry Tudor, earl

of Richmond, now King Henry VII by right of conquest and some other

hereditary claims, felt he needed to justify his own actions at the battle

of Bosworth. He issued a royal proclamation, dated the day before the

battle, declaring himself the rightful king of England and condemning

Richard as the rebellious subject.

In 1674 two small skeletons were found in a wooden box buried ten feet

under a small staircase that workmen were removing from the White Tower.

They were thought to be the bones of the little princes. King Charles II

had his own reasons for being offended at the murder of kings, so he placed

these bones in the chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey.


usurpation - узурпация, незаконный захват

allege - утверждать, заявлять (голословно)

invalid - не имеющий законной силы

bastard - внебрачный ребенок

security - безопасность

rally – сплотиться

standard - знамя, флаг

murder - убийство

disappear - исчезнуть

it-rightful - законный

condemn - осуждать

Youth and unemployment

In the year 1000, Western Europe was just emerging from the long depression

commonly known as the Dark Ages. Shortly before the beginning of the

millennium, the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III moved his capital and court

back to the Eternal City. But what little grandeur Rome still possessed

paled by comparison with the splendors of 'the new Rome, Constantinople,

the capital of the Byzantine empire. Byzantium was one of three centers of

wealth and power in the known world of the 11th century, India and China

were the others. There were sophisticated cultures elsewhere, notably the

Mayans of Mexico, but they were virtually out of touch with other

civilizations — thus lacking an essential condition for being considered

part of world history.

Little of Europe's coming dynamism was apparent in the year JOOO, although

there were signs that the Continent was getting richer. Wider use of plows

had made farming more efficient. The planting of new crops, notably beans

and peas, added variety to Europe's diet Windmills and watermills provided

fresh sources of power. Villages that were to become towns and eventually

cities grew up around trading markets. Yet the modern nation-state, with

its centralized bureaucracies and armies under unified command came into

being in the 15th century. For most of the Middle Ages, Roman Catholicism

was Europe's unifying force. Benedictine abbeys had preserved what

fragments of ancient learning the Continent possessed. Cistercian monks had

cleared the land and pioneered in agricultural experimentation. Ambitious

popes competed with equally ambitious kings to determine whether the

spiritual realm would hold power over the tea or vice versa. Symbolic of

the church's power were great Gothic cathedrals of Europe: construction of

Reims began 13th century, and Charters—the most glorious of all such

edifices—was consecrated in 1260.

By the 20th century the ingenuity, coupled with an aggressive wanderlust,

brought Europeans and their culture to the ends earth. By the year 1914,

eighty four per cent of the world' surface, apart from the polar regions,

was under the influence European civilization. The hegemony of European

civilization was based on the successful application of new knowledge to a

problems and conquering nature, and much of that success based on

circumstance and ingenuity.


emerge - выходить

millennium – тысячелетие

asceticism - аскетизм

sophisticated - сложный

bureaucracies - чиновники apparent -


watermill - водяная мельница ambitious -


ingenuity - изобретательность wanderlust

- страсть к путешествиям

surface - поверхность

conquer - завоевать

assertion - утверждение

accomplishment - достижение

grandeur - великолепие, пышность, грозность

Mass media

The problem between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland started a

long time ago. It is more political than religious. For centuries the

English had tried to gain control of Ireland. Until the 16-th century,

England controlled only a small area of Ireland around Dublin. English

rulers, including King Henry VIII (1491-1547), Queen Elizabeth I (153-1603)

and Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) gradually conquered the whole of Ireland.

The last area to resist the province in Ulster, in the north of Ireland,

but in the Irish were defeated.

In 1910 the British Government offered Ireland a mild form of Home Rule –

full self-government in regard to purely Irish affairs. Opposition was

basked by the generals of the British Army’s troops in Ireland. The Irish

patriots formed their own military organizations of the Irish Volunteers,

drilling troops for the fight. The Labour Party in Ireland established the

Irish Army. The Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army jointly started

preparation for an insurrection. The set date was Monday of Easter Week,

1916. Although the uprising was a failure, it laid the foundation for

another stage of the fight for freedom. In 1921, an independent Irish state

was set up, that is the Republic of Ireland. In the north of Ireland six

countries were dominated and controlled by Protestants, who refused to join

the new Irish state. These six countries stayed part of the UK and are now

called Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland is a very beautiful place. It is a land of mountains,

rivers and lakes. It has a rugged coastline and one is never more than half

an hour away from the coast by car. The people of Ireland have always been

known for the stories and myths. They say that giants used to live on the

Antrim coast, north of Belfast. One giant, Finn McCool, the commander of

the king of Ireland’s army, fell in love with the woman giant in Scotland.

He wanted her to come to Ulster so he started to build a bridge, the

Giant’s Causeway, so that she could walk across the sea.



Defeat - наносить поражение

Home Rule – Гом Руль

Back - поддержать

Troops - войска

Volunteers - «Добровольцы»

Drill - строевая подготовка

Insurrection – восстание

Uprising – восстание

Failure – неудача, провал

Independent - независимый

County – округ, графство

Giant – великан

Leisure time

Until 1800 the United States of America had five «capitals» or meeting

places of the Congress - Princeton, Annapolis, Trenton, New York and

Philadelphia. For various reasons, none of these cities offered an ideal

seat of government for the new nation. Southern states protested that they

were all too far north. After the Constitution was adopted, the

establishment of a new city was considered. President Washington pinpointed

the exact location, and Congress passed a bill for a federal city and

capital on July 17, 1790. The city of Washington was called just «The

Federal City». It didn't gain its name until after the first president's

death. When Congress and the rest of the small government's agencies

arrived from Philadelphia in, the new capital looked very unpromising

indeed. Only a fragment of the Capitol was completed, and a part of the

White House. Other government departments were scattered about, and a few

houses had been built. Up until the time of the Civil War, Washington grew

quite slowly. It really was just another sleepy southern town, enlivened

only when the Congress was in session, and not much even then. After the

Civil War it became the real capital of the United States.

The best known building in Washington is the White House, home of

American Presidents since 1800. The site was selected by president

Washington, the architect was James Hoban. The first residents of the White

House were President and Mrs. John Adams. The cornerstone of the Executive

Mansion, as it was originally known, dates from October 13, 1792, 300 years

after the landing of Columbus. The president's home is the earliest of all

government buildings in the District of Columbia. The British troops which

arrived in Washington in 1814 were indirectly responsible for the name

«White House»: the building was fired by them. Later the fire marks on the

walls were concealed by painting the whole building white. The term «White

House» became official at the end of the 19th century. The President works

here in the «Oval Office», but the White House is also a family home.

President Truman had a piano next to his desk and President Kennedy's

children used to play under his office windows.

Washington is a cultural centre. It is proud of its art galleries, a

zoo, natural history collections, and the Museum of History and Technology.


Nation - государство

Pinpoint - указать

Exact location – точное расположение

Pass a bill – одобрить законопроект

Cornerstone – краеугольный камень

Government buildings – правительственные здания

To be indirectly responsible for – быть косвенно ответственным за

Civil War – гражданская война

Enliven – оживлять

Be in session - заседать

Delay - задержать

Completion - завершение

Accessible – доступный (открытый)

Magnificent view – великолепный взгляд

International organizations and international co-


Russian literature in the last half of the nineteenth century provided an

artistic medium for the discussion of political and social issues that

could not be addressed directly because of government restrictions. The

writers of this period shared important qualities: great attention to

realistic, detailed descriptions of everyday Russian life; the lifting of

the taboo on describing the unattractive side of life; and a satirical

attitude toward routines. Although varying widely in style, subject matter,

and viewpoint, these writers stimulated government bureaucrats, nobles, and

intellectuals to think about important social issues. This period of

literature, which became known as the Age of Realism, lasted from about mid-

century to 1905. The literature of the Age of Realism owed a great debt to

three authors and to a literary critic of the preceding half-century

Aleksandr Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolai Gogol, and Vissarion

Belinsky. These figures set a pattern for language, subject matter, and

narrative techniques, which before 1830 had been very poorly developed. The

critic Belinsky became the patron saint of the radical intelligentsia

throughout the century.

Ivan Turgenev was successful at integrating social concerns with true

literary art. His «Hunter's Sketches» and «Fathers and Sons» portrayed

Russia's problems with great realism and with enough artistry that these

works have survived as classics. Many writers of the period did not aim for

social commentary, but the realism of their portrayals nevertheless drew

comment from radical critics. Such writers included the novelist Ivan

Goncharov, whose «Oblomov» is a very negative portrayal of the provincial

gentry, and the dramatist Aleksandr Ostrovsky, whose plays uniformly

condemned the bourgeoisie.

Above all the other writers stand two: Lev Tolstoy and Fedor

Dostoevsky, the greatest talents of the age. Their realistic style

transcended immediate social issues and explored universal issues such as

morality and the nature of life itself. Although Dostoevsky was sometimes

drawn into polemical satire, both writers kept the |main body of their work

above the dominant social and political I preoccupations of the 1860s

and 1870s. Tolstoy's «War and Peace» and «Anna Karenina» and Dostoevsky's

«Crime and Punishment» and «The Brothers Karamazov» have endured as genuine

classics because they drew the best from the Russian realistic heritage

while focusing on broad human questions. Although Tolstoy continued to

write into% the twentieth century, he rejected his earlier style and never

again reached the level of his greatest works.

The literary careers of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and Turgenev had all

ended by 1881. Anton Chekhov, the major literary figure in the last decades

of the nineteenth century, contributed in two genres: short stories and

drama. Chekhov, a realist who examined not society as a whole but the

defects of individuals, produced a large volume of sometimes tragic,

sometimes comic, short stories and several outstanding plays, including

«The Cherry Orchard», a dramatic chronicling of the decay of a Russian

aristocratic family.


Artistic medium – художественное средство

Government restrictions – правительственные ограничения

Subject matter - тема

Government bureaucrats – государственные чиновники

Owe – быть обязанным

Preceding – предшествующий

Patron saint – покровитель

Negative portrayal – отрицательное изображение

Provincial gentry – провинциальное дворянство

Human rights

In November 1960 the American people elected Senator John F. Kennedy to the

Presidency. Kennedy defeated by a narrow margin his Republican opponent,

Vice President Richard Nixon. The two youthful presidential candidates

highlighted their campaigns by appearing on television in a serious of

debates - Nixon emphasized the experience he had gained during his eight

years in the administration and reminding voters of the «peace and

prosperity» achieved under Republican leadership, and Kennedy calling for

new, forward-looking leadership and more effective use of the country's

human and economic resources.

Almost everything about the new President caught the imagination of

the people, and his Inauguration was no exception. In his. eloquent address

the President set the tone of youthful energy and dedication that was the

mark of his administration. Kennedy said: «Let the word go forth from this

time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to

a new generation of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war,

disciplined" by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage and

unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to

which this nation has always been committed... Let every nation know that

we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any

friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.» But

the address was not merely a call to battle but an invitation to peace as

well. «Let us never negotiate out of fear,» said the President, «but let us

never fear to negotiate. Co-operation is better than conflict; let us then

substitute co-operation for conflict. Let both sides explore what problems

unite us... Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of

its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts,

eradicate disease.»

The first President to be born in the twentieth century, and the

youngest ever to be elected to the presidency, Kennedy was not only

spokesman for a new generation, but symbol as well. He brought to the

presidency an alert intelligence, immense personal charm, a warm and

generous humanitarianism, but also a lively awareness of the immense

potentialities of presidential leadership. Indeed, his Cabinet and his

White House advisers made up the youngest group of top-level officials in

the country's history -a group notable for its openness to new ideas and

its readiness to take vigour actions.


Narrow margin – небольшое преимущество

Highlight – освещать

Inauguration - инаугурация

Eloquent - красноречивый

Heritage - наследие

Burden - бремя

Hardship – неприятности

Substitute - заменить

Awareness – осведомленность, информированность

Immense – огромный

Vigour - решительные

Take actions – принимать действия

Culture of the youth

The foundation of the great schools which were named Universities was

everywhere throughout Europe a special mark of the new impulse that

Christendom had got from the Crusades. A new desire for study sprang up in

the West from its contact with the more cultured East. Oxford and Cambridge

are the oldest universities in England. Both of these universities are very

beautiful. They have some of the finest architecture in Britain. Some of

their colleges, chapels and libraries are three, four and even five hundred

years old, and are full of valuable books and precious paintings. Of the

early history of Cambridge little is known, but enough remains to enable us

to trace the early steps by which Oxford gained its intellectual glory. The

history of Cambridge is believed to begin in 1209 when several hundred

students and scholars arrived at the little town of Cambridge after having

walked 60 miles from Oxford According to the custom they joined themselves

into “Universities” or a society of people with common employment. Only

later they came to be associated with scholarship. '

Cambridge won independence from the Town rule in 1500. Students were

of different ages and came from everywhere. Gradually the idea of the

College developed and in 1284 Peter house, the oldest College was

established. In 1440 King Henry VI founded King’s College, and other

colleges followed. The first college of Oxford University was founded in

1249. At hat time with the revival of classic studies many teachers became

enemies of parliament, and the Church. The lectures of Vicarious on the

Civil Law at Oxford were prohibited by the English king. Now the university

of Oxford has thirty-five colleges and about thirteen thousand students.

There were no woman students at Oxford until 1878, when the first women’s

college, Lady Margaret Hall, was up. Now, most colleges are open to man and

women. Oxford is famous for its first-class education as well as its

beautiful buildings. Many students want to study there. It is not so easy

to get a place at Oxford University to study for a degree. But outside the

university there are many smaller private colleges, which offer less

difficult courses and where it is easy to enrol.


Architecture - архитектура

Valuable - ценный

Precious - дорогой

Christendom – Христианский мир

Crusade – крестовый поход

Spring up - возникать

Revival of classic studies – возрождение классических наук

Prohibit - запрещать

Degree – ученая степень

Enrol – зачислять


American literature is dated from Mark Twain. Much of his writing was

autobiographical. «Life on the Mississippi» was a story of his experiences

as a pilot learning the great river and the country that it crossed, and

the society that lived on its boats or along its banks. In 1884 came the

greatest of his achievements«Huckleberry Finn». 'All modern literature

comes from «Huckleberry Finn»', said Ernest Hemingway, and the aphorism is

really true. Mark Twain was considered by his contemporaries the Lincoln of

American literature. The «valley of democracy» that created Mark Twain

produced his friend W.D. Howells. In his writing Howells gave the most

comprehensive picture of middle-class American society to be found in the

whole of American literature. Probably no other novelist except Balzac ever

made so elaborate a report on his society as did W.D. Howells. He drew

genre pictures of the New England countryside, the best of all portraits of

the «self-made» businessman, the extravagant life of the Ohio frontier, the

rough life and work in New York City, and the clash of cultures in European

resorts. Howells was not only one of the most representative American

novelists; but he was, too, at the same time, the leading American

Literature literary critic. He edited the great «Atlantic Monthly». He

introduced Ibsen, Zola, and Turgenev to American audiences, discovered and

sponsored younger writers like Stephen Crane and Frank Norris.

The third of the major novelists who emerged during the 1870s and

reached maturity in the transition years was Henry James. Henry James took

middle-class America for his theme. His best novels -«The Portrait of a

Lady», «The American», «The Ambassadors», «The Wings of the Dove» - explore

the themes of manners and morals. Very often they are cast into a pattern

of New World innocence and Old World corruption. Of all American novelists

between Hawthorne and Faulkner, James was most completely preoccupied with

moral problems. Because James wrote of characters and subjects alien to the

average American, and in a style intricate and sophisticated, he achieved

little popularity in his own lifetime.


Pilot - лоцман

Comprehensive – исчерпывающий, полный

Frontier - граница

Contemporary - современник

Genre pictures – жанровые сцены

Transition years – переходный период

Preoccupy – занимать, поглощать внимание

Character - персонаж

Subject - тема

Alien - чужой

Intricate - замысловатый

Average - средний

Maturity - зрелость

Defiant - вызывающий

Literary currents – литературные направления

Novel - роман

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