Рефераты. Вольво, система охлаждения

Вольво, система охлаждения

Министерство Сельского Хозяйства Российской Федерации

Департамент кадровой политики и образования

Московский государственный агроинженерный университет имени В.П. Горячкина

Кафедра иностранных языков

Курсовая работа.

Выполнил: Потапов В.В.

Проверил: Кулешов А.В.

Москва, 2004г.


1. The history of Volvo (английский оригинал)

2. Cooling system (английский оригинал)

3. The seven step path to better decisions (английский оригинал)

4. История Вольво (перевод)

5. Система охлаждения (перевод)

6. Семь способов принятия верных решений (перевод)

The history of Volvo.

The Volvo 1800 was superseded by the 1800 ES sports coupe in 1971,

while the 140 series was replaced by the modern 240/260 three years later.

In the USA, the Volvo 240 was designated as the standard for car safety. In

1972, Volvo acquired the car division of Dutch carmakers DAF and the Volvo

343 was introduced four years later.

1970 - Volvo's first Sponsorship

The Volvo Accident Research Team for cars was established. In addition to

monitoring crash testing of complete cars and components in the laboratory,

Volvo researchers were now able to gather valuable information on real-life

accidents. Field investigations were complemented by statistics. Since the

team's foundation, all accident information is supplied to Volvo's design

engineers for use in new car development.

Volvo car No. 2,000,000 was produced.

Volvo undertook its first major sports sponsorship - the Volvo Open in


Fourteen years and 667,323 cars later, the Amazon was discontinued.

1971 - New Arrivals: P.G. Gyllenhammar and the 1800 ES

The 1800 ES was the big event of the year in cars. Although the front half

was identical to its predecessor, the P1800, the rear half was new and

resembled an estate to some extent. With a maximum output of 135 hp, the

1800 ES more than fulfilled buyers' expectations of sportiness. Although

the model did become popular, it was discontinued only two years later. It

is now a cult model which attracts prices many times higher than the


In 1971, the Volvo Group acquired its third president and CEO when Pehr

Gustaf Gyllenhammar, then just 36 years old, succeeded his father-in-law,

Gunnar Engellau. His first act was to offer seats on the board to company


The same year, the Volvo Group joined Renault and Peugeot in a far-reaching

engine development venture, forming a joint company known as PRV for the

purpose. The aim was to produce six-cylinder engines at a plant in Douvrin

in the north of France. Production at the facility, which was owned jointly

by Renault and Peugeot, continued until 1990.

Volvo commenced car production in Melbourne, Australia in 1971.

1972 - Belt-Driven Volvo

The Volvo Group has acquired a large number of other companies throughout

its history. However, this includes only one carmaker - DAF. To meet the

wishes of dealers anxious to complement their ranges with a small car,

Volvo agreed to acquire a 30% shareholding in the Dutch company's car

operation and its plant at Born in the southern Netherlands, as of 1

January 1973. In 1975, Volvo increased its shareholding to 75% and the

company was renamed Volvo Car B.V.

Although not an attractive model, the Volvo Experimental Safety Car (VESC)

provided a powerful answer to existing and future traffic safety problems,

not only in Europe, but especially in the USA.

Volvo's first environmental policy was articulated by P.G. Gyllenhammar at

the UN Environmental Conference in Stockholm.

A seat belt reminder was the biggest safety innovation introduced in

production models.

Inertia reel belts also made their appearance in the rear seats.

The company's biggest investment in 1972 was the new Volvo Technical Centre

(VTC), which was built to house all new car development activities.

1973 - Fantastic Test Track

The original test track at Stora Holm had become far too small and too

difficult to shield from the prying eyes and lenses of a press anxious to

uncover secret projects. As a result, the company decided to build an

enormous test facility at Hдllered, deep in the forest between Gцteborg and

Borеs. The principal feature was the main track, a six-kilometre oval with

four lanes and banked bends, which enabled a driver to drive at 200 km/h

without touching the wheel.

Volvo was to start car production in Chesapeake, Virginia in 1973. However,

economic conditions, combined with the first oil crisis, dictated otherwise

and it was decided to build buses instead. In the event, this was not a

success and the plant was finally used to produce Volvo Penta engines and

drives. Volvo Penta's American headquarters are still located in Chesapeake


The USA became Volvo's biggest car market.

1974 - 'Human' Plant Opened in Kalmar

Volvo inaugurated what was to become known as the 'human car plant' in

Kalmar. In the new facility, the conventional production line was replaced

by a system of manually controlled carriers, with automatic loop-controlled

carriers supplying the assembly materials. The workforce was organised in

autonomous groups, each with a high degree of responsibility for its own

work. In its 20 years of operation, the plant attracted international

attention as a model working environment.

The biggest car news of the year was the appearance of the successor to the

140/160 series, the Volvo 240/260, which bore a strong resemblance to the

1972 VESC, not only in terms of appearance but also as regards safety

features. The Volvo 240 was subsequently designated as the standard for car

safety in the USA. The Volvo 260 was powered by a newly developed V6 engine

produced at the PRV plant in Douvrin.

1975 - The Smallest Volvo Ever

DAF cars continued to be sold under their original name for some years

following the Volvo takeover. By 1975, however, the DAF 66 had improved to

the extent that it was renamed the Volvo 66.

Volvo was already working in collaboration with Yngve Nilsson, a

bodybuilding firm located in Laholm, south of Gothenburg. In 1975, the

company introduced no less than three specially built, 'stretched' models

bodied by Nilsson - the Volvo 245 T (a 'stretched' 245 intended as a taxi),

the 265 Ambulance and the 245 Hearse.

1976 - A Rugged New Arrival

The most important reason for Volvo's acquisition of DAF - the Volvo 343 -

was introduced in February 1976. A medium-class car with rugged styling,

the model was equipped with DAF's unique Variomatic continuously variable

transmission. Extremely easy to drive, the car boasted exceptional handling

thanks to its advanced design of rear axle, combined with the ideal weight

distribution afforded by the rear-. mounted transmission Although the 343

suffered from a number of teething troubles, these were soon corrected and

the car became extremely popular, especially in Britain, Sweden and the


In Britain, Volvo was awarded the prestigious Don Safety Trophy for its

achievements in automotive safety.

The NHTSA, the US traffic safety administration, bought a number of Volvo

240s, which it used to specify the safety standards against which all new

cars on the American market were tested.

The three-way catalytic converter and oxygen sensor (Lambdasond) was a

world first from Volvo in 1976. Introduced primarily to meet the strict

emission control standards in force in California, the system reduced

hazardous emissions by about 90%.

Volvo had now produced three million cars.

Cooling system.


The cooling system of the engine is a liquid, closed-type, with a

compulsory circulation of a liquid.

The device for controlling the cooling liquid temperature is set in the

cylinder head, and the arrow indicator is set on the control panel.

Cooling system should be filled with a special liquid TOSOL A-40, which

has anticorrosive and antifoaming additives. The temperature of

crystallization is -40°С.

Concentrated antifreeze TOSOL A has a temperature of crystallization

-20°С, it gets properties of TOSOL A-40 after mixing it with distilled

water in the ratio 54 % of antifreeze TOSOL A and 46 % of distilled water.

The period of changing the cooling liquid at normal operation of the

automobile is once in two years or after running 60000 kms. Cooling liquid

is merged through the aperture in the cylinder block in the bottom part of

the radiator, which is closed by a conic fuse.

The hot liquid is moved from the cylinder head 4, passes through the

radiator 8 or the bypass pipe 9, which depends on the position of valves of

the thermometer 10 and goes into the pump 5 from which it goes to cylinder

block 11.

The cabin heater 1 is connected to the cooling system, the liquid which

goes from the cylinder head through the crane 2 is moved to the pump, and

also warms the cabin carburetor throttle 3, the liquid which acts from the

jacket of the exhaust pipe and is removed through a by-pass pipe of the

heater to the pump.

For compensation changes of volume and pressure the expand tank 7 is

used, it is connected to the radiator neck by amounts and closed by a fuse


The pump.

The case 6 and the cover of the pump 2 casted of an aluminium alloy.

The platen 3 is bossed to the bearing 7. The pig-iron wing 5 is pressed to

the platen of the bearing. The end of the wing, which joins the sealing

ring of the seal, is tempered by currents of high frequency on the depth of

3mm. The nave 9 of the pulley 8 of the driving fan 12 is bossed to the

platen of the bearing.

The seal 4 of the pump consists of the external brass case, rubber cuff

and the sealing ring made of a graphitic mix and pressed by a spring to the

end of the wing. The seal is bossed to the cover of the pump.

The bearing of the pump fills with greasing during the manufacturing,

so it doesn’t need greasing during operation.

The fan.

The fan is a plastic, four-blade, enclosed in a case. Blades are wing-

type and have a variable radius of installation. For the reduction of noise

the step of blades is non-uniform, blades end approximately. The fan 12

with the pulley 8 fastens to the nave 9 by three bolts 11.

The drive of the fan is carried out by the crankshaft, which transmits

its rotation with the help of the wedged-type belt.

The Thermometer.

The necessary thermal condition of the engine is provided by the

thermometer. The thermometer has two intake connecting pipes, and the

connecting pipe 1 is connected by the hose 1 to the final connecting pipe

displaced on the cylinder head. The connecting pipe 13 is connected to the

bottom of the radiator tank. The outlet connecting pipe 6 is connected by

the transmitter 2 to the entrance of the pump.

The thermosensitive element of the thermometer consists of the glass 4,

bossed in the basic valve 9 which is nestled by the spring 7 to the saddle

8. The rubber insert 5 is built-in the glass which can move along the

piston 12 which is fixed in the holder 10 by the nut 11. The bypassing

valve 2 is established in the holder 15 and is supported by the spring 3

resting in the bottom of the glass 4.

Between walls of the glass 4 and the rubber lining 5 there is a rigid

filler 14. There are two versions of thermometer fillers which differ by

the expansion factor. Thermometers with such fillers have different

temperatures of the opening of the basic valve (80°С or 30°С). This

temperature is specified on the bottom of the thermometer.

Feed system.


The air filter - dry type, consists of the case 5, a cover 2 and

filtering element.

The air filter has two intake connecting pipes; a connecting pipe 4 for

grasping the air in the summer period and a connecting pipe 6 for grasping

the air, warmed by exhaust pipe in the winter period.

To switch the feeding of the engine, a cover 2 should be turned until

the color label on a cover has settled against the pointer 3. The cover

fastens by means of three nuts and cranes 1.

Labels meaninigs: blue A - feeding by cold air ( in summer), red B –

feeding by warmed air (in winter).

The dry filtering element consists of the cardboard "accordion" fixed

between circular elastic rings and covers from a nonwoven synthetic

material, which is used as an element of preliminary cleaning. The

filtering element 8 is set in the air filter for cleaning the air and

ventilation the crankcase of the engine. The air enters it from the air

filter and moves downwards to the cylinder heads in the driving shaft.

The seven step path to better decisions.

Stop and think.

One of the most important steps to better decisions is the oldest

advice in the world: think ahead. To do so it’s necessary to first stop the

momentum of events long enough to permit calm analysis. This may require

discipline, but it is a powerful tonic against poor choices.

The well-worn formula to count to 10 when angry and to a hundred when

very angry is a simple technique designed to prevent foolish and impulsive

behavior. But we are just as apt to make foolish decisions when we are

under the strain of powerful desires or fatigue, when we are in a hurry or

under pressure, and when we are ignorant of important facts.

Just as we teach our children to look both ways before they cross the

street, we can and should instill the habit of looking ahead before they

make any decision.

Stopping to think provides several benefits. It prevents rash

decisions. It prepares us for more thoughtful discernment. And it can allow

us to mobilize our discipline.

Clarify goals.

Before you choose, clarify your short- and long-term aims. Determine

which of your many wants and don’t-wants affected by the decision are the

most important. The big danger is that decisions that fulfill immediate

wants and needs can prevent the achievement of our more important life


Determine facts.

Be sure you have adequate information to support an intelligent choice.

You can’t make good decisions if you don’t know the facts.

To determine the facts, first resolve what you know and, then, what you

need to know. Be prepared to get additional information and to verify

assumptions and other uncertain information.

Once we begin to be more careful about facts, we often find that there

are different versions of them and disagreements about their meaning. In

these situations part of making sound decisions involves making good

judgments as to who and what to believe.

Here are some guidelines:

Consider the reliability and credibility of the people providing the


Consider the basis of the supposed facts. If the person giving you the

information says he or she personally heard or saw something, evaluate that

person in terms of honesty, accuracy and memory.

Remember that assumptions, gossip and hearsay are not the same as


Consider all perspectives, but be careful to consider whether the

source of the information has values different than yours or has a personal

interest that could affect perception of the facts.

Where possible seek out the opinions of people whose judgment and

character you respect, but be careful to distinguish the well-grounded

opinions of well-informed people from casual speculation, conjecture and


Finally, evaluate the information you have in terms of completeness and

reliability so you have a sense of the certainty and fallibility of your


Develop options

Now that you know what you want to achieve and have made your best

judgment as to the relevant facts, make a list of options, a set of actions

you can take to accomplish your goals. If it’s an especially important

decision, talk to someone you trust so you can broaden your perspective and

think of new choices. If you can think of only one or two choices, you’re

probably not thinking hard enough.

Consider consequences

Two techniques help reveal the potential consequences.

“Pillar-ize” your options. Filter your choices through each of the Six

Pillars of Character: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness,

caring and citizenship. Will the action violate any of the core ethical

principles? For instance, does it involve lying or breaking a promise; is

it disrespectful to anyone; is it irresponsible, unfair or uncaring; does

it involve breaking laws or rules? Eliminate unethical options.

Identify the stakeholders and how the decision is likely to affect

them. Consider your choices from the point of view of the major

stakeholders. Identify whom the decision will help and hurt.


It’s time to make your decision. If the choice is not immediately

clear, see if any of the following strategies help:

Talk to people whose judgment you respect. Seek out friends and

mentors, but remember, once you’ve gathered opinions and advice, the

ultimate responsibility is still yours.

What would the most ethical person you know do? Think of the person you

know or know of (in real life or fiction) who has the strongest character

and best ethical judgment. Then ask yourself: what would that person do in

your situation? Think of that person as your decision-making role model and

try to behave the way he or she would. Many Christians wear a small

bracelet with the letters WWJD standing for the question "What would Jesus

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