Рефераты. Правительство Соединенных Штатов

States. Presidents decide whether to recognize new nations and new

governments, and negotiate treaties with other nations, which are binding

on the United States when approved by two-thirds of the Senate. The

president may also negotiate "executive agreements" with foreign powers

that are not subject to Senate confirmation.


Because of the vast array of presidential roles and responsibilities,

coupled with a conspicuous presence on the national and international

scene, political analysts have tended to place great emphasis on the

president's powers. Some have even spoken of the "the imperial presidency,"

referring to the expanded role of the office that Franklin D. Roosevelt

maintained during his term.

One of the first sobering realities a new president discovers is an

inherited bureaucratic structure which is difficult to manage and slow to

change direction. Power to appoint ex- ' tends only to some 3,000 people

out of a civilian government ' work force of more than three million, most

of whom are protected in their jobs by Civil Service regulations.

The president finds that the machinery of government operates pretty

much independently of presidential interventions, has done so through

earlier administrations, and will continue to do so in the future. New

presidents are immediately confronted with a backlog of decisions from the

outgoing administration on issues that are often complex and unfamiliar.

They inherit a budget formulated and enacted into law long before they came

to office, as well as major spending programs (such as veterans' benefits.

Social Security payments and Medicare for the elderly), which are mandated

by law and not subject to influence. In foreign affairs, presidents must

conform with treaties and informal agreements negotiated by their


The happy euphoria of the post-election "honeymoon" quickly dissipates,

and the new president discovers that Congress has become less cooperative

and the media more critical. The president is forced to build at least

temporary alliances among diverse, often antagonistic interests—economic,

geographic, ethnic and ideological. Compromises with Congress must be

struck if any legislation is to be adopted. "It is very easy to defeat a

bill in Congress," lamented President John F. Kennedy. "It is much more

difficult to pass one."

Despite these burdensome constraints, few presidents have turned down

the chance to run for a second term of office. Every president achieves at

least some of his legislative goals and prevents by veto the enactment of

other laws he believes not to be in the nation's best interests. The

president's authority in the conduct of war and peace, including the

negotiation of treaties, is substantial. Moreover, the president can use

his unique position to articulate ideas and advocate policies, which then

have a better chance of entering the public consciousness than those held

by his political rivals. When a president raises an issue, it inevitably

becomes subject to public debate. A president's power and influence may be

limited, but they are also greater than those of any other American, in or

out of office.


The day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the

hands of the various executive departments, created by Congress to deal

with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the

departments, chosen by the president and approved by the Senate, form a

council of advisers generally known as the president's "Cabinet." In

addition to 14 departments, there are a number of staff organizations

grouped into the Executive Office of the President. These include the White

House staff, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and

Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the Office of the U.S. Trade

Representative, and the Office of Science and Technology.

The Constitution makes no provision for a presidential Cabinet. It

does provide that the president may ask opinions, in writing, from the

principal officer in each of the executive departments on any subject in

their area of responsibility, but it does not name the departments nor

describe their duties. Similarly, there are no specific constitutional

qualifications for service in the Cabinet.

The Cabinet developed outside the Constitution as a matter of

practical necessity, for even in George Washington's day it was an absolute

impossibility for the president to discharge his duties without advice and

assistance. Cabinets are what any particular president makes them. Some

presidents have relied heavily on them for advice, others lightly, and some

few have largely ignored them. Whether or not Cabinet members act as

advisers, they retain the responsibility for directing the activities of

the government in specific areas of concern.

Each department has thousands of employees, with offices throughout the

country as well as in Washington. The departments are divided into

divisions, bureaus, offices and services, each with specific duties.


|(All departments are headed by a secretary, except the Justice Department, |

|which is headed by the attorney general.) |


|THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE: |Created in 1903. The Department of |

| |Commerce and Labor split into two |

| |separate departments in 1913. |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE: |Amalgamated in 1947. The Department of |

| |Defense was established by combining, |

| |the Department of War (established in |

| |1789), the Department of the Navy |

| |(established in 1798) and the |

| |Department of the Air Force |

| |(established in 1947). Although the |

| |secretary of defense is a member of the|

| |Cabinet, the secretaries of the Army, |

| |Navy and Air Force are not. |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION: |Created in 1979. Formerly part of the |

| |Department of Health, Education and |

| |Welfare. |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: |Created in 1977. |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN |Created in 1979, when the Department of|

|SERVICES: |Health, Education and Welfare (created |

| |in 1953) was split into separate |

| |entities. |




|THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE: |Created in 1870. Between 1789 and 1870,|

| |the attorney general was a member of |

| |the Cabinet, but not the head of a |

| |department. |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR: |Created in 1913 |

|THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE: |Created in 1789. |



|THE DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS:|Created in 1988. Formerly the Veterans |

| |Administration, now elevated to Cabinet|

| |level |


The Department of Agriculture (USDA) supervises agricultural production to

ensure fair prices and stable markets for producers and consumers, works to

improve and maintain farm income, and helps to develop and expand markets

abroad for agricultural products. The department attempts to curb poverty,

hunger and malnutrition by issuing food stamps to the poor; sponsoring

educational programs on nutrition; and administering other food assistance

programs, primarily for children, expectant mothers and the elderly. It

maintains production capacity by helping landowners protect the soil,

water, forests and other natural resources. USDA administers rural

development, credit and conservation programs that are designed to

implement national growth policies, and conducts scientific and

technological research in all areas of agriculture. Through its inspection

and grading services, USDA ensures standards of quality in food offered for

sale. The department also promotes agricultural research by maintaining the

National Agricultural Library, the second largest government library in the

world. (The U.S. Library of Congress is first.) The USDA Foreign

Agricultural Service (FAS) serves as an export promotion and service agency

for U.S. agriculture, employing specialists abroad who make surveys of

foreign agriculture for U.S. farm and business interests. The U.S. Forest

Service, also part of the department, administers an extensive network of

national forests and wilderness areas.


The Department of Commerce serves to promote the nation's international

trade, economic growth and technological advancement. It offers assistance

and information to increase America's competitiveness in the world economy;

administers programs to prevent unfair foreign trade competition; and

provides social and economic statistics and analyses for business and

government planners. The department comprises a diverse array of agencies.

The National Bureau of Standards, for example, conducts scientific and

technical research, and maintains physical measurement systems for industry

and government. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),

which includes the National Weather Service, works to improve understanding

of the physical environment and oceanic resources. The Patent and Trademark

Office grants patents and registers trademarks. The department also

conducts research and develops policy on telecommunications; promotes

domestic economic development and foreign travel to the United States; and

assists in the growth of businesses owned and operated by minorities.


Headquartered in the Pentagon, the "world's largest office building," the

Department of Defense (DOD) is responsible for all matters relating to the

nation's military security. It provides the military forces of the United

States, which consist of about two million men and women on active duty.

They are backed, in case of emergency, by 2.5 million members of state

reserve components, known as the National Guard. In addition, about one

million civilian employees serve in the Defense Department in such areas as

research, intelligence communications, mapping and international security

affairs. The National Security Agency (NSA) also comes under the direction

of the secretary of defense. The department directs the separately

organized military departments of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air

Force, as well as each service academy and the National War College, the

Joint Chiefs of Staff and several specialized combat commands. DOD

maintains forces overseas to meet treaty commitments, to protect the

nation's outlying territories and commerce, and to provide air combat and

support forces. Nonmilitary responsibilities include flood control,

development of oceanographic resources and management of oil reserves.


The Department of Education absorbed most of the education programs

previously conducted by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, as

well as programs that had been handled by six other agencies. The

department establishes policy for and administers more than 150 federal aid-

to-education programs, including student loan programs, programs for

migrant workers, vocational programs, and special programs for the

handicapped. The Department of Education also partially supports the

American Printing House for the Blind; Gallaudet University, established to

provide a liberal higher education for deaf persons; the National Technical

Institute for the Deaf, part of the Rochester (New York) Institute of

Technology, designed to educate deaf students within a college campus, but

planned primarily for hearing students; and Howard University in

Washington, D.C., a comprehensive university which accepts students of all

races, but concentrates on educating black Americans.


Growing concern with the nation's energy problems in the 1970s prompted

Congress to create the Department of Energy (DOE). The department took over

the functions of several government agencies already engaged in the energy

field. Staff offices within the DOE are responsible for the research,

development and demonstration of energy technology; energy conservation;

civilian and military use of nuclear energy; regulation of energy

production and use; pricing and allocation of oil;

and a central energy data collection and analysis program. The department

protects the nation's environment by setting standards to minimize the

harmful effects of energy production. For example, DOE conducts

environmental and health-related research, such as studies of energy-

related pollutants and their effects on biological systems.


The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) probably directly touches

the lives of more Americans than any other federal agency. Its largest

component, the Social Security Administration, pools contributions from

employers and employees to pay benefits to workers and their families who

have retired, died or become disabled. Social Security contributions help

pay medical bills for those 65 years and older as well, under a program

called Medicare. Through a separate program, called Medicaid, HHS provides

grants to states to help pay the medical costs of the poor. HHS also

administers a network of medical research facilities through the National

Institutes of Health, and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health

Administration. Other HHS agencies ensure the safety and effectiveness of

the nation's food supply and drugs, work to prevent outbreaks of

communicable diseases, and provide health services to the nation's American

Indian and native Alaskan populations. In cooperation with the states, HHS

operates the principal federal welfare program for the poor, called Aid to

Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)


The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) manages programs that

assist community development and help provide affordable housing for the

nation. Fair housing laws, administered by HUD, are designed to ensure that

individuals and families can buy a dwelling without being subjected to

housing discrimination. HUD directs mortgage insurance programs that help

families become homeowners, and a rent-subsidy program for low-income

families who otherwise could not afford decent housing. In addition, it

operates programs that aid neighborhood rehabilitation, preserve urban

centers from blight and encourage the development of new communities. HUD

also protects the home buyer in the marketplace and fosters programs to

stimulate the housing industry.


As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the

Interior has responsibility for most of the federally owned public lands

and natural resources in the United States. The Fish and Wildlife Service,

for example, administers 442 wildlife refuges, 150 waterfowl production

areas, and a network of wildlife laboratories and fish hatcheries. The

National Park Service administers more than 340 national parks and scenic

monuments, riverways, seashores, recreation areas and historic sites.

Through the Bureau of Land Management, the department oversees the land and

resources—from timber and grazing to oil production and recreation—on

millions of hectares of public land located primarily in the West. The

Bureau of Reclamation manages scarce water resources in the semiarid

western United States. The department regulates mining in the United

States, assesses mineral resources, and has major responsibility for

American Indians living on reservations. Internationally, the department

administers programs in U.S. territories such as the Virgin Islands, Guam,

American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau, and provides

funding for development to the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of



The attorney general, the chief law officer of the federal government, is

in charge of the Department of Justice. The department represents the U.S.

government in legal matters and courts of law, and renders legal advice and

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