Рефераты. Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведений

word grue also means silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.

So they had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.

In these examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have full

and significant equivalents.

“Inconvenient” word is often substituted for its functional analogies.

Foe example, bird cherry can be substituted for early blooming tree or

bush – for England it can be substituted for plum or cherry-tree or even

for lilac; instead of rook they can use any convenient bird. The main

idea is to evoke a reader of translated text the same associations that

has a reader of origin text.

The transmission of connotative word by means of devices that are

characteristic feature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an

undesirable results: a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.

Classifying the realia we noted that realias were allocated according to

their place or/and time. It is often happens that realia that means the

same or close material notions can be from different places and

historical rubric: that is, they differ from each other according to

connotative meaning, coloring. For example, supreme organ is called seim

in Poland, Supreme Court in Russia, cortes in Spain and Portugal, Public

Meeting in Bulgaria, bundestag in Germany, rikstaf in Swiss, storting in

Norway, folketing in Denmark, knesset in Israel. All these words mean

Parliament and they do not differ much from each other but their

traditional names represent characteristic national realia. Each of them

has its own features that belong only to it. However, but for these

distinctions, national and historical coloring would not allow

substitution for another word in translation. Such substitution would

destroy all coloring, to be more exact; it would lead to anachronisms and

analogisms that can destroy the harmony, so called truth of life.

It is clearly seen when such close in meaning word like хайдутин and

клефт are compared. Both of them mean peasant-partisans who fought

against Turkish ruling; both of them mainly attacked local Turkish

feudalists and representatives of Turkish Administration, and also their

landowners who called them “thieves” or “bandits”; both of them acted in

the same historical epoch (the time of Osman Dominion on the Balkans).

These dates about клефт are related with хайдутин; the only difference is

that хайдутин is Bulgarian and клефт is Greek. But it is enough to be

impossible to translate хайдутин as клефт.

Connotations and coloring are part of meaning that means they can be

translated equal with semantic content of a word. If a translator managed

to convey only a semantic lexical unit the translated text lost its

coloring for the reader.

But there are cases when connotation of a realia dies down, erasures.

Such erasure logically leads to the turning of realia into common,

uncolored word.

To distinguish this phenomenon from loss of coloring in a translation we

use a term “erasure” of coloring or connotation (erased reality).

Some exotic words can be adopted by language and lose their exotic


To lose its status realia must lose quality that differs it from a common

word, that is loss of coloring. Here are some examples.

1. It will take much time to turn proper realia such as Russian пирожок

into national uncolored, neutral word entered in the kitchens and

languages of many countries and to make people forget its strange origin.

Related to a strange realia it will also take much time to adopt it into

a language. It can turn into usual borrowing in the result of intensive

usage of this object in private life depriving it both original national

coloring and a kind of alliance.

It seems that international and regional realias are to lose their status

of realia at first owing to their wide-spreadness. Many international

realias go around the world without losing their national originality.

For example, the names of money. There is another case with regional

realias. Their national coloring is almost equal to national but it is

limited by its regional belonging. For example, “the eastern coloring” is

close to Syrian, Turkish and Egyptian etc. All above-mentioned regarding

to proper realias is equal for national and regional realias.

2. These are the general considerations about coloring erasure or color

keeping that depends on peoples and countries. But there are positions

where color erasure depends on proper realia and its function in speech.

Often the realias can have an extended meaning in the context.

3. Sometimes a realia can be used in a text not in the direct but in the

figurative meaning. For example щербет can be used in Bulgarian language

as an adjective in the meaning of something oversweet and it is almost

similar with Russian сироп.

In general we may say about realia using in the figurative meaning in all

cases of their usage as tropes, metaphor and comparison. When an author

says about mushroom’s cap “about two kopecks size” he does not mean a

kopeck as a kind of money but only its two signs: its size and its round

form, so the kopeck here has only word cover.

For example, when an author describes land that is flat like a pan-cake

he takes only one characteristics of a pan-cake: its flatness and plane

and Russian reader even does not think about pan-cake as a food but it is

only an image that author promoted with the help of trope.

The same with “stone jungles” and “cowboys of cold war” etc.

Some adjectives derived from mentioned realias can be literary

comparisons and metaphors. Using such words as богатырский, стопудовый,

аршинный, саженный at first we look at their figurative meaning, certain

signs but not on their sign as a realia: for example, пудовый means very

heavy, грошовый means very unimportant, cheap.

4. Among these examples there were phraseological units and set

expressions as well, where realias lose their status more often than in

the mentioned cases.

In these four cases realias are to lose their coloring that is the status

of ralia is to turn into common language unit. However, if we look more

attentively we shall see that a total erasure is not possible. If it

happens it will be an exception.

For example, macaroni (international realia) and tyubeteyka (regional

realia). Macaroni, also spaghetti entered in the languages by way of

transcription. These words appeared in the languages having kept the

meaning of national Italian dish. The best example is Italian scornful

nickname baked macaroni pudding. Tyubeteyka also did not lose its

oriental coloring in spite of its wide-spreadness in the USSR and even on

Gorky’s and Kuprin’s heads reminds East.

One should take into account all above-mentioned choosing a translation

style in these cases.

The transcription is usual way of translation of such words. Ruble,

macaroni, tyubeteyka keep their form after translation.

Another case when realia is wrong used or when it is a part of

phraseologism. Right translation is stipulated with finding the most

concordant and equivalent words that is usually deprived of coloring in

the translation as a usual lexical unit. For example, вершок in

Goncharov’s story is translated into the English language as a miserable

part. Дюйм translated from English inch is a realia but it also may have

an extended meaning.

Realia preservation in trope function (comparison, juxtaposition,

metaphor etc.) could mean the volume definition of one thing unknown by

author. If, for example, an English faces with two kopecks coin with the

help of that we define a size of mushroom cap in Russian translation he

would never know the mushroom size. Here a realia almost totally lost its

natural coloring: in one language a reader almost does not understand its

meaning, seeing only the given quality indicator. Transcription is

possible in two languages only as an exception, for example,

international realia that indicator is known in both languages. But it is

easier to translate a realia as a neutral function equivalent because in

the original text realia is used without connotative meaning.

But even in the third and fourth positions realia is kept. For example,

translating comparison we usually substitute a strange realia for ours:

it is not always convenient to use such phrases as как блин. The same is

with a realia that forms phraseologism.

In conclusion one should notice that translating a realia in one or

another means it is wanted to lose a trope and accordingly phraseologism.

Trope should be transferred by tropes, phraseologism by phraseologism;

only “fulling” will differ from origin one.

5. There are many cases of realia translation in the comparison when the

realia not only loses its coloring but also receives excessive

connotation and they are wide-spread. An author compares the contents of

strange realia with his own realia. And in a translation one notion is

happened to be denoted with the two realias: internal and external. What

should a translator do to convey the content of realia without coloring


There are some theoretical variants.

At first a translator should transcribe each separate realia. For

example, we can face with such translation from the Czech language: “In

the evening a young teacher couple … invited us for barbecue. It reminded

us our evening by the camp fire where we did not do shpekachkis.” These

two words: barbecue and shpekachkis are explanations of one unknown word

by another.

At second place a translator can substitute an internal realia for his

proper realia. For example, he should substitute shpekachkis - for a

regional realia – Caucasus shashlik. As a result a reader would be able

to get more clear notion about Australian dish (barbecue is a Haitian

word that was taken by the English language from Spanish and then was

borrowed by Australian). But a reader would be astonished hearing from

Czech about “evenings with shashlik”. Theoretically this variant is more

vicious because it leads to mixture of different realias that belong to

different nations.

The third possibility is to refuse transcription of both realias and to

convey their contents with the help of descriptive translation that

approximately can sound so: “… in the evening we were invited for a

picnic that reminded us our evenings by a camp fire and we ate meat

grilled on a spit.” But this translation deprives the text of Australian


And, at last, the fourth variant consists in transcription of external

realia and conveying internal realia with its functional equivalent. And

we shall have the next sentence: “In the evening … a young teacher pair

invited us for barbecue. It reminded us our evenings by camp fire when we

ate meat grilled on a spit.”

The last variant is considered to be more successful because the

translation is true and the translator managed to keep coloring having

transcribed main realia.

In Margaret Aliger’s notes “Chilean summer” we face with more difficult

case: “… it is possible to eat here, one woman bakes pies – empanados.

Empanados is something similar with chebureks, they are very hot, tasty

and big.” Here we have three realias: the main external Spanish -

empanados that is explained as Russian national pies and one regional

Caucasus – chebureks. In the translation one should keep the main realia

because it stands in the center of the author’s attention and other

realias should be substituted for neutral.

Analogisms and anachronisms.

Let’s suggest that a translator working at a novel about Indian life

decides to use only means of his own language, without admitting strange

realias and he substitutes pagoda for temple, sari for dress or national

suit, akhoby he substitutes for man-launder, etc. As a result of such

national coloring extermination specific Indian features of the novel

will vanish: it will be possible to consider any place as a place of act

or this place is neutral, uncolored, nameless country. This method leads

to coloring losing that spoils very much any translation. The mark of

this translation is bad.

But it is worse when a translator substitutes origin realias for realias

from his own language. Doing it he also substitutes coloring of the

translated work for a strange coloring. If we wear a Kazak in Bulgarian

aba or anteria, tsarvulis, iamurluk, if we make him drink a wine from

buklista and to eat banitsa, a reader will recognize a Sofian shope but

not a Kazak.

And it will be the worst translation when a translator conveys original

means of motley words of different coloring and when a mixture of realias

takes place. For example, translated into Russia novel For Freedom by St.

Dichev. A redactor substitutes Bulgarian, Turkish, Greek and other

realias for regional and national realias of Soviet Union. Historical

realias he substitutes for modern words. Therefore Bulgarian gadulka was

turned into Ukraine bandura, gamurluk was turned into Caucasus burka,

pastarma was described as dried meat and Bulgarian banitsa was conveyed

as Russian pie. Several historical notions closely tied up with Bulgarian

culture have totally lost their national content. As a result of such

vicious attitude to the realias translation a reader gets unclear,

contradictory notions about described reality; the novel loses its

cognitive meaning and bright national coloring and considerable part of

its literary merits. Here we speak about distortion of original images in

the result of substitution of national and historical realias for not

characteristic to it realias, in other words, about leading to analogisms

and anachronisms in a text. Analogisms and anachronisms are realias that

do not correspond to local and time surrounding of origin text.

For example, we face with the word guillotine in the Bulgarian

translation of Sheakspear’s work: “Essex slowly mounted the guillotine.”

The mistake is not very grave from temporal point of view. There already

existed the machine for execution in XVI – XVII centuries in Italy and

Scotland and also in France where Duke de Monmorancy was beheaded with

the help of such machine. The mistake is that famous doctor Josef Ignak

Giyoten invented his machine that got his name only 200 years later. Here

we see the translator’s history unknowing. Of course, the word scaffold

should be used there. We can see it from the context: “ He slowly

mounted…” One can never mount the guillotine but only scaffold.

The reason of such mistakes regarding national and historical coloring is

connected with author’s or translator’s personality, his unknowing of

real facts and historical situation and sometimes their unknowing of some

principal positions of theory translation, for example, about bad results

of strange realia substitution for a realia from translator’s native



In 1827 Goethe wrote that translating labor was and remains one of the

most important and worthy matters connecting the entire universe

together. These words characterize translator as creative person who

carries works beyond the limits of one national culture and who serves

to people giving these fruits of this culture, created in new language

form or vice versa, including achievements of other nations in his

national science and culture. It is one of the evidences of the huge

human role of translation in the history of human civilization.

Every national culture solving its problems carries its contribution in

treasuring house of literature creating something that belongs only to

it, has significance for all nations and proves that there are not small

or big nations or inferior languages.

Extending of national culture confines with the help of translation has

a great positive and enriching influence on the language. It is true

that together with the translation many new ideas, discoveries, notions

and so on penetrate in the language and it leads to the appearance of

new language elements and figurative meanings. This fact is very

important while translating from literary language that is not fully

developed. Therefore the literary language enriches figurative

possibilities, national culture, and spiritual development of this

nation. Creative beginning of translation is premise of creative

attitude to native language, its source of faith in its possibilities

and beauty. Concerning this point the translator also has another task

to defend his native speech from borrowings-parasites that clog and make

it ugly, from strange forms that artificially could crowd out its own

national coloring.

The task and mission of the translator especially the translator of

feature literature is defense of the riches and beauty of the native

language, its unlimited abilities to convey all that is kept in the

greatest masterpieces of world literature.

Translated literature can also be the indicator of condition, degree of

development of national language. Poetical translation of Shakespeare’s

works by Boris Pasternak that are very rich, refined and expressive in

language might not appear if Russian language of his time remained on

the same level of development. In this case concrete condition of our

national language at the times of B. Pasternak can be put as condition

and factor of development of poetical and translating talent and vice

versa Pasternak's works are great contribution in the development of

Russian language.

The level of translated literature, the quality of translation also

assists to the development of national beginning in the literature of


"National beginning of literature, - I. R. Beher wrote, - is defined

with the fact of preservation, proceeding and creative development of

other literatures. The choice of elements that adopt it from literature

of other nations shows its own character and is judged if its indeed

national originality no."


1. Влахов С., Флорин С. Непереводимое в переводе. Реалии.

"Министерство Перевода". Сборник статей. 1969. М., "Советский писатель",


2. Лилова А. Введение в общую теорию перевода. "Высшая школа" М., 1985.

3. Бархударов Я. С., Рецкер Я. И. Курс лекций по теории перевода. М., Изд-

во I МГПИПЯ, 1968.

4. Комиссаров В. Н. Слово о переводе. М., "Международные отношнния". 1973.

5. Комиссаров В., Рецкер Я., Тархов В. Пособие по переводу с английского

языка на русский. Часть I М., Изд-во литературы на иностранных языках,

1960; Часть II М., "Высшая школа", 1965.

6. Левицкая Т.Р., Фитермян А. М. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на

русский. М., "Высшая школа", 1973.

7. Толстой С.С, Основы перевода английского языка на русский, М., 2957.

8. Фёдоров А.В. Русские писатели и проблемы перевода. Л., 1960.

9. Левик В. "Мастерство перевода", М., 1959.

10. Гачечиладзе Т. Художественный перевод и литературные взаимосвязи. М.,

"Советский писатель", 1972.

11. Бархударов Л. С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975.

12. Комиссаров В. Н. Теория перевода. М., "Высшая школа", 1990.

13. Фёдоров А. В. Основы общей теории перевода. – М., 1983.

14. Швейцер А.Д. Теория перевода. – М., 1988.

15. Латышев Л.К. Курс перевода (эквивалентность перевода и способы её

достижения). – М., 1981.


In the appendix the author of this course paper analyses the preservation

of national coloring in the English novel written by Jane Austen Price and

Prejudice translated into Russian and stories Chameleon and Yonich written

by Anton Chekhov translaten into English. These both books are not the best

example swhere the national colorin gexists. But it is possible to judge

about the preservation of national coloring even basing on these books.

The preservation of English national coloring will be given at first.

1. ‘He came down on Monday in a chaise and four to see the place, and was

so much delighted with it that he agreed with Mr Morris immediately;

that he is to take possession before Michaelmas, and some of his

servants are to be in the house by the end of next week.’

В понедельник он приезжал туда в карете, запряжённой четвёркой

лошадей, осмотрел поместье и пришёл в такой восторг, что тут же

условился обо всём с мистером Моррисом. Он приезжает к михайлову дню,

и уже в конце будущей недели туда приедет кое-кто из его прислуги.

Here the English word Michaelmas means 29 September the feast of St.

Michael and corresponds to “михайлов день” in Russian with only one

difference that “михайлов день” is celebrated later in Russia because

of difference in the calendars. It is possible to say that the

national coloring is preserved because in English and Russian text

there was not said the date but the name of the feast.

2. The ladies were somewhat more fortunate, for they had the

advantage of ascertaining from an upper window, that

he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse.

Дамы были несколько удачливей его: им посчастливилось увидеть

из верхнего окна, что на нём был синий сюртук и что он приехал на

вороной лошади.

Here the English word coat means outer garment with sleeves, buttoned

in the front and corresponds to the Russian word сюртук that is also

outer garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front and in Russian it

has long laps. It is possible for the Russian reader to imagine what

kind of garment Mr. Bingley wore.

3. Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had

made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood by an

address to the King , during his mayoralty.

Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался торговлей в Меритоне, где

приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета, благодаря

специальному обращению к королю, когда он был мэром там.

Here the English word mayoralty preserved its meaning and even

form in the Russian translation. In the Russian language the word мэр

does not exist that is why the translator used this word. But the

author of this course paper considers that the Russian word мэр should

be explained in Russian translation because only a few people of 19-th

century could know the exact meaning of the word мэр.

4. I flatter myself that my present overtures of good will are


Commendable, and that the circumstance of my being next in the

entail of Longborn estate, will be kindly overlooked on your side, and

not lead you to reject the offered olive branch.

По этой причине я льщу себя надеждой, что вы благожелательно

отнесётесь к моему настоящему изъявлению доброй воли и не отвергнете

протянутую мной оливковую ветвь.

Here the phrase olive branch in English corresponds to Russian phrase

оливковая ветвь because in both languages this phrase means the symbol

of peace.

5. ‘Pray, my dear aunt, what is the difference in matrimonial

affairs, between the mercenary and the prudent motive?’

- Но, тётя, разве можно в матримониальных делах найти точную грань между

расчётливостью и благоразумием?

Here the English phrase matrimonial affairs fully correspond to the

Russian phrase матримониальные дела because the word matrimonial has

Latin origin. Therefore it is possible to say about preservation of

coloring in spite of its Latin origin.

6. It was two ladies stopping in a low phaeton at the garden


Они увидели двух дам, сидевших в низеньком фаэтоне, который

остановился у садовой калитки.

Here the English word phaeton corresponds to the Russian word фаэтон in

the meaning and form as well. In English and Russian phaeton means a

vessel for noble people.

Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze the non-

preservation of national coloring.

1. Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade in Meryton, where

he had made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood

by an address to the King , during his mayoralty.

Сэр Уильям Лукас ранее занимался торговлей в Меритоне, где

приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета, благодаря

специальному обращению к королю.

Here the honor of knighthood was translated into Russian as титул

баронета. The translator managed to reveal for Russian reader what the

honor of knighthood meant but the national coloring of the phrase was


2. ‘Yes; these four evenings have enabled them to ascertain that

they both like Ving-un better than Commerce.

-Да, эти четыре вечера позволили им установить, что оба они игру в

«двадцать одно» предпочитают игре в покер.

3. Then, turning to Mr Bennet, he offered himself as his antagonist at


И, повернувшись к мистеру Беннету, он предложил ему сыграть партию в


Here the national coloring of English games does not

preserved because in the Russian translation they are only

substituted for their Russian equivalents.

4. About a month ago I received this letter.

Около месяца назад я получил вот эту эпистолу.

Here the English word letter has not national coloring but in

the Russian translation it has historical coloring that is used

to convey the formality of this letter.

Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze the preservation

of national coloring of Russian book by Anton Chechov translated into

English. Here two of his stories Chameleon and Yonich are analyzed.

The author of this course paper took some examples to show where the

national coloring is preserved and where it is not preserved. At first you

will see the examples where the national coloring is preserved.

1. Очумелов пересёк базарную площадь.

Ochumelov crossed the market-place.

2. В этом человеке он узнал Хрюкина.

He recognized in this individual Khryukin.

Here the Russian surnames Ochumelov and Khryukin preserved their

national coloring owing to footnotes in the English translation.

3. Доктор Старцев был назначен земским врачом.

Doctor Startsev was appointed Zemstvo medical officer.

Here the Russian word земский врач preserved its national coloring

but the author of this course paper thinks that the translator should

add a footnote with the explanation of this word.

4. Зато он охотно играл в винт.

But he played vint.

Here the national Russian game preserved its national coloring in the


Now the author of this course paper analyses the non-preservation of

national coloring.

1. За ним шагает городовой с решетом.

After him constable carried a sieve.

Here the Russian rank городовой does not preserve its national

coloring in the English translation because городовой is lower rank

in the city police in tsarist Russia and English constable is only a


2. Я ему покажу Кузькину мать!

I’ll show him what’s what!

Here the non-preservation of Russian coloring is clearly seen. The

phrase показать Кузькину мать is very often used in the Russian

language even now.

3. Сердиться, шельма…

The little rascal’s angry.

Here the Russian word шельма is translated as little rascal. Шельма

in Russian means rascal but in English even using word little the

coloring is not completely conveyed because here Chekhov uses this

word to show Ochumelov’s tenderness towards this dog and he does not

offence it.

4. Он цигаркой ей в харю…

He burned the end of his nose with lifted cigarette.

Here the Russian word цигарка is translated into English as lifted

cigarette. Yes, цигарка is lifted cigarette but in the English

translation the Russian historical and national coloring of this word

is lost because now, for example, the word цигарка is not used any

more but it is quite understandable for Russoan reader.

5. Цуцик этакий!

What a pup!

Pup in English is only a small little dog but in Russian цуцик

besides these meaning also has a meaning of a person who feels cold

and is affreid. So it is clearly seen that the national coloring was

not preserved.

6. В губернском городе.

In a town.

Here is clearly seen the absence of the word губернский so the

national coloring is not preserved and the author of this course

paper thinks that the translator should explain the meaning of the


7. С полверсты он прошёл пешком.

The last part he went on foot.

Here the Russian measure of length верста is not translated at

all. The author of this course paper thinks that the translator

should use this word in the English translation and give its meaning

in the footnote.

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