Рефераты. Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведений

Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведений




Chapter I

Dialectics of national coloring in the translation.


Chapter II

Coloring and erasure of coloring.


Chapter III

Analogisms and anachronisms.









Translation is a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makes

possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by

producing in the target language a text which has an identical

communicative value with the source text. This target text is not fully

identical with the source text as to its form originality content due to

the limitations imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the

source language and target text.

National coloring of the work is one of examples of these differences. Now

it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many years the USSR’s

confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interact with many

foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign books but

most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we had

not opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. the same

case was in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety

of Russian literature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result

of it was that they could know only archaic coloring of the works and they

had little information about national coloring of Russia. And now then USSR

does not exist any more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform

its own literature and hence national coloring.

The author of this course paper considers that every literature work has

its own national coloring. Every work is written in the conditions of the

country where the author lives. Therefore the country with its language,

mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere and many other

factors influence on the work and it acquires the national coloring of the

country even if the author does not think of creating of any work that

would be nationally colored.

The author of this course paper considers the preservation of national

coloring to be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. National

coloring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation is proud

of its history; traditions and it would consider an offence if the

translator does not manage to convey the national coloring or if he conveys

it wrong. That is why the translator must be very attentive and careful

with any kind of literary work.

Dialectics of national coloring

in the translation.

Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflects national

problems, features and at the same time the problems common to all

mankind. Passing from one nation to another literature enriches and

extends the notion of peoples about each other.

It is one of the most difficult cases to convey national coloring. Owing

to the translation very important literary works were able to appear in

many other countries and became available for people speaking other

languages. The translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.

National coloring must be reflected adequately in the translation.

Dialectics of national coloring reveals itself specifically in different

fields of spiritual culture of people and thus in various types of


In the scientific and technique literature the national psychological

categories are less expressed. The contents of such translations is

valuable for all nations in spite of their national specific.

Thus, for example, concerning natural sciences Darwin's theory or

classic physics of Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have the

same meaning for all the countries and nations. The original texts of

natural-scientific works and their translations do not differ much from

this point of view.

Here there is another case in the field of social-political literature.

It is closely connected with the ideological society of the country with

its history and its historical specifics and it can never be separated

from country peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events

of its time and it is changed by the factors that reflect the notion

development. National peculiarities, problems and interests put impress

both on the contents and style of any author. In general the translation

of social-political literature is more similar with scientific


Comparing the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others we shall see

the specific of author's personality and country specific.

The national beginning of one or another country reflected in its

literature culture and in written culture that is especially interesting

for us from the translation point of view is the aggregate of

characteristic peculiarities and features that are specific for this

nation and the constant historical development of this nation.

It also has common to all mankind, international character to which

historical conditions give its own national coloring, its self-

expression. That is why we speak about national specific character that

was formed in the certain historical, social, geographic and other

conditions of this country. This specific character has enough concrete

expression where one or another sign is predominant and that is seen in

one or another nation form. There is national originality reflected in

the literature and other fields of social science and it has the more

significance the more it is rich in content, progressiveness,

brightness: other nations are enriched meeting with it discovering

something new, interesting, useful and important for them in this

specific character.

The difficulties while translating are connected most of all with

conveyance of national character of one or another work: the brighter

it reflects national life the more illuminate characteristic situations

the more difficult for the translator to find adequate functional

figurative means.

It will be enough to recollect the difficulties that the translator

faced with translating wonderful works of outstanding American writer

John Steinbeck. Steinbeck is not only a deeply national, original writer

but also a modern writer. His creative work could appear only in our

days. Many translators mark out originality of his feature world and

that is why the originality of his language and style and the specific

usage of popular speech and dialectisms. For example: It’s the grapes! –

Вот это жизнь! Got to blow town. – Mне пора сматываться из города.

Steinbeck often uses parallel literary words and its dialect synonyms.

For example: dish also translated into Russian as красотка, деваха, jazz

is translated as болтовня, брехня, болтология.Therefore, the translator

must determine national peculiarities of the contents and the form (that

is language peculiarities, melodies, rhyme and so on) and substitute

national figurative means (realias, poetic images) for others that are

equivalents to the firsts in their national determination to convey its

national contents. The task of the translator is to find and rail the

essence of national peculiarities and specific character. Correct

conveying of these nationality elements opens the way to reveal

internationality in the work. The popular speech, dialectisms, social

coloring, realias in Steinbeck’s works do not only total the basing of

his original stylistics but also express certain over-text or behind-the-

text peculiarities of his work, modern feelings system, the exclusive

rich fantasy, deep thoughts, piercing visible and spiritual words,

plastic gift and ability of transformation. All of these are united into

complete combination of original artistic picture of life together with

unique intellectual foreshortening of views on it. For example: Don’t

you have a silly bone in your body? - Неужели у вас нет ни капли юмора?

Therefore it is not possible to create only conveying realias, social

coloring and so on to display of national character while translating.

It can be got only if the translator is able to create the combination

of varied forms of national character in the creative work of one author

or another in his works. National coloring is not an appendix in the

work but it is one of its main parts that total the work structure.

Originality and specific character do not show that the work cannot be

translated but they show the creative character of the translation

process. World literature knows many examples when translators managed

to convey all the originality of works and these translations became

masterpieces as their originals. Originality, national coloring of the

work is not lost in the succeed translations and that is one of the main

principals of creative translation activity. National coloring like

everything in the world is in the constant movement. Here the

translation ‘s role is enriched with one positive moment. His task is to

carry this constantly changing stability to readers of other nations. It

is interesting that for some works this process lasts more than ten

years till the form is adopted and reconstructed.

Reconstruction of national coloring in the translation very often

depends on the prevailing methods used in different literary schools.

The volume of the translation is not underlining of national specifics

of origin text but it is the creation of its truly wholeness, finding of

adequate concrete form that is to help to show the unity of national and

common to all mankind coloring in the origin.

Translator must convey adequately the national character connected with

the real representation of life. It means that he must know social

conditions and nation development whose literature he translates, he

must know and understand the specific spiritual way of life, find

explanations of problems caused with peculiarities of this nation and

originality of his development. For example, the figure of Marullo in

John Steinbeck’s novel The winter of our discontent is a collective

figure of one of the representatives of Italian emigrant in America who

became rich in the period of 20-s years. Such figures were in many other

works of that period and like them Marullo is the bearer of common for

native Americans problems but at Steinbeck’s work this figure differs

with his national and artistic originality, caused by peculiarities of

American emigrants development at that period.

What does every translator imply and what kind of tasks are in front of

him? Why does he begin to translate works from another national


At first he must know and understand the individuality, unique of

figures. Every artistic figure is unique according to its nature and

irrespective of its national origin.

Secondly he must know and understand the essence of figures and ideas of

works of social class.

Thirdly he must take into account the national originality reflected in

the work: its plot, form, images, style, language etc.

Fourthly he must reveal international coloring of the work that is

significant for different countries, states and nations elements.

Fifthly he must reveal elements common to all mankind irrespective of

their belonging to any country, epoch, and nation.

National and international, folk and common to all mankind activities

are tightly connected with each other and perform the complicate

dialectic unity.

Translation is not only outward form of these mutual relations; it is

also dialectic unity of the national and international coloring of its


The point of the translation is a bridge between national and

international coloring. That is why its main function is the turning of

spiritual values of one nation into the property of other nations;

translation is transmission assisting to mutual penetration and

influence of national cultures. In our days we can be witnesses of the

powerful aspiration to mutual knowing, intellectual and spiritual

communication. Every nation culture goes out the limits of its own

country. Its relations with cultures of other nations development on

multilateral basis, they become more and more all embracing, acquiring

bigger significance.

It is easy to note that major part of themes and problems in the

different national literature coincide. But treatment to these themes

and solutions of these problems are various and original in the works of

different cultures. For example the theme of Motherland in three poems

of A. Block, R. Burns and I. R. Beher.

Common to all mankind theme of Motherland these three poets express in

different ways: their lyrical characters express their feelings

differently and have different notions of Motherland. Ideal of

Motherland in these poets' minds was formed in the different nations and

spiritual environment. Originality of their attitude and artistic

representation, originality of expressive means are the result of

environment and other factors.

For Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is the most desirable

dream, hope that it will be the place of his last rest. In his poem

Russia embodies its beautiful nature; for Robert Burns Motherland is

associated with the figure of the mother's sadness missing her sons who

fight for the freedom and will never come back; in Beher's poem we do

not hear cry but anger and appeal to revenge for the outraged and

ashamed Motherland. Grief, ache, anger and love are lyrical moods common

to these three poets.

But for this specific feature in the expression of common to all people

feeling of love to Motherland these poems would lose their concrete


International character in spiritual literature does not exist

abstractly; in every national culture it acquires concrete forms. It is

this dialect that must become ruling principle in the translating

activity. The translator must convey truly both components on this unity

keeping in his mind the frequent absence of confines between national

and international coloring because they interlace with each other.

The translator only conventionally finds and marks out national, social,

individual, international, common to all mankind coloring.

They cannot be separated in any artistic work. Their separating leads to

the art destroying. if the translator does not manage to convey this

floating it means that he has not able to create high-quality authentic


Coloring and erasure of coloring.

The notion of coloring appeared in the literary criticism terminology

and meant a special quality of literary work, speech characteristic of

personage, a special emotional or linguistic look of separate literary

work or an writer’s works, that is all peculiarities and originalities.

Coloring of a word shows its belonging to a certain people, country,

concrete historical epoch.

National (local) and historical coloring of realia is a new additional

meaning to its main signification. A.S. Pushkin uses realias евнух,

гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет in Bahchisaray’s fountain; their specific

coloring gives an oriental coloring to the poem. According to

dictionaries щербет is an oriental fruit soft drink and it differs from

lemonade by its regional belonging and it is considered as a coloring.

This neutral word turns into realia owing to relation with this region.

But if an inhabitant of this region who works in the West faces with this

word it gives him an association connected with his motherland, his

recollections and feelings.

It makes us consider coloring a part of connotative meaning of a realia.

It is appropriate to compare realias – words with specific national and

historical coloring – connotative lexis – with words deprived of such

coloring. We may use two words – bird cherry and rook. They are only

details of nature: bird cherry is a tree that grows in Northern America,

Europe and Asia; and rook is specie of birds from crown family. These

words are not realias because of their wide-spreadness and they are not

connected with people or country. However associations connected with

bird cherry (the height of spring) and rook (expectation of spring) make

a heart of Russian man quicken. He connects their connotatively with

realia not turning them into realia.

Another example touches up some difficulties translating of the title of

famous Russian film Летят журавли into the French language: the French

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